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MATERIA MEDICA 



THERAPEUTICS. 



A COMPEND 



MATERIA MEDIOA 



THERAPEUTICS. 



THE USE OF STUDENTS. 



. By JOHN C. RILEY, A.M., M.D., 

PKOFESSOR or MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS IN THE NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE; ONE 0? 
THE PHYSICIANS OP PROVIDENCE HOSPITAL, WASHINGTON, D. C, ETC. ETC. 




PHILADELPHIA: 

J, B. LIPPINCOTT & CO. 

1869. 



^7 7-> 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by 

J. B. LIPPIjSTCOTT & CO., 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern 
District of Pennsylvania. 




TO 



JOSHUA RILEY, M. D., 

FOKMERLT PROFESSOR OP MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS IN THE NATIONAL MBDICAt 
COLLEGE, WASHINGTON, D. C, 



THIS VOLUME 



IS RESPECTFULLY AND AFFECTIONATELY 



DEDICATED 



THE AUTHOE. 



(v) 



PEEFACE. 



This work is simply a compend of the Materia Medica, 
and is not designed to be a full exposition of the subject. 
It is, in fact, a comprehensive syllabus, embracing outline 
descriptions of the articles and subjects named, which the 
student may complete in the lecture-room, or by refer- 
• ence to the United States Dispensatory, or to the more 
extended text-books on the subject. It may serve as a 
guide to the beginner, pointing out the leading facts and 
principles he is to study, while it may refresh the memory 
of the more advanced student, or the practitioner of 
medicine. The classification adopted is that usually 
pursued in the lecture-room, and the description of the 
medicines and the formula for the officinal preparations 
are principally compiled from the United States Dispen- 
satory and Pareira's Materia Medica. 

419 New Yobk Avenue, 

"Washington, D C. 



(Vii) 



OOISTTEl^TS. 



PAGE 

Intkodtjction 17 

Definition of Materia Medica. — Of Medicines 17 

Effect of Medicines ^ 18 

Modus Operandi of Medicines 19 

Circumstances Modifying the Effects of Medicines 20 

Parts to which Medicines are applied 22 

Forms in which Medicines are administered 25 

Classifications of Medicines 32 

GENEKAL KEMEDIES. 

Astringents in general 34 

Vegetable Astringents 35 

Acidum Tannicum (Tannic Acid) 35 

Acidum Gallicum (Gallic Acid) ; 36 

Quercus Alba (White-Oak Bark).. 37 

Quercus Tinctoria (Black-Oak Bark) 37 

Quercus Suber 38 

Galla 38 

Catechu 39 

Kino 41 

Krameria (Ehatany) 42 

Hsematosylon (Logwood) 43 

Geranium 43 

Eubus (Blackberry Eoot) 44 

KosaGallica 44 

XJva Ursi 45 

Chimaphila (Pipsissewa) 46 

Granatum (Pomegranate) 47 

Tormentilla 47 

Diospyros (Persimmon) 48 

Mineral Astringents 48 

Alumen 48 

Plumbum (Lead and its preparations) 50 

Tonics in General 55 

Oleum Morrhuse (Cod-liver Oil) — 56 

Vegetable Tonics 58 

Pure or Simple Bitters 58 ' 

Quassia 59 

Simaruba 60 

Gentiana 60 

Calumba 61 

Prasera (American Columbo) 62 

(ix) 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Coptis (Goldthread) 63 

Sabbatia (American Centaury) .g^ 63 

Bitters with peculiar properties 64 

Cinchona (Peruvian Bark) 64 

Cornus Florida (Dogwood) 76 

Salix Alba (Willowl 76 

Prunus Virginiana (Wild-Cherry Bark) 77 

Stimulating' Tonics 78 

Eupatorium (Boneset) 79 

Anthemis (Chamomile) 79 

Serpentaria (Virginia Snakeroot) 80 

Angustura 81 

Cascarilla 82 

Myrrha 83 

Liriodendron 84 

Magnolia 84 

Achillea 84 

Angelica 84 

Contrayerva 84 

Marrubium 84 

Aromatics 85 

Aurantii Cortex 85 

Cinnamomum 86 

Canella 88 

Myristica (Nutmeg) 88 

Caryophyllus (Cloves).... 89 

Pimenta (Allspice) 90 

Piper Nigrum 90 

Cubeba 91 

Cardamomum 92 

Zingiber (Ginger) 93 

Asarum 94 

Calamus 94 

Foeniculum 95 

Carum 95 

Anisum 95 

Coriandrum 96 

Lavandula 96 

Eosmarinus 97 

Mentha Piperita 97 

Mentha Viridis 98 

Monarda 98 

Cataria 98 

Salvia 99 

Gaultheria 99 

Hedeoma 99 

Melissa 100 

Origanum 100 

Thymus 100 

Mineral Tonics 100 

Fcrrum (Iron and its preparations) 100 

Cuprum (Copper andits preparations) 113 

Argentum (Silver and its preparations) 115 

Zincum (Zinc and its preparations) 117 

Cadmium, Cadmii Sulphas 121 



CONTENTS. Xi 

FAOE 

Bismuthum (Bismuth and its preparations) 121 

Manganese 124 

Cerii Oxalas 124 

Niccoli Sulphas 125 

Mineral Acids .' 125 

Acidum Sulphuricum 126 

Acidum Nitricnm 127 

Acidum Muriaticum 128 

Acidum Nitromuriaticum 129 

Stimulants 129 

Arterial Stimulants 130 

Ammonia 131 

Oleum Terebinthina3 132 

Capsicum 133 

Alcohol 134 

Phosphorus 136 

Nervous Stimulants 138 

Castoreum •. 139 

Moschus 139 

Assafoetida • 140 

Ammoniacum 141 

Galbanum 142 

Oleum Succini 143 

Oleum Cajuputi 143 

Valeriana 144 

Arnica 145 

Dracontium 146 

Scutellaria 146 

Cypripedium 146 

Catfea and Thea 147 

Cerebral Stimulants 147 

Opium 149 

Lactucarium 159 

Hyoscyamus 159 

Belladonna •■ 161 

Stramonium 164 

Dulcamara 165 

Humulus 166 

Extractum Cannabis 168 

Conium 168 

Camphora 170 

Cocculus Indicus 173 

AniBsthetics 173 

Ether 174 

Chloroform • 175 

Ebigolene ; 178 

Amylene 178 

Aldehyde 178 

Bichloride of Methylene 178 

Protoxide of Nitrogen 178 

Spinal Stimulants 179 

Nux Vomica and Strychnia 179 

Ignatia 182 

Toxicodendron 1^ 

Ergota 183 



xii - CONTENTS. 

FAQE 

Sedatives 185 

Ai'terial Sedatives 186 

Antimoniuni (Antimony and its preparations) 186 

Potassse Nitras 191 

Acidum Citricuin 193 

Acidum Aceticum 193 

Acidum Tartaricum 195 

Nervous Sedatives 195 

Digitalis 195 

Tabacum 198 

Aconitum 200 

Veratrum Album 202 

Veratrum Viride 203 

Acidum Hydrocyanicum 205 

Oleum Amygdalse Amarse 206 

Potassii Cyanidum 206 

Gelsemium 207 

Physostigma (Calabar Bean) 207 

Alteratives 208 

Hydrargyrum (Mercury and its preparations) 208 

lodinum (Iodine and its preparations) 224 

Arsenicum (Arsenic and its compounds) 230 

Brominium (Bromine and its compounds) 236 

Chlorinum (Chlorine and its compounds) 237 

Soda3 Sulphis 243 

Potassae Permanganas 244 



LOCAL EEMEDIES. 

Local Eemedies affecting functions 245 

Emetics 245 

Ipecacuanha 248 

Sanguinaria 250 

Lobelia 251 

Gillenia 252 

Euphorbia Ipecacuanha 252 

Euphorbia Corollata 252 

Cathartics 253 

Vegetable Cathartics 255 

Tamarindus 255 

Manna 255 

Cassia Fistula 256 

Oleum Olivaj 256 

Oleum Eicini , 256 

Ptheum 257 

Senna 259 

Cassia Marilandica 260 

Juglans 261 

Aloes 261 

Jalapa 263 

Podophyllum 264 

Scammonium 265 

^ Colocynthis 265 

Gambogia 266 



CONTENTS. xiii 

PAGE 

Elatcriiim 267 

Oleum Tii^lii 2G8 

Hellebonis Niger 268 

Leptandra 269 

Mineral Cathartics 270 

Sulphur 270 

Magnesia and its salts 271 

SodiB Sulphas 272 

SodEe Phosphas 273 

Potassse Sulphas 273 

Potassse Bitartras 274 

Potass^ Tartras 274 

PotassiB et Sodae Tartras 275 

Diuretics 275 

Colchicum 277 

Buchu 278 

Pareira 279 

Juniperus 279 

Taraxacum 280 

Erigeron 281 

Seoparius 281 

Apocynum Cannabinum 281 

Petroselinum 281 

Carota 282 

Amoracia 282 

Delphinium 282 

Terebinthina 282 

Pvesina 283 

Pix Liquida 284 

Creasotum 285 

Acidum Carbolicum 286 

Copaiba 287 

Potassas Carbonas..., 288 

Potassse Bicarbonas 289 

Potassa3 Acetas 290 

AmmoniEe Phosphas 290 

Ammonise Benzoas 291 

Diaphoretics 291 

Potassse Citras 293 

Liquor Ammonise Acetatis 294 

Spiritus ^theris Nitrosi 294 

Guaiacum 295 

Mezereum 296 

Sassafras 297 

Sarsaparilla 298 

Aralia ISTudicaulis 800 

Xanthoxylum , 800 

Asclepias 300 

Lappa 300 

Expectorants ^ 301 

Scilla 302 

Senega .303 

Cimicifuga 304 

Allium 805 

Benzoinum 305 



Xiv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Balsamum Peruvianum 806 

Balsamum Tolutanum 307 

Styrax 308 

Emmenagogues 308 

Sabina 809 

Euta 310 

Gossypii Eadix 310 

Apiol 311 

Sialogogues 311 

Pyrethrum , 312 

Errhines 312 



LOCAL KEMEDIES AFFECTING ORGANIZATION. 

Epispastics 318 

Cantharis 314 

Eubefacients 317 

Sinapis 318 

Ammonia , 319 

Pix Burgundica 320 

Pix Canadensis 320 

Escharotics 321 

Potassa 321 

Argenti Nitras Fusa : 322 

Zinci Chloridum 323 

Liquor Hydrargyri Nitratis 324 

Acidum Chromicum 324 

Potassffi Bichromas 324 



EEMEDIES "WHICH ACT MECHANICALLY. 

Demulcents 325 

Acacia 325 

Tragacantha , 327 

Ulmus Pulva 827 

Linum 828 

Glycyrrhiza 329 

Cetraria 830 

Chondrus 331 

AlthEea 331 

Marantha 832 

Tapioca 333 

Sago 333 

Hordeum 334 

Amylum 834 

Saccharum 335 

Avense Farina 380 

Ichthyocolla 33(> 

Oryza 386 

Einollients .* 337 

(jlycerina 337 

Oleum ThcobromaB 338 

Oleum Amygdalae Dulcis 338 

Adeps 339 



CONTENTS. XV 

PAOE 

Sevum 339 

Cetaceum 340 

Cera 340 



EEMEDIES THAT ACT ON SUBSTANCES "WITHIN THE BODT, 

Antacids 340 

Liquor Potassaa 341 

Liquor Soda3 342 

SodjB Carbonas 342 

SodtB Bicarbonas 343 

Liquor Calcis 343 

Calcis Carbonas. 344 

Calcis Phosphas Precipitata 344 

Lithia3 Carbonas 345 

Litbias Citras 345 

Carbo Ligni 346 

Carbo Animalis 346 

Antbelmintics 346 

Spigelia 347 

Cbenopodium 347 

Santonica 348 

Pilix Mas 349 

Pepo 349 

Azedaracb 350 

Mucuna 350 

Brayera 850 

Eottlera 350 

Cadinum Oleum 351 

Stanni Pulvis 851 






v 



JUL 2 1918 



MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 



INTRODUCTION 

Materia Medica is that department of medicine which treats 
of the remedies employed for the alleviation and cure of disease. 
In its most comprehensive sense it embraces all agents which 
are capable of making sanative impressions on the human sys- 
tem, including hygienic remedies, as diet, exercise, and climate ; 
surgical and mechanical remedies ; and certain physical agents, 
as heat, light, and electricity; but, as employed in this work, it 
has a more restricted sense, and applies only to the consideration 
of those material substances derived from the animal, vegetable, 
or mineral kingdom, which are used as pharmacological agents 
or medicines. 

Therapeutics is that division of the science which treats of 
the various actions and effects of agents upon the diseased system, 
and their application for the cure, alleviation, or prevention of 
disease. 

Medicines may be defined to be those substances which possess 
the power of affecting the solids and fluids of the body, thereby 
producing certain modifications of the vital functions, which 
render them serviceable in the treatment of disease. They differ 
from aliments in resisting the digestive powers, and consequently 
are not adapted to supply growth, to repair waste, and to main- 
tain the various functions at the healthy standard. Poisons 
differ from medicines only in the degree of their effects, and the 
uses to which they are applied ; for the most powerful poisons 
become, when administered with proper precautions, very valu- 
able medicines. 

A complete knowledge of medicines consists in an acquaint- 
ance with their natural history, the sources from which they are 
obtained, and the mode of collecting, extracting, or preparing them ; 

2 (IT) 



}8 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

their physical properties ; their chemical composition and rela- 
tions, including the tests for their purity, and the mode of detect- 
ing their probable adulterations ; their physiological action in 
large and small doses, their effects in overdoses, and their mode 
of producing death ; their therapeutic action and uses ; and lastly, 
the dose, mode of administration, and the officinal preparations 
containing them. 

Before proceeding to the consideration of individual remedies, 
it is necessary, in order to avoid repetition, to make some general 
observations in relation to their effects, their modus operandi, 
and the various modes and forms in which they are administered. 

EFFECTS OF MEDICINES. 

The effects of medicines are divided into two classes : Primary 
or Physiological, those which are produced on the system without 
regard to disease ; and Secondary or Therapeutical, those which 
exhibit themselves in the alleviation or cure of disease. 

The physiological effects are subdivided into local and remote 
— those which the medicine makes upon the part to which it is 
applied, and those which are developed in distant parts of the 
system. The local effects may be produced in one of three ways : 
1, mechanically ; 2, hy chemical action, as when caustics ap- 
plied to a part corrode or destroy it ; or, 3, they may modify 
the vital properties of the part, either by increasing its sensi- 
bility or ii'ritability, as when rubefacients or blisters are applied 
to the surface, or when stimulants are introduced into the stomach ; 
or by diminishing it, as when aconite or narcotics are applied. 

The remote or constitutional effects are those which are devel- 
oped in distant parts of the system, and, like the local effects, diflfer 
in character. Some are stimulating, some are depressing, and 
others are alterative. It is important to note that there is no 
necessary similarity in the nature of their action between the 
local and the remote effects of a medicine. One may be stimulant 
to the part to which it is applied, and yet depressing to other 
parts of the system. The remote effects also diflfer greatly as to 
the parts of the system which they afifect, each particular medi- 
cine or class of medicines having a tendency to act upon some 



INTR OD UCTION. 1 9 

one portion of the system, some one organ, or set of organs, more 
than upon others ; and this tendency is often independent of the 
part of the body to which the medicine is applied. Thus, some 
act on the nervous, vascular, or glandular systems, or on these 
conjointly, and are general in their action ; others act especially 
upon particular organs, as the stomach, bowels, skin, kidneys, 
etc., and may be said to be local in their action. 

The secondary or thera'peutical effects follow the primary, and 
are not produced by the immediate operation of the agent, but 
are remote. They are dependent upon certain laws of the system, 
pathological as well as physiological. The explanation of the 
effects of medicines, and of the mode in which they are produced, 
constitutes their modus operandi. 

MODUS OPEEANDI OF MEDICINES. 

The manner in which these effects are produced has long been 
a disputed point among medical writers. There are only tw^o 
ways in which medicines, locally applied, are capable of produc- 
ing their effects upon different and remote parts of the system, 
either through the medium of the nervous system, by sympathy, 
or through the medium of the circulation, by means of absorption. 
Until a comparatively recent period it was thought that the im- 
pressions of all medicines were transmitted from the parts receiv- 
ing them to distant parts by means of nervous communication ; 
but it is now generally conceded, that while some few medicinal 
agents act in this way, by far the great majority are absorbed into 
the circulation, and carried to different parts of the system, and 
produce their remote or constitutional effects in consequence of 
such absorption. 

That they are absorbed and enter the circulation is proved by 
the fact that they can be detected in the solids and fluids of the 
body, and in the various secretions, no matter to what part they 
may be applied. It has also been proved that vascular connection 
is necessary for the propagation of such effects, and that the cir- 
culation of the blood is sufficiently quick to account for the opera- 
tion of those which act most rapidly. It was for a long time a 
disputed point as to whether absorption was effected by the lym- 



20 3IATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

phatics or veins, but it has been rendered evident, by the experi- 
ments of physiologists, that though both absorb medicinal sub- 
stances, this office belongs principally to the veins. 

The great majority of medicines are capable of solution in the 
gastric and intestinal juices, or undergo such chemical changes in 
the stomach as render them soluble. Those which are completely 
insoluble in water, and in the gastric and intestinal secretions, 
cannot gain entrance into the circulation, and are consequently 
inert, and act as foreign bodies. 

The precise mode in which agents, after gaining entrance into 
the circulation, produce their curative power, has given rise to 
many ingenious theories, and many different explanations have 
been attempted at various periods in the history of medicine. 
Some have attempted to explain their action on mechanical, others 
on chemical, principles ; while the great majority of writers have 
explained their therapeutic powers on vital or general principles. 
The limits and the object of this work will not allow us to give 
even a synopsis of these various theories as to the ultimate action 
of remedies. ^ 

CIECTJMSTANCES MODIFYING THE EFFECTS OF 
MEDICINES. 

The circumstances modifying the action of medicines relate both 
to the medicines themselves and to the human system. 

The medicinal substances derived from the vegetable kingdom 
vary in active properties according to the climate, the soil, and 
the mode of cultivation, the season in which they are gathered, 
and the care employed in their preservation and preparation for 
use. It is only in this way that we can explain the conflicting 
testimonies of the observers of different countries with respect to 
the efficacy of the same remedy in similar diseases. The action 
of almost all medicines is also greatly modified by the dose and 
the manner of giving it. For example, ipecacuanha, in minute 
doses, acts as a tonic and alterative ; in moderate doses, as an 
expectorant ; and in large doses, as a prompt emetic. The time 
of day at which they are administered, and the intervals between 
the doses, also influence their action. It should be noticed here 
that certain substances, when taken in small and repeated doses. 



INTR OD UCTION. 2 1 

arc cumulative, — that is, suddenly produce symptoms caused by 
an overdose of the article. 

Of the modifying influences. presented by the patient the most 
important are age, sex, temperament, habit, idiosyncrasy, and 
state of the system. 

Age greatly modifies the condition of the human system, and 
consequently the effects of medicinal agents. The young require 
a smaller dose to produce the same effect than the adult ; and the 
aged, though less susceptible to impressions than formerly, are 
unable to bear full doses of active medicines. Various tables have 
been published for the graduation of doses to the respective ages, 
but no scheme can be devised to which there' are not many excep- 
tions. The following scheme of Dr. Young, from Paris's Pharma- 
cologia, is simple, and generally correct: "For children under 
twelve years the doses of most medicines must be diminished in 
the proportion of the age to the age increased by twelve ; thus, 
at two years to i, viz., oTTo'^?" ^^ twenty-one the full dose may 
be given." 

Sex. Females, from their delicate constitution and greater 
nervous susceptibility, seldom bear the same doses as males. 
The more active articles accordingly require to be used w|th 
greater caution, especially during the periods of pregnancy and 
menstruation. 

Temperament influences the operation of medicinal agents. 
Stimulants which produce a pleasant degree of excitement in the 
phlegmatic, cannot be well borne and must be used with caution 
in the sanguine and nervous temperaments. 

Constitutional peculiarity, called idiosyncrasy, often exists in 
individuals, rendering them more than usually susceptible or in- 
susceptible to the action of certain remedies, requiring a modifica- 
tion of dose, and sometimes prohibiting their use altogether. In 
some cases a minute dose of a mercurial will produce the constitu- 
tional effects of the remedy, while in others almost any quantity 
may be administered without inducing any effect. It is often 
found that the odor of ipecacuanha will induce a distressing dys- 
pnoea, and copaiba cause a peculiar eruption. Some of these 
anomalies are very striking, and almost incredible, and show the 
necessity of the physician inquiring into the peculiarities of the 
patient before prescribing. 



22 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Habits and modes of life also exercise a very marked influence 
in modifying the action of medicines, in some instances diminish- 
ing, in others increasing the susceptibility of the system to their 
influence. The usual consequence of the long-continued use of 
vegetable medicines is to diminish the susceptibility to their influ- 
ence, and it is astonishing what enormous doses of opium and 
tobacco can be borne by those habituated to their use. Mineral 
substances appear, as a general rule, to act with increased power 
by repetition ; thus the system becomes more and more susceptible 
to the operation of mercury and arsenic. As a general rule, per- 
sons living in the country, and those accustomed to outdoor exer- 
cise, bear much more active treatment than the inhabitants of 
large and overcrowded cities, and those of sedentary habits. 

The character, period, 2in^ form of disease also greatly modify 
the effect of remedies. There are many circumstances connected 
with the progress of disease that tend to render the administration 
of a medicine, which acts beneficially at one period of an attack, 
less so, or even injurious, at another. For example, stimulants, 
which cannot be given without danger at the commencement of 
dysentery, while active inflammation of the mucous membrane 
exists, may be used with benefit when these symptoms have abated, 
and debility results as a consequence of the disease. The nature 
of the symptoms also often modifies the action of remedies : thus 
narcotics may be administered in doses during violent pain and 
spasm which cannot be borne with impunity in a state of health 

Mercury may be given in large and repeated doses in a febrile 
condition without producing its constitutional effects. 

The influence of the imagination upon the effects of medicine 
deserves the attention of the physician. Hope and confidence 
exercise a most beneficial influence in disease ; while faith in the 
curative powers of the remedies employed often enables them to 
produce important medicinal effects. 

PAKTS TO WHICH MEDICINES AKE APPLIED. 

Medicines may be applied to the mucous membrane, to the 
skin, to the subcutaneous cellular tissue, or they may be injected 
into the veins. 



INTR OD UCTION. 23 

The mucous membrane of the stomach is the surface most 
commonly resorted to, and from which, as a general rule, more 
prompt and decided effects are obtained than from any other part. 
The stomach, from its great susceptibility, its absorbing power, 
and by nature of its nervous communications with all parts of 
the system, possesses a power of transmitting impressions un- 
equaled by any other portion of the mucous membrane, and 
therefore in describing the effects and doses of medicines, it is 
always understood that this is the way, unless the contrary be 
stated. 

They are also applied to the mucous membrane of the rectum. 
When of a liquid form, and thrown up by means of a syringe, 
they are called enemata, clysters, or injections ; when solids, 
they are termed suppositories. In this way they are employed 
to remove from the rectum and lower intestines accumulated 
faeces, to allay irritation of the pelvic viscera, to produce counter- 
irritation, or to introduce medicinal substances into the system 
when the stomach is irritable, or when from any cause they can- 
not be administered by the mouth. The absorbing power of the 
rectum is much less active than that of the stomach, and, as a 
general rule, double the quantity of medicine should be admin- 
istered in this way to produce the same effect. 

In the form of solution, medicines may be applied, to ob- 
tain their local effect, to various portions of the mucous mem- 
brane. When applied to the conjunctiva, they are termed col- 
lyria ; to the mucous membrane of the throat, gargles ; they 
are also injected into the urethra, vagina, uterus, etc., and some- 
times applied to the nasal membrane. 

On the tracheo-bronchial membrane they produce a decided 
influence, both general and local. Inhalation, in a therapeutic 
sense, is the act of breathing air or vapor impregnated with medi- 
cinal substances, and has, from the earliest times, been recog- 
nized as a means of medication in diseases of the respiratory 
organs. Of late years liquids have been introduced into the air- 
passages in the form of a fine spray, and this method is called 
the atomization of fluids. Various instruments have been re- 
sorted to in the atomization of liquids. The hand-ball atomizer, 
in which a current of air is use(i as the means of atomizing the 



24 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

medicated liquid, is the simplest, and is very readily used. In- 
stead of air, steam has been substituted as the forcing- power, 
and several instruments have been constructed on this principle. 
Siegle's apparatus, as modified by Da Costa, is, perhaps, the most 
simple and convenient for general use, and one by which inhala- 
tion can be practiced without assistance or fatigue. 

Next to the mucous membrane, the skin is most frequently 
resorted to, to obtain the effects of medicines. This presents 
an extensive surface, and being plentifully supplied with nerves, 
possesses great sensibility, and is therefore capable of receiving 
the primary impressions of many medicines. There are three 
modes by which this method of medication juay be effected: 
1, by simple application; 2, by friction ; and, 3, to the surface 
denuded of cuticle. The first, called the enepidermic method, 
is when the application is made to the skin in the form of cata- 
plasms or poultices, fomentations, lotions, plasters, etc. These 
are resorted to for their topical effects, to soften the condition of 
the skin, or to relieve pain. The density of the epidermis in 
almost all cases prevents the absorption of remedies when ap- 
plied in this way, and to obtain their constitutional effects two 
methods are resorted to : the one consists in the application of 
remedies by friction, called the iatroleptic method ; the other 
consists in first removing the cuticle from a portion of the skin, 
and then applying medicines to the denuded surface, called the 
endermic method. These methods are resorted to, to obtain the 
local effects of medicines, or to impress the system, and in some 
instances we obtain the constitutional effects of a remedy with 
more rapidity than by its internal administration. 

Medicines are also applied by injection into the subcutaneous 
cellular tissue, and this is called the hypodermic method. This 
consists of injecting, by means of a minute syringe, substances, in 
solution, into the cellular tissue beneath the skin, and, when so 
introduced, they have been found to act with extraordinary 
rapidity, and with the most satisfactory results. It is particu- 
larly adapted to the speedy relief of pain, which it effects, when 
large doses by the stomach have failed to produce the slightest 
effect. It has been objected to as likely to produce local inflam- 
mation, or even abscess ; but this very seldom occurs. To pro- 



INTR OD UCTION. 2 5 

duce beueficial effects it is not necessary to localize the injection ; 
a good spot for injection is at the insertion of the deltoid muscle, 
in the arm, or at the back of the neck. I have used it constantly 
in all portions of the body, and have never seen any ill effects 
follow. 

Medicines have also been introduced into the system by inject- 
ing them into the veins. The first attempt appears to have been 
made about the year 160t, and it has frequently been tried since, 
with variable success. Recently, aqueous or saline fluids have 
been injected into the veins, and in some cases with apparent 
benefit ; it is, however, a practice attended with too much danger 
to warrant its use, except in extraordinary cases. 

EORMS IN WHICH MEDICINES ARE ADMINISTERED. 

As medicinal substances in their crude state are not usually 
fit for exhibition, they require a number of preliminary processes 
to adapt them for this purpose, and to give them such forms as 
suit the different organs to which they are to be applied. These 
are called the Operations of Pharmacy. 

As exactness is essential to these operations, it is necessary 
to thoroughly understand the weights and measures which are 
employed. These vary much in different countries, and even in 
the same country. In the United States the weights used by 
the apothecary in compounding prescriptions and dispensing 
medicines are the troy pound and its divisions ; those by which 
he buys and sells, commercially, are the avoirdupois pound and 
its divisions. The U. S. Pharmacopoeia recognizes the troy 
weights, but employs only the grain and ounce, and, to prevent 
confusion, designates the latter as troyounce. The measures 
used are the wine pint and gallon. The following tables, with 
the signs annexed, will explain those which are used in the 
United States : 

u. s. apothecaries' weight. 



Pound. 


Ounces. 


Drachms. 


Scruples. 


Troy Grains. 


R) 


12 


96 


288 


5760 




^i 


8 


24 


480 






3i 


3 


60 
20 
gr. 



26 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 

Pound. Ounces. Drachms. Troy Grains. 

1 16 256 7000 

16 4375 

1 27-34 

apothecaries' or WINE MEASURE. 

Gallon. Pints. Pluidounces. Fluidrachms. Minims. 

Cong. 1 8 128 1024 61440 

O 16 128 7680 

fg 8 480 

fSi 11160 

Besides these regular and authorized measures, there are others 
constantly used in the preparation and administration of medi- 
cines which have been adopted for convenience. These are far 
from being uniform, but may be used without danger for ordi- 
nary purposes. The following are the estimated capacities of 
the several vessels in common use: 

A teaspoon contains about a fluidrachm - - - _ f^i 

A dessertspoon " 2 fluidrachms - _ _ fgij 

A tablespoon " half a fluidounce - _ - fgss 

A wineglass " 2 fluidounces - - - f^ij 

It is Still more common to estimate small quantities or doses 
of medicines by drops, as I'epresenting, and equivalent to, minims. 
This is erroneous, as the drops vary in size according to the na- 
ture of the fluid to be measured, the size and shape of the lip of 
the bottle containing it, and the mode in which the operation is 
performed. For example, a fluidrachm, or 60 minims, will con- 
tain 60 drops of water, 120 of laudanum, or 200 of chloroform. 
An open vessel affords a larger drop than a bottle with stopper 
half drawn out — a mode commonly practiced. 

Medicines are administered either in a liquid, solid, semi-liquid 
or semi-solid form. The following are the officinal forms usually 
employed. 

Inpusa. TJ. S. Infusions are aqueous solutions made by treat- 
ing vegetable products with cold or hot water, but never carried 



INTR OD UCTION. 2 1 

to ebullition. When prepared with hot water, and kept for some 
hours at a low heat, they should be strained or filtered before 
being- used. They are liable to spoil, as this process dissolves, 
along with the active ingredient, starch and other inert matter, 
which renders the infusion acid or liable to become mouldy. 
When made with cold water, by the process of displacement, 
these incorfvenieuces are obviated, and the infusion has less 
tendency to spoil. This is an excellent mode of administering 
those medicines, which are easily exhausted of their active prin- 
ciples in this way. 

Decocta. U. S. Decoctions are solutions prepared by boiling 
the substance in water for a longer or shorter period, according 
to the solubility of the substance, or its constituents. It is a 
common form for administering vegetable medicines, as all the 
principles soluble in water can be obtained, and even many sub- 
stances not properly soluble in that fluid are diffused through 
it, and held in suspension. It is, however, not an eligible one in 
many cases, for, since the discovery of the vegetable alkaloids, it 
is well known that the activity of vegetable drugs is often dimin- 
ished or entirely destroyed by heat, especially if their active 
principle be volatile. Besides, during ebullition important chemi- 
cal reactions take place, in consequence of which they are either 
rendered insoluble, or undergo decomposition. All substances 
which depend for their properties upon starch or gummy matter 
are best prepared by decoction ; but it is found that water at a 
common temperature will exhaust most vegetable substances 
more effectually by the process of displacement than the same 
fluid at 212° by decoction. 

LiQUORES. IT. S. Solutions are watery liquids containing 
non-volatile medicines wholly soluble in that menstruum. 

Aqu^. U. S. Medicated ivaters are solutions in water of the 
essential oils or of gaseous substances. They are generally ob- 
tained by distilling water from the fresh vegetable substances ; 
but they may also be conveniently made by agitating water, with 
the- volatile oil previously separated. Most of the aromatic 
waters are now made by combining the oil and water together by 
the intervention of the carbonate of magnesia, and filtering the 
mixture. The magnesia acts by producing such a minute divi- 



28 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

sion of the oil as will enable the water to act on it more effi- 
ciently. 

MiSTUR^. U. S. Mixtures are liquid preparations in which 
insoluble substances, whether solid or liquid, are suspended in 
watery fluids by the intervention of gum arable, sugar, yelk of 
eg^, or other viscid matter. In making a mixture, the object to 
be aimed at is an equal diifusion and thorough admixture of all 
the ingredients, so that each dose shall be similarly composed. 
When the mixture contains oleaginous or resinous matter it is 
called an emulsion. 

MuciLAGiNES. U. S. Mucilages are aqueous solutions of gum, 
or of substances closely allied to it. 

Syrupi. U. S. Syrups are prepared by simply dissolving 
sugar in solutions of substances formed by infusion, decoction, 
expression, etc., and sometimes by concentrating the syrup after 
the sugar has been dissolved. They are intended to cover the 
disagreeable taste of drugs, but more generally to preserve them 
in a convenient state for making mixtures, without the risk of 
undergoing decomposition. 

Mellita. U. S. Honeys are liquid preparations, somewhat 
analogous to syrups, but in which sugar is replaced by honey. 
Though formerly much used, they are now seldom prescribed, as 
the honey contains principles which are apt to disagree with the 
stomach. The preparations in which honey and vinegar are 
combined are called oxymels. 

AcETA. U. S. Vinegars are solutions of vegetable substances 
in distilled vinegar or diluted acetic acid. This menstruum dis- 
solves substances not readily soluble, or altogether insoluble, in 
water, especially those whose activity depends upon the pres- 
ence of an alkaloid, which it converts into a soluble acetate. 

Tincture. XJ. S. Tinctures are solutions of vegetable, animal, 
and, in some cases, of mineral substances in spirituous fluids. 
Alcohol, either diluted or undiluted, is usually employed, but 
sometimes spirit of ammonia and ether are used, and then the 
solutions are designated as ammoniated and ethereal tinctures. 
This form of administering medicines is much used ; it presents 
the active principles of drugs in a small volume, it can be pre- 
served unaltered for a long time, and is generally well adapted 



INTRODUCTION. 29 

to unite with otlicr substances in extemporaneeus prescriptions. 
They may be prepared by macerating the solid materials in the 
menstnium for one or two weeks, without the aid of heat, and 
then filtering the fluid, or by displacement. This process, dis- 
placement ov 2oercolation, is of comparatively recent introduction 
in the making of tinctures ; it consists in the gradual transmis- 
sion of the spirit through the solid materials in a state of moder- 
ately fine division, and is to be preferred to maceration for a great 
proportion of these preparations. 

Vina. U. S. lledicated Wines are solutions in wine : sherry 
is usually preferred. As they contain less alcohol than tinctures, 
they are less stimulating ; but they are very liable to undergo 
decomposition, and on this account are inferior to tinctures, and 
are not now much used. 

Spiritus. U. S. Spirits are alcoholic solutions of volatile 
principles, and are prepared either by distillation or by simply 
dissolving the principles in alcohol or diluted alcohol. 

PuLVERES. U. S. Powders. Most dry substances can be re- 
duced to the powdered state, which renders them convenient for 
manipulation. This process may be performed in a variety of 
ways : by contusion in an iron or brass mortar, by grinding 
in a mill, by trituration, by levigation, or by elutriation. The 
lighter powders may be administered in water, the heavier require 
a niore consistent vehicle, as syrup, honey, etc. 

Pilule. U. S. Pills are small, globular masses, of a size that 
can be conveniently swajlowed, and are an excellent form for ad- 
ministering two or more medicines in combination, especially 
those which are not bulky, and are of a disagreeable taste and 
smell, or insoluble in water. They have as a base a powder, 
extract, etc., and may be rendered of the proper consistence by 
the addition of a little spirit, gum, honey, etc.; and very soft or 
liquid substances require the addition of some dry, inert powder, 
as liquorice root, to reduce them to the proper consistence. The 
nature of the excipient should be suited to that of the constituents ; 
thus, syrup or honey are to be used for vegetable powders, soap 
for fatty matters, calcined magnesia for copaiba or turpentine. 
Mucilage is objectionable when the pills are to be kept for any 
length of time, as it renders them so hard as to pass through the 



30 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

bowels almost unaltered. Tliey may be prevented from cohering, 
when placed together, by being sprinkled with powdered liquorice 
root, lycopodium, etc., and when desirable, may be coaied with 
sugar, or gold or silver leaf. A holus differs from a pill in being 
larger and generally less solid. 

CoNFECTiONES. U, S. ConfecHons are soft, solid preparations, 
in which medicinal substances are incorporated with saccharine 
matter with a view either to their preservation or more conven- 
ient administration. When the fresh vegetable substances are 
beat into a uniform mass with sugar, they are called conserves ; 
when dry powders are mixed with syrup or honey, they are 
termed electuaries. 

Trochisci. U. S. Troches or Lozenges are small, dry, solid 
masses, usually consisting of powders incorporated with sugar 
and mucilage. They are intended to be held in the mouth, and 
dissolved slowly in the saliva, and are used to maintain the 
moisture of the fauces, as well as exert some medicinal effect. 

ExTRACTA. U. S. Extracts are solid, or soft-solid substances, 
obtained by the evaporation of the solution, infusion, or decoc- 
tion, or of the expressed juice of plants. They are generally of 
a soft consistence, of a dark color, and of an odor and taste analo- 
gous to those of the substance from which they are derived ; and 
are classed according to the fluid employed in obtaining them, as 
watery, alcoholic, acetic, or ethereal extracts. In preparing them 
the object is to obtain as much of the active principle of the 
plant with as little inert matter as possible, and this is effected 
by employing a menstruum which dissolves the one and leaves 
the other behind. 

Extracts made by inspissating the expressed juices of plants 
have been considered the best. When this is not practicable, 
the menstruum used depends upon the substance to be acted 
upon. When the active principles are soluble in water, that 
fluid is to be used as the vehicle of extraction; when resinous, 
alcohol; and when oleoresinous, ether will be found the best 
menstruum. Much caution is requisite in evaporating extracts 
to the proper consistence, as the various constituents of many 
plants are liable to undergo decomposition when exposed to the 
action of heat and atmospheric air. Evaporation in vacuo is 



INTR OD UCTION. 3 1 

always to be preferred when practicable, as the process can be 
carried on at a lower temperature, and without the deteriorating 
influence of the air. When alcoholic solutions are to be concen- 
trated, distillation should always be used. But notwithstanding 
all precautions, they deteriorate by long keeping, and the best 
plan is to renew them from time to time. 

ExTRACTA Fluida. U. S. Fluid Extracts are preparations 
In which the active ingredients of medicines are concentrated into 
a small bulk in the liquid form, and possess the advantage over 
the solid extracts, that the evaporation not being carried so far, 
the active principles are less liable to be injured by heat. Their 
liability to undergo decomposition may be counteracted by 
means of sugar or alcohol, or by a mixture of the two. Properly 
prepared, they are convenient and elegant preparations. 

OLEORESiNiE. U. S. Oleovesins consist of principles extracted 
from vegetable substances by means of ether. They differ from 
fluid extracts in not requiring the presence of sugar or alcohol to 
prevent decomposition. 

Resins. U. S. Resins are made by exhausting the substance 
by alcohol, and then precipitating the resinous matter by the 
addition of water. 

Unguenta. U. S. Ointments are soft, fatty substances, of such 
a consistence that they may be readily applied to the skin bv 
inunction. They are generally prepared by mixing medicines in 
fine powder, or in the form of extract, with lard or simple oint- 
ment. When the extract is hard it may be previously triturated 
with a little water or alcohol, according to its nature. The 
tendency to rancidity may be counteracted by the addition of a 
little benzoic acid. 

Cerata. U. S. Cerates consist of a basis of wax and a fatty 
matter, with which medicinal substances are incorporated. 
Their consistency is intermediate between that of ointments and 
plasters. 

Emplastra. U. S. Plasters are more consistent than cerates, 
adhesive at the temperature of the body, and requiring the aid 
of heat to soften them sufficiently to be spread. Most of them 
have as their basis a compound of olive oil and litharge, though 



32 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

some are composed wholly of resinous matters, or these mixed 
with fatty substances or wax. 

Cataplasmata. TJ. S. Cataplasms are moist substances in- 
tended for external application, and of such a consistence as to 
accommodate themselves accurately to the surface to which they 
are applied, and without being so liquid as to spread over the 
neighboring' parts. 

LiNiMENTA. U. S. Liniments or Embrocations are prepara- 
tions of a more or less fluid character, which are employed as 
external applications, by means of friction. They are used, 
according to their nature and composition, to soothe pain and 
remove inflammation, as revulsive agents, or as a means of 
introducing medicinal substances into the system. 

CLASSIFICATION OP MEDICINES. 

In treating the articles of the Materia Medica, it is necessary 
to adopt some classification, both for the sake of convenience 
and in order to prevent repetition. Different arrangements have 
been followed by different writers : some founded on the botan- 
ical, chemical, or sensible properties ; some on their physiological 
or therapeutical effects ; while others again have arranged them 
in alphabetical order. The physiological classification has fewer 
defects than any other, and offers more important advantages to 
the student, and various arrangements have been attempted on 
this basis. In the following pages the plan adopted by Dr. 
Wood will be followed, as being about as perfect as our present 
knowledge of the action of remedies will admit of. Almost all 
remedies produce different effects, according to the dose and the 
different modes of application ; we shall speak of a remedy under 
the head of its most important effect, and point out its other 
properties under the proper head. 

Remedies are divided into those which act on the system, and 
those which act on foreign matter in the body. In this latter 
class are only placed anthelmintics and antacids. 

The former are divided into general and local ; the former 
acting on the whole system, the latter on particular parts or 
organs. The following table will explain the classification : 



INTRODUCTION. 



83 







Permanent. 


■ Astringents. 
. Tonics. 




Stimulants. 




r Arterial. 


General 
Eemedies. 




Diffusible. 


Nervous. 
Cerebral. 
Spinal. 




Sedatives. 

Alteratives. 


■ Arterial. 

^ Nervous. 


• 




L 




' Emetics. 
Cathartics. 




Affecting functions. 


Diuretics. 
Diaphoretics. 








Expectorants. 


Local 
Eemedies. 






_ Emmenagogues. 
' Eubefacients. 




Affecting organization. 


Epispastics. 








_ Escharotics. 








' Demulcents. 




Operating mechanically. 


Emollients. 








_ Diluents. 



34 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 



GENERAL REMEDIES. 



ASTRINGENTS. 

Astringents are those substances which when applied to the 
living body corrugate and condense its fibres, and at the same 
time indirectly exert a tonic influence. They increase the appetite, 
promote digestion, and are capable of fulfilling the same indications 
as tonics, but are distinguished by the sudden contraction and cor- 
rugation they produce in the tissues to which they are applied, 
whereas in tonics such eflTect is slowly, if at all, produced. 
They diminish secretion, repress hemorrhage, and give tone to 
the muscular system by increasing the density of the muscular 
fibre, and diminishing the caliber of the blood-vessels and ex- 
halants of the part. When applied locally to arrest hemorrhage, 
they are called styptics, and act either by constringing the 
blood-vessels, or coagulating the albumen of the blood. Nearly 
all of them possess this power of coagulating or precipitating 
albumen. When internally administered, they are absorbed into 
the circulation, and their effects are the same, though less in 
degree, as when applied externally. Headland thinks that their 
operation may be explained in the same way : by reference to 
their power in causing contraction of muscular fibre, and thus 
diminishing the caliber of certain tubes and cavities. Some ex- 
plain their action on physical, others on vital, principles. Stille 
very properly remarks that "the difficulty of explaining the 
modus operandi of medicines is nowhere more manifest than in 
what relates to this, one of the simplest of the classes into which 
they are divided." 

The therapeutical agency of astringents is mainly limited to 
the accomplishment of two objects : 1st, the restraining of 



GENERAL RE3IEDIES.— ASTRINGENTS. 35 

excessive evacuations from the system, whether in the form of 
blood, or of the various secreted fluids; and, 2d, to the pro- 
ducing contractions of relaxed animal fibre, and thus imparting 
tone. Thus they are employed to repress hemorrhage from the 
lungs, bowels, and uterus, to control the profuse perspirations of 
phthisis and other diseases, and to check chronic discharges from 
the mucous membranes. Their use is contraindicated in cases of 
febrile or inflammatory excitement where general plethora exists, 
where excessive secretion is dependent upon active irritation, or 
where there is much derangement of the digestive organs. 

Astringency in a substance may be recognized by the peculiar 
sensation of roughness and hardness, causing puckering of the 
tongue, lips, and gums when taken into the mouth. This is of 
importance, since, in the mineral astringents, we have no chemical 
test by which this quality may be detected. Medicine, however, 
is dependent on the vegetable kingdom for most astringent 
remedies. These owe their peculiar properties to a proximate 
principle called Tannic Acid, differing only in the proportion in 
which it is found, and in the character of the other ingredients 
with which it is associated. 

ACIDUM TANNICUM. U.S. Tannic Acid. 

Tannin is the proximate principle of all the vegetable astringents, 
but as it exists in a larger quantity in galls, it is generally obtained 
by exhausting the powdered galls by means of ether, and evap- 
orating the solution. 

Properties. It is an amorphous yellowish-white, spongy solid, 
inodorous, with an extremely astringent taste, without bitterness, . 
very soluble in water, less so in alcohol and ether, and insolu- 
ble in the fixed and volatile oils. When heated it swells up, is 
decomposed, and leaves a bulky charcoal. With solutions of 
gelatin it produces an insoluble, white precipitate, and with 
the sesquisalts of iron a bluish or greenish-black precipitate, which 
is the basis of writing ink and black dyes. It unites with the veg- 
etable organic alkalies, and with most metallic oxides, forming 
salts which are nearly insoluble in water. Tannin, as obtained 
from different plants, is found to exhibit some difference of prop- 



36 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

erties, and chemists have recognized two varieties : one existing 
in oak bark, galls, etc., characterized by producing a bluish-black 
precipitate with the sesquisalts of iron ; and the other found in* 
Peruvian bark, kino, etc., distinguished by giving a greenish-black 
precipitate with the same reagent. It is probable, however, that 
they are identical, but the latter is modified in its reactions by 
the presence of other matters. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Tannic acid is a pure and pow- 
erful astringent, applicable to all cases in which this class ot 
remedies are useful, and possesses an advantage over the 
astringent extracts in the comparative smallness of the dose, 
which renders it less apt to offend an irritable stomach. It is a 
useful remedy in most forms of hemorrhage, in colliquative 
sweats, in bronchitis attended^ with a profuse and debilitating 
expectoration, and in the advanced stages of hooping-cough. 
Locally it may be used in solution as a gargle in sore-throat, as a 
"wash in hemorrhoids, and as an injection in gonorrhoea and leu- 
corrhcea. Moistened with glycerin it is one of the most 
efficacious applications to sore nipples, and may be applied in 
the same way to other parts requiring an astringent impression. 
Dose, 2 to 5 grains, in powder, pill, or solution. 

Unguentum Acidi Tannici. U. S. Ointment of Tannic Acid 
is prepared by rubbing thirty grains of tannic acid, first with a 
little water, and then with a troyounce of lard. It is an excellent 
astringent application to hemorrhoids and prolapsus ani, and has 
also been found useful in obstinate skin diseases, and to ulcers 
with copious discharge. 

ACIDUM GALLICUM. U. S. Gallic Acid. 

This acid exists in most vegetable substances which contain 
tannic acid, and is probably the result of changes which the 
latter undergoes. It is best prepared by exposing powdered 
galls, moistened with water, to the action of the atmosphere, 
when a portion of the tannic acid is gradually converted into 
gallic acid by the absorption of oxygen and the escape of an 
equivalent quantity of carbonic acid. 

Properties. When pure it is in delicate, small, silky crystals, 



GENERAL REMEDTES.— ASTRINGENTS. 37 

colorless, but, as generally found, of a slight brownish color, in- 
odorous, of an acid and astringent taste. Sparingly soluble in 
cold water, but freely so in boiling water, alcohol, and ether. It 
reddens litmus, and produces a deep bluish-black color with the 
persalts of iron, but differs from tannin in not forming precipi- 
tates with gelatin or the vegetable alkalies. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Gallic acid does not precipitate 
albumen, and possesses little activity as an astringent when ex- 
ternally applied, but is very efficacious as an internal remedy, 
and ma}^ be employed to fulfill the same indications as tannic acid. 
The facility with which it is absorbed and enters the circulation 
renders it a most valuable remedy in all cases of hemorrhage 
dependent upon the hemorrhagic tendency, and in all diseases in 
which excessive secretion becomes a prominent and distressing 
symptom, as pyrosis, serous diarrhoea, chronic bronchitis, profuse 
night-sweats, etc. Dose, 5 to 15 grains, three or four times a 
day. 

QUERCUS ALBA. U. S. White-Oak Bark. 
QUERCUS TmCTORIA. U. S. Black-Oak Bark. 

Oak Bark is derived from several species of Quercus, an 
extensive genus of large forest trees natives of IS'orth America, 
but only the Q. Alba and Q. Tinctoria are officinal. The Q. 
Alba is a large tree found in great quantities in the Middle States 
and more temperate portions of the United States, and is much 
esteemed for its wood, which is extensively used in ship-building. 
The bark, when deprived of its epidermis, presents a coarse, fibrous 
texture, is tough, of a light-brown color, has but little odor, and 
an astringent, bitter taste. The Q. Tinctoria is one of the largest or 
our native oaks, its bark has a more bitter taste, and may be 
distinguished by staining the saliva yellow when it is chewed. 
It contains a coloring principle which is much employed as a dye, 
and it is largely exported under the name of Quercitron. Water 
and alcohol extract the virtues of these barks, which depend 
upon tannin, and the proportion of this varies with the size and 
age of the tree, and the season in which the bark is collected. 
It is most abundant in the young bark, which should be gathered 
in the spring. 



38 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Oak bark is astringent, but 
seldom or never used internally. In the form of decoction it 
may be used as a gargle in relaxed conditions of the uvula, as 
a wash in prolapsus ani and hemorrhoids, and as an injection 
in leucorrhoea. It is often resorted to with advantage as a bath 
in diseases of children, where a tonic impression is desired, and 
the condition of the stomach contraindicates the internal use of 
remedies. Externally, it is useful as an application to flabby and 
ill-conditioned ulcers ; and a poultice of the ground bark is 
sometimes of service in gangrene and mortification. 

Decoctum Quercus Alb^. U.S. Decoction of White-Oak Bark 
is prepared by boiling a troyounce of bark in a pint of water. 

Quercus Surer, though not officinal, is valuable as furnishing 
the cork of commerce. This tree is a native of the northern 
portions of Africa and the southern parts of Europe ; and cork 
is that part which is commonly termed the cellular envelope, or 
medulla externa, which is removed when the tree has attained a 
certain age, dried, and cut into the proper shape. 

GALEA. U. S. Galls, Nutgall. 

Galls are morbid excrescences upon the young branches of 
Quercus Infectoria, a small tree or shrub of Asia Minor, seldom 
exceeding six feet in height. The gall originates from the punc- 
ture of a hyraenopterous insect, the Gynips Quercusfolii, which 
deposits its e^g in the wound thus made. This irritates the part, 
and gives rise to an influx of the juices of the plant, and a mor- 
bid growth is formed. Within this the insect is hatched, and 
undergoes its various changes ; the larva, feeding upon the 
vegetable matter around it, forms a cavity in the centre of the 
gall, and, changing into a fly, escapes by eating its way out. 

Properties. Galls are round, from the size of a pea to that of 
a hazel-nut, tuberculated on the surface, the tubercles and the 
intervening spaces being smooth. There are two varieties in 
commerce, — the black-blue or green galls, and white galls. The 
former are considered the best, and are gathered before the in- 
sect has escaped ; they are heavy, compact, and brittle, breaking 
with a resinous fracture, and showing a small. cavity in the cen- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ASTRINGENTS. 39 

tre, indicating the presence of the undeveloped insect. The 
white are inferior, have a loose texture, and break with a pow- 
dery appearance, and have a large cavity communicating exter- 
nally, showing that the insect has escaped. The powder is of 
a light yellowish-gray color. They yield their astringent prop- 
erty to water, alcohol, and ether. Besides tannin, they contain 
a trace of gallic acid, extractive, mucilage, and saline matter. 
The proportion of tannin varies in diflerent specimens, in some 
being as high as 65 per cent. 

Medical Properties and Uses. As they contain such a large 
proportion of tannic acid, they are among the most powerful 
astringents we possess ; but they are very seldom administered 
internally, except as an antidote to poisoning by tartar emetic 
and the vegetable alkaloids. Their efficacy in this latter case de- 
pends upon the tannic acid forming insoluble and inert com- 
pounds with the alkaloids. Externally, they may be employed 
as topical astringents wherever these remedies are indicated. 
Dose of the powder, 10 to 20 grains. 

TiNCTURA Gall.^. U. S. Tincture of Galls, prepared by 
percolation (four troyounces of nutgalls to two pints of diluted 
alcohol), is a powerful astringent, often added to gargles, but is 
more used as a test than as a medicine. 

IJnguentum GALLiE. IT. S. Ointment of Galls, prepared by 
mixing a troyounce of finely-powdered galls with seven troy- 
ounces of lard, is an excellent astringent ointment, and is much 
used in piles and prolapsus ani. 

CATECHXJ. U. S. Catechu. 

The term catechu, signifying the juice of a tree, was formerly 
applied to astringent extracts obtained from various plants. It 
is properly applied to an extract of the wood of Acacia Catechu, 
a small tree of the East Indies. To obtain it, the inner or heart 
wood is cut into small chips, and boiled in water until all the 
soluble matter is dissolved. The decoction is then poured off, 
and evaporated till it becomes somewhat consistent, when it is 
poured into moulds, or placed on mats, and dried in the shade. 
There are many varieties obtained from different sources, though 



40 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

not recognized as officinal ; the most important are the Areca 
Catechu, prepared from areca or hetel nut, the seed of Areca 
Catechu, a species of palm growing in India ; and Gambir, an 
inspissated juice from the leaves and young shoots of Uncaria 
Gambir, a climbing shrub of the Indian Archipelago. The latter 
was probably the variety first introduced under the name of 
Terra Japonica, and is a strong astringent, though seldom used 
medicinally in this country. 

Properties. The genuine catechu is in masses of different 
shapes and sizes, varying from small angular pieces to lumps 
which weigh one or two pounds. The color varies from a pale- 
reddish to a dark liver-color — in some specimens it is almost 
black ; hence the extract has been distinguished as the pale and 
dark varieties, but there is very little difference between them. 
It is very easily broken into small angular fragments, with a 
smooth, glossy surface, bearing some resemblance to kino ; it is 
Inodorous, and has a bitter, astringent taste, followed by a sen- 
sation of sweetness. It is soluble in water and alcohol. It 
contains from 30 to 55 per cent, of tannin, which gives a greenish- 
black precipitate with the persalts of iron, and a peculiar extract- 
ive, called Gatechuin, or Catechuic Acid. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Catechu is a powerful astringent, 
possessing also mild tonic properties, which render it particularly 
serviceable in diseases of children, where it is desired to restrain 
immoderate discharges. In diarrhoea, dependent upon a relaxed 
or atonic state of the mucous membrane of the intestinal canal, 
it may be advantageously combined with carminatives and chalk 
mixture. It is used in affections of the mouth and throat, espe- 
cially where there is debility or relaxation of the parts. In the 
form of lozenge, allowed to dissolve slowly in the mouth, it 
diminishes or prevents the hoarseness consequent upon long-con- 
tinued exercise of the vocal organs. It is sometimes added with 
benefit to astringent injections in gonorrhoea and leucorrhcea. 
Dose of the powder, 10 to 30 grains. 

Infusum Catechu Compositum. IT. S. Compound Infusion 
of Catechu is prepared by macerating half a troy ounce of catechu 
with sixty grains of cinnamon in a pint of boiling water. Dose, 
f^i to f5iij. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ASTRINGENTS. 41 

TiNCTTJRA Catechu. U. S. Tinctura Catechu (three troy- 
ounces of catechu, two troyounces of cinnamon, in two parts of 
diluted alcohol) is an excellent astringent tincture, and may be 
used in all cases in which catechu is applicable. Dose, 30 
minims to 3 fluidrachms. 

KINO. U. S. Kino. 

The inspissated juice of Pterocarpus Marsupium, and of other 
plants. The term Kino was originally applied to an astringent 
gum resin introduced and described by Dr. Fothergill, in 1Y5Y, 
but afterward various vegetable extracts resembling it in exter- 
nal appearance and in astringency received the same name. At 
present there are several varieties, but much confusion and un- 
certainty still exist as to their botanical and commercial history. 
There are four principal varieties in commerce — the African, 
Jamaica, Botany Bay, and East Indian. The African, the 
original variety introduced into Europe, but now seldom met 
with, is derived from Fierocaiyus Erinaceous, a native of 
Senegal. The Jamaica is the extract of the wood of Cocoloba 
Uvifera, or sea-side grape, a small tree of South America and the 
West Indies, and is obtained by evaporating a decoction of the 
wood and bark. The Botany Bay is the concrete juice of Euca- 
lyptus Resinifera, the brown gum-tree of New Holland, and is 
rarely met with in commerce. The East Indian is the variety 
frequently met with, and most highly esteemed, and is derived 
from Pterocarpus Marsupium, a large tree of the East Indies. 
It is the juice, extracted by incisions in the trunk, and allowed 
to harden in the sun. There is no essential difference between 
these varieties, either in appearance or in medicinal properties. 

Properties. They are generally in irregular masses of different 
sizes, and varying in color from brownish-red to almost black. 
The ordinary kino of the shops is in small and shining, brittle, 
angular fragments, of a dark or reddish-brown color, and afford- 
ing a powder which is lighter colored than the masses. It is 
inodorous, has a bitterish, highly astringent, and ultimately 
sweetish taste. It is not softened by heat, and imparts its virtues 
to water and alcohol. It contains, besides tannin, a peculiar ex- 
tractive, and red gum. 



42 3IATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Kino is bighly astringent, and 
may be administered in the same manner, and for the same pur- 
poses, as catechu. It is principally employed in chronic diar- 
rhoeas, and may be given either alone or combined with other 
astringents. Dose, 10 to 30 grains. 

TiNCTURA Kino. U. S. Tincture of Kino. (Three hundred 
and sixty grains to half a pint of menstruum, consisting of two 
measures of alcohol with one of water.) Dose, f 5i to fjij, used 
as an addition to cretaceous and other astringent mixtures. 

KRAMERIA. U. S. Bhatany. 

The root of Krameria Triandra, a shrub of Peru. The KrO' 
meria ixina, growing in the West Indies and Brazil, affords a 
root resembling the officinal in appearance and properties. 

Properties. The root consists of woody cylindrical pieces, 
more or less branched, varying in diameter from an inch to that 
of a quill. The cortical portion is of a dark reddish-brown color, 
fibrous, and easily separated; the central or woody part is 
tough, fibrous, and of a reddish-yellow color. The root is in- 
odorous, has an astringent, bitter, slightly sweetish after-taste. 
As the virtues reside mainJy in the cortical portion, the small 
pieces, from the greater proportion of bark, are most efficacious. 
It yields a powder of a reddish color, and imparts its virtues to 
water and alcohol. It contains tannin, like that of kino and cat- 
echu, minute quantities of gum, starch, and saccharine matter, 
and a peculiar acid, termed Jcrameric acid. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Rhatany is a powerful astrin- 
gent and a gentle tonic. It is useful in checking profuse morbid 
discharges, and imparting tone to the system, and is preferable 
to either kino or catechu. It is an excellent local application to 
spongy gums, and forms an ingredient in tooth-powders : the 
tincture is also used in astringent mouth-washes. Dose of the 
powder, 10 to 30 grains. I 

Infusum Krameria. U. S. Infusion of Bhatany is made by 
displacement (a troyounce to a pint). | 

ExTRACTUM Krajvieri^e. U. S. Extract of Bhatany is pre- 
pared by evaporating a strong decoction of the root. This ex- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ASTRIJS GENTS. 43 

tract should have a reddish-brown color, a smooth, shining- frac- 
ture, a very astringent taste, and be almost entirely soluble in 
water. Dose, 10 to 20 grains. 

TiNCTURA KiiAMERiiE. U. S. Tincture of Bhatany is prepared 
by percolation (six troyounces to two pints of diluted alcohol). 
It is an elegant preparation, and is much used as an addition to 
astringent mixtures. 

H^MATOXYLON". U. S. Logwood. 

The inner wood of Hae.matoxylon Campechianum, a medium- 
sized tree, native of tropical America. It is imported in logs, 
deprived of the sap wood, chiefly for the use of dyers. 

Properties. As found in the shops it is cut into chips, or 
rasped into coarse powder. The wood is hard, close grained, 
and tough ; has a slight, pleasant odor, and a sweet, somewhat 
astringent, taste ; it imparts its virtues to water and alcohol ; it 
contains tannin, and a peculiar principle, called hsematoxylon or 
hematin, on which its coloring properties depend. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Logwood is a mild astringent, 
with slight tonic properties, well adapted to the weakened con- 
ditions of the bowels following cholera infantum. It may be 
given in decoction or extract. 

Decoctum H^MATOXYLi. U. S. Decoction of Logwood (made 
by boiling a troyounce of rasped logwood in a pint of water) 
may be given in doses of two or three fluidrachms to a child about 
two years old. 

ExTRACTUM H^MATOXYLON. U. S. Extract of Logwood is 
prepared by evaporating to dryness a strong decoction. It is of 
a deep ruby color, an astringent, sweetish taste, and has all the 
properties of the wood. Dose, 10 to 30 grains. 

GERANIUM. U. S. CranesbiU. 

The RHizoMA of Geranium maculatum, CranesbiU, an indig- 
enous perennial plant growing in woods. The root should be 
collected in autumn. 

Properties. The root, as found in the shops, is in rough, 



44 3IATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

wrinkled pieces, of various sizes, of a dark-brown color exter- 
nally, and pale flesh color within, without odor, and with an as- 
tringent taste, without bitterness. It contains tannic and gallic 
acids, with some mucilage. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is one of our best indigen- 
ous astringents, very similar to kino and rhatany in its action on 
the system, and may be employed for all the purposes to which 
these medicines are applicable. It has also proved successful 
as a remedy in aphthous affections of the mouth, and in ulcera- 
tions of the fauces and tonsils. Dose of the powder, 10 to 20 
grains, but it is generally given in decoction. 

RUBUS. U. S. Blackberry Root 

The ROOT of Eiibus Canadensis and Ruhus Villosus, indigen- 
ous plants of genus Rubus, an extensive genus of perennial 
shrubby plants, with erect or procumbent prickly stems, bearing 
white or reddish flowers, succeeded by an edible fruit, well 
known under the names of blackberry, dewberry, etc. 

Properties. The root is horizontal, irregularly tuberous, of a 
reddish-brown color. The virtues, which mainly depend upon 
tannin, reside in the cortical portion ; the smaller root should 
therefore be selected for use. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Blackberry root is tonic and 
strongly astringent, and has long been highly esteemed as a 
remedy in the diarrhoeas of children. Dose of the powder, 10 to 
20 grains; it is, however, generally given in infusion, decoction, 
or syrup. The fruit is considered beneficial in bowel complaints, 
and is much used in domestic practice in the form of cordial or 
syrup. 

Syrupus Rubi. U. S. Syrup of Blackberry Boot is prepared 
by adding sugar to a concentrated tincture of the root, obtained 
by percolation. It is a useful preparation in the chronic diar- 
rhoea of children. Dose, f5i to f 5vij. 

ROSA GALLICA. U. S. Bed Bose. 

The petals of Bosa Gallica, a native of Europe, but extensively 
cultivated in this country. The parts used are the petals of the 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ASTRINGENTS. 45 

buds, which should be gathered before the flowers have blown, 
and deprived of their white claws. 

Properties and Uses. When dried rapidly by a stove heat 
they have a purplish velvety appearance, an agreeable odor, and 
a bitter astringent taste. Their color is destroyed by the action 
of light and air, and they should therefore be kept in close boxes. 
They are mildly astringent, but are chiefly employed in medicine 
on account of their color and odor ; the officinal preparations 
forming agreeable vehicles for the administration of more active, 
astringent, and tonic remedies. 

Infusum RosiE CoMPOSiTUM. U. S. Compound Infusion of 
Hose (prepared by macerating half a troyounce of rose leaves 
in two pints and a half of water, and adding three fluidrachms 
of diluted sulphuric acid and a troyounce and a half of sugar) is 
astringent and refrigerant. It forms a useful solvent for the sul- 
phates of quinia and magnesia, the taste of which it serves to 
cover. 

CoNFECTio Ros^. U. S. Confection of Roses is prepared by 
rubbing rose petals with rose-water, adding sugar and honey, 
and beating the whole together until thoroughly mixed. It is 
used almost exclusively to impart consistency to a pilular mass. 

The petals of Rosa Centifolia, the Hundred-leaved Rose, are 
employed for the distillation of rose-water, which is extensively 
used, on account of its agreeable odor, in collyria and other 
lotions. 

TJVA URSI. U. S. Uva Ursi. 

Bearherry Leaves. The leaves of Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi, 
a small, trailing, evergreen shrub, growing in the northern regions 
of Europe and America. The leaves should be gathered in au- 
tumn, and those which are young and green should be selected. 

Properties. The dried leaves are dark-green, convex, smooth 
and shining above, concave and reticulated beneath, with a bit- 
terish, astringent taste, and a faint, haylike odor. They afford a 
light-brown, greenish powder, and yield their virtues to water 
and diluted alcohol. Uva ursi contains about 36 per cent, of 
tannin, with bitter extractive, and resinous matter. It is often 
adulterated with the leaves of Vaccinium vitis idsea (red whortle- 



46 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

berry), and of Buxus sempermrens (common box) ; the former 
are distinguished by their under surface being dotted instead of 
reticulated, the latter by their entire want of astringency. 

Medical Properties and Uses. TJva ursi is tonic and astrin- 
gent, with a tendency to act especially on the urinary organs. 
It may be employed for all the purposes for which the vegetable 
astringents are prescribed, but is principally used in chronic 
affections of the bladder, attended with increased secretion of 
mucus, and unaccompanied by inflammatory symptoms. The 
dose of the powder is from 20 to 60 grains, but the decoction or 
fluid extract is preferred. 

Decoctum Uv^ Ursi. U. S. Decoction of Uva Ursi (pre- 
pared by boiling a troyounce of uva ursi in a pint of water for 
fifteen minutes) may be given in doses of f oi-fSu- 

ExTRACTUM UviB Ursi Fluidum. TT. S. Fluid Extract of 
Uva Ursi, a concentrated tincture. Dose, 30 to 60 minims. 

CHIMAPHILA. U. S. Pipsissewa. 

The LEAVES of Chimaphila Umbellata, Winter-Green or 
Ground-Holly, a small, herbaceous, evergreen plant, found in all 
parts of the United States. 

Properties. The leaves, which only are used, are somewhat 
wedge-shaped, narrowed toward the base, serrated at their 
edges, and of a shining sap-green color on the upper surface, 
paler beneath. When fresh they have a fragrant odor when 
bruised, but when dried have scarcely any smell ; their taste is 
bitter, astringent, and somewhat sweetish. Water and alcohol 
extract their virtues, which depend upon tannin and bitter ex- 
tractive. They probably contain some acrid principle, as the fresh 
leaves, when bruised and applied to the skin, cause redness and 
even vesication. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Pipsissewa is a tonic astrin- 
gent, and has a decided action on the renal organs, increasing 
the urinary secretion, possessing properties similar to uva ursi. 
It may be employed in dropsy, rheumatism, and chronic affec- 
tions of the kidneys and urinary Organs. It has been used in 
scrofulous diseases, but does not exercise more curative influence 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ASTRINGENTS. 41 

than many other of the vegetable tonics. It is generally given 
in decoction. 

Decoctum CuiMAPiiiLiE. U. S. Decoction of Pipsissewa is 
made in the same way as that of uva ursi. One pint may be 
given in the course of twenty-four hours. 



GRANATI FRUCTUS CORTEX. U. S. Pomegranate Bind. 

GRANATI RADICIS CORTEX. U. S. Bark of Pomegran- 
ate Boot. 

The RIND OP THE FRUIT and the bark op the root of Punica 
Granalum, Pomegranate- Tree, a small, shrubby tree, growing in 
tropical countries. The fruit is about the size of an orange, 
covered with a thick, reddish-yellow rind, and divided internally 
into cells, which contain an acidulous pulp and numerous seeds. 

Properties. The rind of the fruit is found in irregular, 
convex, brittle fragments of a brownish color, without odor, and 
with a bitter, astringent taste. The bark op the boot is in 
small pieces, of an ash-gray color internally, yellow within, brittle, 
but not fibrous, and of an astringent but not bitter taste. Both 
contain tannin, some gallic acid, resin, mannite, and other unim- 
portant substances. The fresh bark has also been found to con- 
tain a peculiar acrid principle termed punicine. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This medicine is astringent, 
but is seldom used for this purpose. The bark of the root is 
often employed on account of its powerful anthelmintic proper- 
ties. By many it is considered almost a specific against taenia 
or tape-worm, and may be given in the form of decoction (made 
by boiling two ounces of the bark in two pints of water), in doses 
of from one to three fluidounces, repeated every hour until four 
doses have been taken. 

Tormentilla. U. S. Secondary. Tormentil. The root of Po- 
tentilla Tormentilla, a small perennial plant common throughout 
Europe, where it is known as Septfoil. The root, when dried, is 
in irregular, cylindrical, knotty pieces, of a blackish color exter- 
nally, reddish within, with a faint odor, and an astringent taste. 
It contains tannin, and is a simple astringent, but seldom used 



48 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

in this country. It may be given in substance, infusion, or ex- 
tract. Dose, 30 to 60 grains. 

DiosPYROS. U. S. Secondary. Persimmon. The unripe fruit of 
Diospyros Virginiana, a large, indigenous tree. The fruit is a 
globular berry, dark-yellow when perfectly ripe, and containing 
numerous seeds imbedded in a soft, yellow pulp. It has been 
used in diarrhoea, chronic dysentery, and uterine hemorrhage. 
The. bark is bitter and astringent, and is sometimes used in in- 
fusion as a gargle where astringents are indicated. 

ALUMEN. U. S. Alum. 

Alum is a double salt, consisting of tersulphate of alumina and 
sulphate of potassa. (Al,03,3S03+KO,S03+24HO.) 

Alumina is an earth, the sesquioxide of Aluminum, a silver- 
white, sonorous-, very light metal, sp. gr. 2-56, and scarcely tar- 
nished by exposure to the air. 

Alum is sometimes found native effloresced on the soil in the 
neighborhood of volcanoes, but is generally manufactured from 
alum ores {aluminous slate or aluminous schist) by roasting, and 
exposing them to the air, and then lixiviating the product. It may 
also be procured by the direct combination of its constituents. 

Prope7Hies. Alum is a transparent, colorless salt, crystalliz- 
ing in regular octohedrons, but is usually found in irregular 
masses with an obscurely crystalline surface. It is inodorous, 
has a sweetish, acidulous, very astriugent taste, is soluble in fif- 
teen parts of cold, and in three-fourths its weight of boiling, 
water, but is insoluble in alcohol. It effloresces slightly on ex- 
posure ; when heated it fuses in its water of crystallization ; and 
if the heat be continued, it loses its water and becomes a white, 
opaque, porous mass, known as dr^ied alum. Exposed to a red 
heat it is decomposed. 

Besides the potassa alum, there are others, in which the potassa 
is replaced by some other base, as soda or ammonia. These 
have the same crystalline form as the potassa alum, and possess 
similar properties. Ammonia alum — ALUMiNiB et AMMONi.aa 
Sulphas, U. S. — is officinal, and is now much used in this country. 

3Iedical Froperties and Uses. Alum is a powerful astringent, 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ASTRINGENTS. 49 

whether employed internally or externally, and as such is used 
with benefit in the treatment of many diseases. Its local effects 
depend upon its chemical action on the albuminous and gelatin- 
ous constituents of the living tissues. When administered inter- 
nally, it is absorbed, and appears to produce more or less general 
astriction of the tissues and fibres, and a diminution of secretion. 
In large doses it acts as an emetic and purgative. As an as- 
tringent it is employed in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, in 
passive hemorrhages, in colliquative sweats, and in atonic mucous 
discharges, as gleet and leucorrhoea. In doses of twenty grains 
or more, repeated every few hours, it has been recommended as 
one of our most efficacious remedies in colica pictonum. It seems 
to convert the poisonous salt of lead in the system into the in- 
nocuous sulphate, and at the same time to stimulate to contraction 
the muscular fibre of the paralyzed portion of the intestine. As 
an emetic it proves very serviceable in croup ; it acts more 
promptly and certainly than any other emetic, and produces less 
prostration of the system For this purpose a teaspoonful, mixed 
with honey or molasst s, may be given, and repeated every ten 
minutes till free vomiting is produced. In hooping-cough, ad- 
ministered in small and gradually increasing doses, it often affords 
marked and rapid relief; it is best adapted to the second, or nerv- 
ous period of the disease, when all inflammatory symptoms have 
subsided. It may be given, mixed with syrup, in doses of from 
one-half to two grains, according to the age. Locally, it may be 
used in solution as a gargle in affections of the mouth, throat, and 
fauces ; as an injection in gonorrhoea, gleet, and leucorrhoea ; as 
a collyrium in chronic ophthalmia ; and as an application to in- 
dolent and other ill-conditioned ulcers. 

Administration. The dose of alum as an astringent is from 10 
to 20 grains, given in solution in some aromatic water, or made 
into an electuary with syrup or molasses. An elegant mode of 
administering it in solution is in the form of alum-whey, made 
by boiling two drachms of alum with a pint of milk, and then 
straining to separate the curd. A wineglassful of this contains 
about fifteen grains of alum. For local use the solutions must 
vary in strength according to the parts to which they are ap- 

4 



50 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

plied : as a collyrium, from four to six grains for every ounce of 
rose-water. 

Alumen Exsiccatum. TJ. S. Dried or Burnt Alum is pre- 
pared by exposing alum to a heat sufficient to free it from its 
water of crystallization without decomposing it. It is in the 
form of an opaque, white powder, with a more astringent taste 
than the crystallized alum. It is used as an escharotic for de- 
stroying exuberant and spongy granulations. Its virtues prob- 
ably depend upon its attraction for the moisture of the parts and 
its power of coagulating albumen, while its astringency counter- 
acts the relaxation, which favors this sort of growth, and thus 
promotes the healing process. 

Alumina Sulphas. U. S. Sulphate of Alumina is prepared 
by decomposing ammonia alum with carbonate of soda, and 
neutralizing the precipitate (which is alumina in the form of hy- 
drate) with sulphuric acid, Al^OjjSSOj+lSHO. As thus obtained 
it is a white, opaque powder, or in thin, flexible plates of a pearly 
aspect, with a sour, astringent taste. It is soluble in twice its 
weight of cold water, but not in alcohol. It is only used exter- 
nally as an astringent and antiseptic application to foul ulcers, 
etc. A solution of one pound in two pints of water is used to 
preserve bodies for dissection. 

PLUMBUM. U. S. Lead. 

Lead, in its metallic state, is inert, but it is the basis of several 
important preparations which possess active medicinal properties. 
It is sometimes, though rarely, found native, but is abundantly 
diffused in the form of galena, a native sulphuret, and in saline 
combination. The lead of commerce is generally obtained from 
galena, and is extracted by melting the ore with charcoal. It is 
a soft, flexible, very malleable and ductile metal, of a bluish-gray 
color, presenting a bright surface when newly melted or cut : sp. 
gr. 11'4, melting point 612°. It is quickly oxidized at a high 
temperature, and attracts carbonic acid from the atmosphere. 
Lead in solution may be recognized by producing a brown or black 
precipitate with sulphuretted hydrogen, a yellow one with iodide 
of potassium, and a white one with muriatic acid and the soluble 
chlorides. 



^ "Co 

^^ JUL 2 1918 J 



GENERAL RE3IEDIES.— ASTRINGENTS. 51 

The preparations of lead act as astringents, checking secre- 
tion, and causing constipation, and at the same time exert a seda- 
tive influence on the system. They are generally used internally 
for checking hemorrhage and inordinate discharges, and externally 
for subduing inflammation. In large quantities they act as irritant 
poisons, giving rise to the usual symptoms of gastro-enteritis. 
When introduced into the system in a gradual manner with the 
food or drink, inhaled in the form of vapor, or taken in small and 
frequently-repeated doses, they act injuriously upon the nervous 
system and deteriorate the blood, producing a pccuhar train of 
symptoms constituting lead-poisoning. Sometimes these are 
manifested by a peculiar colic, called lead colic or colica pictonum ; 
at others it produces local palsy, particularly of the muscles 
about the wrist ; and sometimes affects the sensory nerves, caus- 
ing sharp, shooting pains in the limbs. In lead colic there is 
generally a paralysis of the muscular fibre of a portion of the 
intestine, and the pain is caused by an irritation of the nerves of 
the part. The absorption of lead into the system is indicated by 
a narrow, blue line at the edge of the gum, and the colic is char- 
acterized by sharp, abdominal pains, especially in the region of the 
navel, obstinate constipation, nausea, and vomiting. The treat- 
ment consists in the administration of the alkaline or earthy sul- 
phates, of which alum is the best, which decompose the salt of 
lead. The iodide of potassium may also be used to eliminate the 
poison from the system. The therapeutical uses of the salts of 
lead will be noticed under the head of the different preparations, 

PLUMBI OXIDUM. U. S. Oxide of Lead. 

Litharge. Semi-vitrified Oxide of Lead is easily procured 
when melted lead is exposed to a continuous current of heated 
air, and is generally obtained as a secondary product in the pro- 
cess for separating silver from argentiferous lead ores. Compo- 
sition PbO. 

Properties and Uses. It is a scaly powder, of a reddish-yel- 
low color, inodorous and tasteless, insoluble in water, but soluble 
in dilute nitric acid. It is not used internally, but chiefly in 
pharmacy in the preparation of lead plaster. 



52 MATERIA MED 10 A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Emplastrum Pltjmbi. TJ. S. Lead Plaster, Litharge Plaster, 
or Diachylon, as it is commonly called, is prepared by boiling- 
litharge, olive oil, and water together, until the two former 
acquire a proper consistence for a plaster. Olive oil is a com- 
pound of oleic and margaric acids with oxide of glyceryl ; when 
subjected to heat with litharge and water, decomposition ensues, 
the acids combine with the oxide of lead, and the oxide of glyceryl 
is set free, and takes an equivalent of water to form glycerin. 
Thus lead plaster is a union of the oily acids with the oxide of 
lead {an oleo-margarate of lead), with perhaps some free glycerin 
mechanically incorporated with it. It is met with in cylindrical 
rolls, of a grayish or yellowish-white color, brittle when cold, but 
softening and ultimately fusing by heat. It is employed in surgery 
on account of its adhesiveness and the mildness of its local action. 
In pharmacy it is extensively used as a basis for most officinal 
plasters. 

Emplastrum Saponis IJ. S. Soap Plaster is prepared by 
mixing one pai-t of soap, rubbed with water until brought to a 
semi-liquid state, with nine parts of melted lead plaster, and boil- 
ing to the proper consistence. It is sometimes applied as a dis- 
cutient to tumors. 

PLUMBI CARBONAS. U. S. Carbonate of Lead. 

White Lead may be procured by passing a stream of carbonic 
acid through a solution of subacetate of lead. It is generally 
manufactured on a large scale for commercial purposes by expos- 
ing thin plates of lead to the vapor of vinegar, and at the same 
time to air loaded with carbonic acid gas, derived from the fer- 
mentation of tan, or refuse stable materials, in which the pots 
containing the lead and vinegar are packed.^ 

Proper'ties and Uses. Carbonate of lead is a soft, heavy, white 
powder (sometimes in friable lumps), inodorous, and nearly in- 
sipid. It is insoluble in water. It is emploj^ed externally as a 
dusting powder in excoriations of children, and as a sedative and 
astringent dressing to ulcers and inflamed surfaces. 

Unguentum Plumbi Carbonatis. U. S. Ointment of Car- 
bonate of Lead is made by incorporating eighty grains of finely- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ASTRINGENTS. 53 

powdered carbonate of lead with a troyounce of simple ointment. 
It is an excellent application to burns and scalds. 

PLUMBI ACETAS. U. S. Acetate of Lead. 

This salt, known as Saccharum Saturni or Sugar of Lead, 
is the most important of the preparations of lead, and has been 
known and used since the time of Basil Valentine, in the fif- 
teenth centmy. It may be made by simply dissolving litharge 
in diluted acetic acid, or by exposing thin sheets of lead to the 
vapor of vinegar. Composition PbO,C^H303-f 3H0. 

Properties. It occurs in glossy, needle-shaped crystals, which 
have the form of quadrilateral prisms, terminated by dihedral 
summits, with an acetous odor, and an astringent, sweetish taste. 
On exposure to the air it effloresces slightly, loses part of its 
acetic acid, and attracts carbonic acid, thereby becoming insolu- 
ble. It is soluble in twice its weight of cold water, and less of 
boiling water, and in eight parts of alcohol. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small doses it acts as an 
astringent and sedative. Under its use the pulse becomes smaller, 
the temperature of the body is diminished, and the exhalations 
from the skin and the urine are lessened in quantity. It differs from 
most other astringents in producing at the same time a remark- 
able sedative effect upon the nervous system where it is applied. 
This combination of sedative and astringent virtues renders it 
capable of fulfilling a variety of indications in disease. It proves 
useful in checking morbid discharges, and in diminishing the 
natural secretions, when excessive. In hemorrhages, whether 
from the lungs, stomach, kidneys, or other parts, and in diar- 
rhoea, combined with opium, it proves eminently serviceable. 
As an external application, it may be employed in most forms of 
superficial inflammation, and is also beneficial in cutaneous erup- 
tions attended with surrounding inflammation, or accompanied 
by itching or heat. As an injection in gonorrhoea, gleet, and 
leucorrhoea, it is much used. Dose, ^ to 4 grains, usually given 
in the form of pill. As an application to mucous surfaces, from 
1 to 2 grains may be dissolved in an ounce of Water ; to the 
sound skin, from 5i to 3U to a pint. 



54 MATERIA ME DIG A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis. U. S. Solution of Subacetate 
of Lead. Goulard's Extract is prepared by boiling together 
acetate of lead in solution with litharge, and filtering the solu- 
tion. By the addition of litharge to acetate of lead an additional 
equivalent of the oxide enters into the composition of the salt, 
forming diacetate of lead, which remains in solution. 2PbO,C^ 
HjjOg in water. 

Properties and Uses. Solution of subacetate of lead is a clear, 
colorless liquid, sp. gr. l'26t, with an alkaline reaction, and sweet, 
metallic, astringent taste. It agrees with the acetate in most of 
its properties, except that it precipitates solutions of gum, most 
vegetable coloring matters, and organic principles not precipitated 
by the acetate. It has a great affinity for carbonic acid, and 
occasions a precipitate of carbonate of lead merely on exposure 
to the air. It is astringent and sedative, but is employed only as 
an external application to sprains, bruises, etc. 

Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis Dilutus. IT. S. Dilute Solu- 
tion of Subacetate of Lead. Lead Water is prepared by mixing 
fjiij of the solution to a pint of distilled water. 

Ceratum Plumbi Subacetatis. U. S. Cerate of Subacetate 
^of Lead. Goulard's Cerate, as it is commonly called, is pre- 
pared by mixing f^ijss of solution of subacetate of lead with four 
troy ounces of white wax, and eight troyounces of olive oil, previ- 
ously melted together, and adding to the mixture thirty grains of 
camphor. It speedily becomes rancid, and should, as far as pos- 
sible, be prepared fresh for use. It is used chiefly in excoria- 
tions, burns, scalds, and in cutaneous eruptions. 

PLUMBI lODIDUM. U. S. Iodide of Lead. 

This salt is prepared by double decomposition between nitrate 
or acetate of lead, and iodide of potassium in solution, filtering, 
and drying the precipitate. 

Properties and Uses. When pure, it is in the form of a bright, 
heavy, yellow, tasteless, and inodorous powder. It is very spar- 
ingly soluble in water, requiring 1235 parts of cold, and 194 of 
boiling water. Composition Pbl. It is supposed to possess the 
resolvent properties of iodine, combined with those peculiar to 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONiaS. 55 

lead. It has been used internally in scrofulous diseases, but is 
chiefly employed externally, in the form of ointment, to reduce 
indolent tumors, and in the cure of obstinate ulcers. Dose, ^ to 
3 grains. The ointment may be made by adding from twenty 
to sixty grains to an ounce of lard or simple ointment. 

PLTJMBI NITRAS. U. S. Nitrate of Lead. ■ 

Nitrate op Lead is obtained by dissolving litharge, with the 
aid of heat, in diluted nitric acid, and crystallizing the solution 
by evaporating and cooling. PbO,N05. 

Properties and Uses. It is an anhydrous, white salt, forming 
beautiful octahedral crystals, permanent in the air, with a sweet 
astringent taste. Soluble in water and alcohol. It produces the 
same effects as the other soluble salts of lead, but is never used 
as an internal remedy. Externally, it is sometimes employed as 
an astringent lotion, but is chiefly valuable as a disinfectant. 
Ledoyeii's Disinfecting Fluid is a solution of this salt in water, 
in the proportion of 5i to f ^i. Should the salt be used internally, 
the dose would be from ;^ to ^ a grain. 

. Plumbi Tannas. Tannate of Lead is obtained by adding 
tannic acid to a solution of acetate of lead, filtering, and drying 
the precipitate. It is used in the form of ointment, both as cura- 
tive and preventive in the treatment of bed-sores, and has also 
been recommended as an application to indolent ulcers. 



TONICS. 

Tonics are medicines whose continued administration gives 
tone and vigor to the body, without producing sudden excite- 
ment or subsequent depression. They act slowly and perma- 
nently, and in this respect differ from stimulants. To fully un- 
derstand this difference it is necessary to discriminate between 
strength and action; the former is the power, the latter the 
mechanism by which the power operates. Tonics increase the 



56 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

former, and give strength ; while stimulants excite the latter, and 
in consequence of overaction, produce exhaustion as a secondary 
result. Nutrients which contribute to the strength and support 
of the body may also be considered tonic, but the term in its 
medicinal sense is applied only to certain substances whose im- 
mediate and primary operation is to improve the appetite, pro- 
mote the powers of digestion, and augment the strength. Under 
their use the pulse becomes fuller and stronger, the muscles more 
firm and solid, the blood is increased in quantity, and assumes 
a richer appearance, the energy of the brain and nervous system 
is increased, and all the functions of the body performed with 
more energy than before. 

Tonics act in various ways : some, as the vegetable bitters, 
increase the energy of the stomach and digestive organs, when 
enfeebled, thus promoting the appetite, and enabling more food, 
to be taken, and to be more readily assimilated ; others, as the 
salts of iron, etc., act specifically upon the blood by means of ab- 
sorption, enriching it in hematin, and thus invigorate the mus- 
cular tissue ; others act upon the nervous system, as strychnia, 
but more properly belong to the class of stimulants. 

They are employed in simple debility, unattended with inflam- 
mation, in atonic dyspepsia, in anaemia, in convalescence from 
acute disease, and in chronic disorders generally. They are 
contraindicated in general plethora, in active inflammation or 
hemorrhage, and in organic diseases of the heart. 

Tonics are of animal, vegetable, and mineral origin. The only 
animal substance used is the following : 

OLEUM MORRHU^. U. S. God-Liver Oil. 

This is a fixed oil, obtained from the livers of the Gadus Mor- 
RHUA or common cod, and of other species of Gadus inhabiting 
the Northern Atlantic. It is generally procured by boiling the 
livers in water, or exposing them to a steam heat, when the 
liquid oil separates and floats on the surface ; sometimes the 
livers are allowed to putrefy, and the oil obtained by expression. 

Properties. There are three varieties of the oil in commerce, 
the pale-yellow, the brownish-yellow, and the dark-brown, dif- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 6t 

feriug in no essential characier, but simply from the mode of 
preparation, the degree of heat employed, and the state of the 
livers ; the pale being procured from fresh livers, the dark-brown 
from those in a state of putrefaction, and the brownish-yellow 
from those in an intermediate state. The best oil is transparent, 
of a pale or golden -yellow color, with the odor of boiled codfish, 
and a greasy, bland taste, leaving a very disagreeable impression 
on the palate. Between this and the dark oil there is every 
shade of difference in color, taste, and odor. It is frequently 
adulterated with other fixed oils. The most characteristic test 
of its genuineness is that of sulphuric acid, a drop of which, 
added to the oil on a porcelain plate, gives rise to a fine violet 
color, spreading from the point of contact with the acid, which 
soon passes into a yellowish or brownish-red. By heating it 
with ammonia, it should afford the peculiar odor of propylamin, 
the odorous principle of herring-pickle. But the most reliable 
tests are the sensible properties of odor and taste which are pe- 
culiar to this oil. 

It contains oleic and margaric acids, with glycerin, butyric, 
and acetic acids, various biliary principles, some salts of soda 
and potassa, a peculiar substance named gaduin, and a trace of 
iodine, bromine, and phosphorus. 

Medicinal Action and Uses. The immediate effect of cod-liver 
oil is to produce an increased appetite, and the proper assimila- 
tion of food, and thus to impi'ove the quantity and quality of the 
blood. The blood thus improved, the different organs become 
better nourished, and more capable of performing their proper 
functions. One of the most marked effects is the increased 
weight it causes during the period it is being taken. Its modus 
operandi has been the subject of much speculation. Some at- 
tribute its medicinal virtues to the presence of the iodine, bro- 
mine, or phosphorus; others to the biliary matters it contains; 
some say that it does good by stimulating the lymphatic and ab- 
sorbent system ; but most writers now agree that it acts as a nu- 
trient, affording fat of a better kind, more liquid, and more easily 
absorbed and assimilated to the adipose tissues of the body.. 

In phthisis there is no remedy, or combination of remedies, of 
such ef&cacy as cod-liver oil. It is of most service when the 



58 MATERIA ME Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

disease is only incipient; and if given in the first stage, often 
arrests its progress. Given in the more advanced stages, it 
usually improves the condition of the patient, renders him more 
comfortable, and postpones the final issue. In a majority of 
cases it agrees 'weW with the stomach and bowels, increases the 
appetite, and, if continued, promotes the function of nutrition. 
Under its use the patient becomes fatter and stronger, the fre- 
quency of the pulse is diminished, the night-sweats checked, the 
cough relieved, and, in fine, the general symptoms are greatly 
ameliorated. It may also be used with great benefit in various 
affections connected with the scrofulous diathesis, as glandular 
enlargements, tabes mesenterica, rachitis, diseases of the joints, 
etc. In chronic rheumatism, in chronic skin diseases, and in 
almost any disease attended with emaciation and defective nutri- 
tion, it may be employed with a hope of benefit. 

The dose is a tablespoonful for adults ; a teaspoonful for , 
children. It is best taken after meals, and may be administered 
alone or with some vehicle calculated to conceal its taste and to 
obviate nausea. It may be floated on some aromatic water, or 
bitter infusion, on milk or wine, or cold tea, to suit various tastes. 
It may be used with advantage as a vehicle for the iodide of iron 
in scrofulous cases. • 



VEGETABLE TONICS 

Are subdivided into Pure Bitters, Bitters with Peculiar Prop- 
erties, Stimulating Tonics, and Aromatics. 

PUEE OK SIMPLE BITTERS. 

These possess tonic properties solely, without any influence 
over the circulation, except when long employed. They are 
characterized by bitterness, and produce their impression upon 
the stomach, increasing the appetite and invigorating digestion. 
They influence other organs by thus imparting tone to the 
digestive organs. They are all similar in their effects, are used 
for the same purposes, and may be substituted one for another. 



f 

GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 59 



QUASSIA. U. S. Quassia. 

The WOOD of Simaruba excelsa, formerly Quassia excelsa, 
a large and magnificent forest tree, native of Jamaica and other 
West Indian islands, called Bitter Ash. It was originally ob- 
tained from Quassia amara, a tall tree, native of Surinam, and 
cultivated in the West Indies and Brazil. It is imported in 
logs or billets of various sizes, covered externally with a smooth, 
brittle bark. 

Properties. As found in the shops, the quassia wood is cut 
into small pieces, or rasped, of a whitish color, becoming yellow 
on exposure, without odor, with an intensely bitter taste, sur- 
passed by that of few other substances. It contains a bitter 
cry stalliz able principle called Quassin, upon which its virtues 
depend. It imparts its sensible properties and medicinal virtues 
to water and alcohol. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is one of the purest of the 
simple bitters, acting as a tonic without any stimulant or astrin- 
gent effects, and is admirably adapted to dyspepsia, and to that 
debilitated condition of the digestive organs which sometimes 
succeeds acute disease. It is said to be largely used in Eng- 
land by bi'ewers to impart bitterness to their malt liquors. It 
may be administered in infusion, tincture, or extract. 

Inpusum Quassia. U. S. Infusion of Quassia is prepared by 
macerating 5u of quassia wood, rasped, in a pint of water. 
Dose, f^ij, three or four times a day. In the form of enema this 
is one of the best remedies for ascaris vermicularis, the seat-worm, 
causing the death and expulsion of the worm, and relieving the 
itching about the anus. 

TiNCTURA Quassia. F. S. Tincture of Quassia {ivfo ivojownces, 
to two pints of diluted alcohol) is a pure and intense bitter, and 
may be employed as an addition to tonic infusions or mixtures 
in the dose of 1 or 2 fluidrachms. 

ExTRACTUM QuASSi.a!. U. S. Extract of Quassia is prepared 
by boiling down a strong infusion to the proper consistence. It 
is dark-brown or black, and excessively bitter. It is well 
adapted for combination with chalybeates and laxatives, and 



t 

60 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

may be given in doses of from 3 to 5 grains, in the form of a 
pill. 

SiMARUBA. U. S. Secondary. The bark of the root of Sima- 
ruba officinalis, a tree of considerable size, native of Jamaica 
and other West Indian islands, commonly called Ilountain 
damson. The bark is in long pieces, of various sizes, much 
rolled or quilled, fibrous and tough, of a grayish color externally, 
and of a yellow internally. It is inodorous, but excessively 
bitter, and readily imparts its virtues to water and alcohol. It 
contains quassin, and possesses properties analogous to quassia, 
and may be employed for the same purposes. Dose, 10 to 30 
grains, best administered in infusion. 

GENTIAN A. U. S. Gentian. . 

The DRIED ROOT of Gentiana Lutea or Yellow Gentian, a 
native of the mountainous districts of Middle Europe. It is 
a beautiful plant, with a thick, long, branching, perennial root, an 
erect, hollow stem, from three to four feet high, bearing large 
and beautiful whorled yellow flowers. The roots are collected 
and dried by the peasants, and imported in bales. 

Properties. As found in commerce, it is in cylindrical, more 
or less branched, pieces, of various sizes, marked with annular 
wrinkles and longitudinal furrows, externally of a yellowish- 
brown color, internally of a spongy texture, and of a deep 
yellow. It has a feeble but peculiar odor, and a bitter taste, 
without astringency. It affords a yellowish powder, and yields 
its virtues to water and alcohol. It is sometimes adulterated 
with the roots of other species of gentian, but as they possess 
much the same properties, it is of little consequence. It contains 
a peculiar crystallizable principle, gentianin, a volatile, odorous 
principle, yellow coloring matter, with other unimportant sub- 
stances. 

Medical Propet'ties and Uses. Gentian is a pure bitter tonic, 
without astringency, and the most generally employed of the 
simple bitters. It is used with great benefit in the forms of 
dyspepsia attended with torpid digestion and secretion of acid, 
but unattended with any irritability or inflammation of the 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 61 

stomach. It is also a useful tonic in debility, and in chronic 
diseases accompanied by debility. Dose, 10 to 30 grains, best 
given in infusion, tincture, or extract. The gentian root has 
been proposed for the manufacture of tents, for treating partial 
occlusion of the os uteri. 

Infusum GENTiANiE CoMPOSiTUM. U. S. Covipound Infusion 
of Gentian (powdered gentian, half a troyounce ; bitter orange 
peel and coriander, each sixty grains ; in fgxiv of water with 
foij of alcohol) may be given in doses of from f^i to fsij, 
repeated three times a day. 

TiNCTURA Gentians Composita. U. S. Compound Tincture 
of Gentian is prepared by adding two troy ounces of gentian, 
one troyounce of bitter orange peel, and half a troyounce of 
bruised cardamom seeds to two pints of diluted alcohol. It is 
an elegant bitter, much used to improve the tone of the stomach 
in dyspepsia, and in persons worn out by habitual di'unkenness 
and debauch. Dose, f5i-f5U- 

ExTRACTUM Genti^n^. U. S. Extract of Gentian, prepared 
by evaporating a strong cold infusion to the proper consistence, 
is of a dark-brown color, inodorous, and has a very bitter taste. 
Dose, from 10 to 30 grains. It is generally used as an excipient 
to other tonic medicines. 

ExTRACTUM GENTiANiE Fluidum. TJ. S. Fluid Extract of 
Gentian is a concentrated tincture, possessing all the sensible 
and medicinal properties of the root. Dose, 10 to 30 or 40 drops. 

CALTJMBA. U. S. Columho. 

The ROOT of Cocculus palmatus, a climbing plant, with a fleshy, 
perennial root, native of Mozambique, on the southeastern coast 
of Africa. The roots are dug up during the dry season, the off- 
sets separated, cut into slices, strung on cords, and dried in the 
shade. 

Properties. Columbo as found in the shops is in flat, circular 
pieces, from the eighth of an inch to an inch in thickness. The 
cortical portion is externally of a brown, wrinkled appearance, 
internally of a greenish-yellow color. The Internal or medullary 
part is light, spongy, of a yellowish-green color, and more or less 



62 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

shrunken aspect, frequently marked with concentric and radiating 
lines. When good it breaks with a starchy fracture, is bright 
and solid, and affords a powder of a greenish-yellow tinge, with a 
somewhat aromatic but exceedingly bitter taste. It is very liable 
to decay, and is much worm-eaten. Water and alcohol extract its 
medicinal virtues. Columbo contains a bitter, cry stalliz able prin- 
ciple, called calumhin, an alkaloid, which corresponds in compo- 
sition and chemical relations with berberina, united with an acid, 
calumbic acid, and a large proportion of starch. This latter con- 
stitutes about one-third of its weight. 

It is often adulterated with some species of bryony and with 
the Frasera, or American columbo ; the former may be detected 
by not striking a blue color with iodine, and the latter by giving 
no precipitate with the infusion of galls, and a black one with the 
sesquichloride of iron. 

Effects and Uses. It is an excellent mild tonic and stomachic. 
As it is free from any astringency or unpleasant taste, and gen- 
erally agrees well with the stomach, it is adapted as a remedy in 
simple dyspepsia, and in convalescence, especially where the 
alimentary canal is enfeebled. It also proves useful in sympa- 
thetic vomitings, particularly in that of pregnancy. Dose of the 
powder, 10 to 30 grains ; it is best given in infusion, or the tinc- 
ture may be added to tonic mixtures. 

Infusum Calumb^. U. S. Infusion of Columbo (half a troy- 
ounce to a pint of water). The cold infusion is preferred, and it 
should be freshly prepared, as it rapidly decomposes in conse- 
quence of the large proportion of starch it contains. 

TiNCTURA Calumet. U. S. Tincture of Columbo (four troy- 
ounces to two pints of diluted alcohol). Dose, f5i to fjij. 

Frasera. U. S. Secondary. American Columbo. The root 
of the Frasera Walteri, or Frasera Carolinensis, an indigenous 
plant, growing abundantly in the southern and western portions 
of the United States. The root is cut into slices like that of 
columbo and dried. It is distinguished from the genuine by the 
greater uniformity of its internal structure, the absence of concen- 
tric and radiating lines, and by affording a dark precipitate with 
the salts of iron, showing that it contains tannin. When fresh it 
acts as an emetic and cathartic, in this respect resembling most of 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 63 

our mdigenous tonics. When carefully dried it is a mild tonic, 
much used in the form of infusion in domestic practice. 

COPTIS. U. S. Goldthread. 

The ROOT of Coptis trifolia, a beautiful little evergreen, grow- 
ing in swamps and boggy woods in the northern parts of the 
IJnited States. It has small, creeping, perennial rhizomata, of a 
bright-yellow color, running in every direction ; these should be 
gathered in the autumn. 

Properties. These roots, as dried and found in the market, are 
in loosely matted masses, frequently mixed with the leaves and 
stems of the plant, without odor, and of a purely bitter taste, 
without astringency. It imparts its virtues to water and alcohol. 

Effects and Uses. Goldthread is a pure bitter tonic, some- 
what resembling quassia in its effects, but more acceptable to the 
stomach, and is adapted to all cases in which this class of reme- 
dies is indicated. It is much used in localities where it abounds 
as a local application in aphthous and other ulcerations of the 
mouth, and as a gargle in throat affections. It may be given in 
substance or infusion. Dose, from 10 to 30 grains. 

SABBATIA. U. S. American Centaury. 

The HERB of Sdbhatia angularis, a small plant growing in 
meadow-grounds in most parts of the United States. The whole 
plant has a very bitter taste, with a slight aromatic flavor, and 
yields its virtues to water and alcohol. 

It possesses the tonic properties of the simple bitters, and is 
much employed as a domestic remedy in the milder grades of 
intermittent and remittent fever, in the form of cold infusion made 
with an ounce of the root to a pint of boiling water. 

"Various other plants possess analogous properties, and may be 
used for the same purposes, and in the same manner. 

Xanthorrhiza. Yellow-root. The root of Xanthorrhiza apii- 
folia. 

Chiretta. The herb and root of Agathotes Ghirayta. 



64 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

BITTEES WITH PECULIAE PEOPEETIES. 

These, besides their tonic properties, possess peculiar virtues 
due to some proximate vegetable principle which somewhat modi- 
fies their action. They have all more or less curative power in ' 
certain diseases, as ague and other periodic disorders, especially 
those caused by marsh miasm ; and hence are sometimes called 
antiperiodics. 

CINCHONA. U. S. Peruvian Bark. 

The BARK of different species of Cinchona, an extensive genus, 
growing at various elevations on the Andes, from 11° N. latitude 
to 20° S. latitude. The whole species are either tall shrubs or con- 
siderable foi'est trees, commonly evergreen, and of great beauty 
both in foliage and in flower. Much confusion has existed among 
botanists in arranging the different species, partly owing to the 
foliage and characters, varying according to the elevation, climate, 
soil, and various other circumstances in the growth of individual 
plants. 

The bark is collected during the dry season by natives, who 
pursue this occupation as their trade. The bark of both stem and 
branches is peeled off, and dried with great care, so as to preserve 
its bright color, and prevent deterioration. The larger and 
thicker barks form flat pieces, while the smaller curl into quills, 
varying in size according to the age and size of the branch from 
which taken. It is then made into bundles, and conveyed to the 
coast, where it is packed into chests, or in seroons, and exported. 

History. Cinchona was so named in compliment to the 
Countess of Cinchon, the wife of the then viceroy of Peru, who was 
cured of ague by it, and brought some of it to Europe in 1640. 
For some time after its introduction into Spain the Jesuits were 
supplied by their brethren in Peru, and kept the secret of its origin 
to themselves, but did much to extend its fame throughout 
Europe, whence it was called Jesuifs powder, Fulvis Fatrum, 
etc. ISTot long afterward the secret was discovered by an English- 
man named Talbot, who, after curing many persons of rank, sold 
it, about the year 1679, to the government, which divulged its 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 65 

true source. Since that time its estimation has continued with 
little and only temporary diminution, until at present it is one of 
the most extensively used articles of the Materia Medica. 

Classification. The varieties of the Peruvian bark are exceed- 
ingly numerous, and different plans have been devised to distin- 
guish them ; some founded on their botanical characters ; some 
on their chemical composition, and others on their physical char- 
acters. The best arrangement for practical purposes, and the one 
adopted by the various pharmacopoeias, is that founded on their 
difference of color. Those brought from the Pacific coast of 
South America, constituting the officinal barks, are accordingly 
divided into the Pale bark, the Yellow hark, and the Red hark. 

Cinchona Pallida. U. S. Pale hark is generally found in 
the market in the form of quilled or cylindrical pieces, from six to 
fifteen inches in length, and from two lines to an inch in diameter. 
The quills are simple or double. Externally rough, marked by 
transverse cracks and fissures, and covered with a grayish-brown 
epidermis, sometimes diversified with small, whitish, and ash- 
colored lichens. The inner surface is smooth and uniform, of a 
pale, cinnamon-brown color, varying somewhat in the different 
varieties. It has a slightly fibrous fracture, and yields a powder 
of a grayish-fawn color, which has an agreeable aromatic odor, 
and an acidulous, slightly astringent, and bitter taste. There are 
several varieties of the pale bark, obtained from different sources, 
and differing more or less in properties. The most esteemed are 
the Loxa hark, so called from the province from which it comes ; 
and the Lima or Huanuco hark, which is obtained from around 
Huanuco, and is exported from Lima. The Loxa bark, the 
finest specimens of which are called Crown hark, is derived from 
the C. Condaminea, a small tree growing on the declivities of 
the mountains in the neighborhood of Loxa. The Lima is de- 
rived from the C. Micraniha, a large forest tree inhabiting the 
high, cool, and wooded mountains of Peru. The pale barks are 
characterized by containing a much larger proportion of cinchona 
than of quinia, and their infusion does not yield a precipitate 
with the sulphate of soda. 

Cinchona Flava. U. S. Yelloiv hark is known commer- 
cially as Calisaya hark, from the name of the province in Boli- 

5 



66 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

via where it is collected. It is derived from the G. Calisaya, 
a lofty tree, with a trunk often two feet or more in diameter, 
inhabiting cold, elevated situations in the Andes in Bolivia, and 
the southernmost part of Peru. It is met with in quills or flat 
pieces, according as it is derived from the smaller branches or 
from the larger stems or trunk. The quilled {Calisaya arrolada 
of the natives) is single, and clothed with the epidermis, and is in 
pieces from three inches to two feet in length, from a quarter of an 
inch to two or three inches in diameter, and of equally variable 
thickness. It is distinguished from the pale bark by being gen- 
erally larger and thicker, by the brownish color of the epidermis, 
and by its more fibrous texture. The flat ( Calisaya plancha) is 
in pieces of various sizes, either quite flat or slightly curved, and 
generally destitute of epidermis. It is thicker than the quilled, 
more fibrous in its texture, and of a more uniform fracture. Both 
sorts present a uniform, smooth surface, with longitudinal fibres 
closely compressed. It breaks with a close, fibrous, and splintery 
fracture, and yields an orange-yellow powder, which has a faint 
aromatic odor, and a very bitter taste, with little astringency. 
It is characterized by containing a large proportion of quinia, 
with very little cinchonia ; its infusion affords a precipitate with 
the sulphate of soda. 

Cinchona Rubra. XJ. S. JRed bark is derived from the C. suc- 
ciruhra and other undetermined species of cinchona. It is col- 
lected on the western slopes of Chimborazo, and is imported from 
Guayaquil and Lima in chests. It comes in quilled and flat 
pieces, which are derived from different parts of the same tree. 
The quills are of various lengths and sizes, sometimes rolled, or 
partially so, as if they had been taken from half the circumference 
of the branch; while the flat pieces are occasionally very large 
and thick, as if derived from the trunk of the tree. Both sorts 
are covered with a rough, reddish-brown epidermis, wrinkled 
longitudinally, and in the thicker pieces marked with furrows. 
The inner surface of the small quills is uniform and delicately 
fibrous, but becomes more fibrous and uneven in the larger ; and 
in the flat is very irregular and splintery. It affords a powder 
of a faint, brownish-red color, and has a feeble, aromatic, some- 
what earthy odor, and a bitter, astringent, slightly aromatic taste. 



GENERAL RE3IEDIES.— TONICS. 67 

It is chemically distinguished by containing considerable quan- 
tities of both quinia and cinchonia 

Under the name of Carthageyia or non-officinal barks are 
classed all the cinchona barks brought from the Northern At- 
lantic ports of South America. At one time these were consid- 
ered very inferior, but the deficient supply, and consequent high 
price of the officinal varieties, has made a demand for these barks. 
Most of them are characterized by having a soft, whitish, or yel- 
lowish-white, micaceous epidermis, which may be easily scraped 
by the nail. In their general properties they bear some resem- 
blance to the Calisaya, and are called according to the vicinity in 
w^hich they are collected, or the particular port from which shipped. 
The principal varieties are the Hard Carthagena bark, some- 
times called Santa Martha hark, which occurs in quilled and 
flat pieces; the Fibrous Carthagena or Bogota hark, which 
comes in single or double quills, or half rolled pieces; and the 
Hard Pitaya bark, usually found in small, irregular pieces. 
These all contain the alkaloids in greater or less proportions, but 
yield more cinchonidia and quinidia than the Calisaya. 

Besides the foregoing, there are other varieties of bark met 
with in commerce, which are called the false cinchona barks, but 
which differ from the genuine materially both in chemical compo- 
sition and medicinal virtues. They are distinguished from the 
true Peruvian bark by the absence of its peculiar alkaloids. 

Chemical Composition. The cinchona barks contain the alka- 
loids quinia and cinchonia, quinidia and cinchonidia, united with 
kinic and kinovic acids, a variety of tannin, cinchonic red, a pecu- 
liar yellow coloring matter, fatty matter, starch, gum, ligneous 
fibre, and a trace of volatile oil. The proportion of these ingre- 
dients differs remarkably in the various kinds of bark. Gum, 
which abounds in the pale, is deficient in the yellow and red. 
The volatile oil is the odorous principle ; it is obtained by distil- 
lation with water, and is of a thick consistence, with an acrid, 
bitterish taste, and the peculiar odor of bark. The cinchonic red 
is most abundant in the red bark, and is an inodorous, insipid, 
reddish-brown substance, nearly insoluble in water, but readily so 
in alcohol. Acids promote its solution in water. The tannic 
acid (cincho-tannic acid) is of a reddish-brown color, soluble in 



68 MATERIA 311! Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

water and alcohol, and possesses all the properties of the gallo- 
tannic acid, from which it differs in yielding a green color with 
the salts of the peroxide of iron, and in the facility with which 
it absorbs the oxygen of the air, forming cinchonic red. The 
yelloxo coloring matter has little taste, is soluble in water, alco- 
hol, and ether. The most important ingredients are the alka- 
loids, and the acids, kinic and kinovic, with which they are asso- 
ciated. Kinic acid, sometimes called cinchonic or quinic acid, 
exists in all the barks in combination with the alkaloids and with 
lime. It is in the form of a thick, syrupy liquid, but may with 
difficulty be crystallized from its aqueous solution in hard, trans- 
parent prisms, with rhombic bases. It has an acid taste, is solu- 
ble in water and alcohol, and resembles acetic acid in its general 
properties. Kinovic acid {kinovic hitter) also exists in a greater 
or less proportion in all the barks in combination with lime. It 
is a white, amorphous, very bitter substance, almost insoluble in 
water, but readily dissolved by alcohol and ether. 

QuiNiA. Quinine (C^gllj^N^O^) was discovered in 1820 by 
Pelletier and Caventou, and is found in greatest abundance in the 
yellow or Calisaya bark. It may be obtained by boiling the 
powdered bark in water, acidulated with muriatic or sulphuric 
acid, and precipitating with an excess of lime. The impure 
quinia is separated from the Lime by digestion in alcohol, which 
dissolves the former, and precipitates it on evaporation. It may 
be purified by dissolving in dilute sulphuric acid, filtering the so- 
lution through animal charcoal, precipitating with ammonia, and 
collecting and drying the precipitate. It is usually in the form 
of a whitish, porous mass, but may with care be crystallized 
from its alcoholic solution in silky needles. It is soluble in 400 
parts of cold, and 250 of boiling water, is very soluble in alcohol 
and ether, and is dissolved by the fixed and volatile oils. It is 
inodorous, very bitter, and fusible at about 300° P. It possesses 
alkaline properties, and forms salts with acids, which are readily 
crystal) izable, very bitter, and have a pearly aspect. 

Quinia and its salts may be distinguished from the other vege- 
table alkaloids by the beautiful emerald-green color which re- 
sults when the solution is treated first with chlorine, and then 
with ammonia. 



GENERAL REMEDIES— TONICS. 69 

CiNCHONiA. Ginchonine (C^gHj^N^Oj) was obtained in 1810, 
and is found in greatest abundance in the pale bark, from which 
it may be procured by a process similar to that for obtaining 
quinia. It is also obtained by precipitating the mother-water 
left after obtaining the sulphate of quinia, washing and drying 
the precipitate. "When pure it is a white, inodorous substance, 
crystallizing with facility in four-sided oblique prisms from its 
alcoholic solution ; its taste is bitter, though less so than that of 
quinia. It is also less soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. It 
is distinguished from quinia by being almost insoluble in ether, 
and by giving a white precipitate when ammonia is added to its 
solution in chlorine water. It unites with acids, forming crystal- 
lizable salts. 

QuiNiDiA. Quinidine is an alkaloid isomeric with quinia, and 
like that substance has a bitter taste, though less intense in de-, 
gree. It differs from quinia, in being much less soluble in ether, 
and in turning polarized light to the right ; while quinia turns it 
to the left. It readily crystallizes from its alcoholic and ethereal 
solutions in colorless, hard prisms, with a vitreous lustre, and 
forms salts, which are more soluble in water than those of quinia. 

CiNCHONiDiA. Cinchonidine is isomeric with cinchonia, from 
which it differs in being more soluble in ether, and in producing 
deviation to the left in its influence on polarized light ; cinchonia 
producing deviation to the right. 

Commercial Quinidia, in which the two alkaloids quinidia and 
cinchonidia exist conjointly, occurs in hard, shining, colorless 
crystals, which yield on pulverization a snow-white powder. It 
has a bitter taste, and forms salts, which are crystallizable and 
soluble in water. When treated first with chlorine and then 
with ammonia, it does not, like quinia, yield a green color, nor 
like cinchonia, a white one, but remains unaffected. 

The medicinal value of the different varieties of the cinchona 
barks is determined by the quantity of the alkaloids, especially 
of quinia, they contain. It is almost impossible to do this with 
accuracy, as the quantity is by no means uniform in different 
specimens of the same variety ; the best bark, however, is that 
which throws down the most copious precipitate with the infu- 
sion of galls. The quantity varies from 5 per cent, in the finest 



10 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

large quilled Calisaya, 4 per cent, in the finest red bark, and 
from 2 to 3 per cent, in the fibrous Carthagena bark, down to a 
mere trace in the inferior barks. 

Physiological Effects. The cinchona barks are astringent and 
eminently tonic, and when administered in certain states of dis- 
ease, antiperiodic. The alkaloids are devoid of astringency, but 
possess the other properties of the bark in a concentrated degree, 
and since their discovery have been in a great measure substi- 
tuted for it. In small doses it improves the appetite, and pro- 
motes the digestive powers, without producing any well-marked, 
sensible effects on the system, with the exception perhaps of 
slight arterial excitement. In larger or long-continued doses, it 
causes headache, deafness, ringing in the ears, and other symp- 
toms, -which indicate that its physiological effects are produced 
upon the nervous system, and are not due to its tonic action. 
Its modus operandi as an antiperiodic is enveloped in consider- 
able doubt and obscurity, and many theories have been proposed 
to account for it. Some attribute to it a sedative, others a stimu- 
lant, acti6n upon the efferent nerves of the sympathetic system; 
while others contend that it changes the constitution of the blood, 
acting upon it in the same manner as any other poisonous agent. 
It appears by some peculiar power to break up a train of morbid 
actions going on in the system during the intervals of periodic 
disorders, which interrupts the progress of the disease, and pre- 
vents its return. 

Therapeutical Application. As a tonic its employment is in- 
dicated in all cases of debility in which a permanent corroborant 
effect is desired; provided there is no tendency to inflammation or 
active hemorrhage, and the stomach and bowels are not in an ir- 
ritable condition. It is peculiarly serviceable in those forms of 
debility with great laxity of the solids, which depend on, or are 
attended with, profuse discharge of the secretions. In convales- 
cence from acute diseases the preparations of cinchona are among 
our most efficient tonics, but must be used with caution, as any 
over-excitement is apt to cause a recurrence of the febrile or in- 
flammatory symptoms. 

But it is as an antiperiodic that bark displays its most ex- 
traordinary powers. In all febrile diseases of an intermittent or 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. tl 

remittent type it proves uniformly successful. It is best given 
in full doses, or in divided doses during the intermission; but, if 
necessary, may also be give* during the hot stage of fever, with 
safety, and often with advantage. Any irritability of the stomach, 
venous congestions, or constipation of the bowels, should be pre- 
viously removed by appropriate treatment. In the intermittents 
of the Southern States it is very common to rely on one large 
dose given a short time previous to the access of the paroxysm, 
but the same object may be attained by resorting to more moder- 
ate doses, frequently repeated, without running the risk of its 
oppressing or irritating the stomach, or of its dangerous influence 
upon the brain and nervous system. There has also been a dif- 
ference of opinion as to whether quinine should be administered 
in a complicated intermittent, during the continuance of any in- 
flammation. As a general rule in these cases, whenever the in- 
termission is complete, it may be given without hesitation, and 
it should be conjoined with remedies calculated to reduce the in- 
flammation. If complications of any important viscera, particu- 
larly of the brain, exist, it must be used, if at all, Avith great cau- 
tion, and its effects carefully watched. It also possesses great 
powers as a prophylactic against malarious diseases, and may be 
employed with safety and advantage by healthy persons exposed 
to malarial influences. 

In neuralgia and rheumatism, in fact in any disease assuming 
a periodical type or chai'acter, particularly if there be reason to 
suspect a malarious origin or influence, it may be I'esorted to, 
and will often prove efficacious, even when circumstances would 
warrant some other form of treatment. 

Its topical eifects depend on the tannic acid which it contains; 
and as many vegetable substances contain this in a much larger 
proportion, and exceed it in astringency, it is but little used. It 
is sometimes, however, used as an astringent and antiseptic ap- 
plication to unhealthy ulcers, and, in the form of infusion or de- 
coction, as a gargle in putrid sore-throat. Powdered bark is 
useful as a dentifnce in spongy conditions of the gums. 

Administration. The dose of the powder as a tonic is from 
10 to 30 grains ; as an antiperiodic, a drachm, to be repeated 
more or less frequently, according to circumstances. It is now 



12 MATERIA ME DIG A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

seldom administered in the form of powder, on account of its 
disagreeable taste, and its tendency to cause nausea and vomit- 
ing. The sulphate of quinia has almost entirely superseded it 
as an antiperiodic ; but some of the various preparations of the 
bark itself is preferred by many when its peculiar influence as a 
tonic is desired. The following are the officinal preparations : 

Infusum Cinchona Flav^. U. S. Infusion of Yellow Bark. 
Inpusum CiNCHONiE RuBR^. TJ. S. Infusion of Bed Bark. 
These are prepared by displacement with a troyounce of bark, 
and a pint of water acidulated with one drachm of aromatic sul- 
phuric acid. They are elegant and efficient preparations, and 
may be advantageously employed in all cases which require 
tonic treatment without the full powers of the bark. Dose, f^i 
to f5ij. 

Decoctum Cinchona Flav^. TJ. S. Decoction of Yellow 
Bark. Decoctum Cinchona Rubr^. TJ. S. Decoction of Bed 
Bark. These decoctions are prepared by boiling a troyounce of 
the bruised bark in a pint of water for fifteen minutes, straining, 
and adding water sufficient to make a pint. The virtues of the 
cinchona are impaired by long boiling, and hence these prepara- 
tions are not much used. 

TiNCTURA Cinchona. TJ. S. Tincture of Peruvian Bark 
prepared by displacement (six troyounces of yellow bark and 
two pints of diluted alcohol) is seldom used except as an adjunct 
to the infusion or decoction of bark. 

TiNCTURA Cinchona Composita. TJ. S. Compound Tincture 
of Peruvian Bark, commonly known as Huxhani's tincture of 
hark, is made by maceration and percolation (four troyounces red 
cinchona, three troyounces bitter orange peel, three hundred and 
sixty grains serpentaria, and one hundred and twenty grains of 
saffron and red saunders, each, in two and a half pints of diluted 
alcohol). It is an excellent stomachic cordial, and may be given 
in doses of from f5i to f5iv. 

ExTRACTUM CiNCHONiE. U. S. Extract of Peruvian Bark is 
prepared from the yellow or Calisaya bark by first extracting 
the virtues of the bark by alcohol, and afterward by water ; 
evaporating the tincture and infusion thus obtained, separately, 
to the consistence of honey, then mixing and evaporating. Dose, 
10 to 30 grains. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 13 

ExTRACTUM Cinchona Fluidum. TJ. S. Fluid Extract of 
Peruvian Bark is a highly concentrated infusion of yellow bark 
preserved by sugar. It is prepared by percolating sixteen troy- 
ounces of bark with four pints of diluted alcohol, evaporating by 
means of a water-bath to two pints, adding twenty troyounces of 
sugar, evaporating again to two pints, and straining while hot. 
The dose, equivalent to a drachm of the bark, is f 5ij. 

Besides these there are many unofficinal preparations of bark, 
made with different menstrua, flavored and sweetened to suit 
various tastes. Of these the Elixir Calisayse is an elegant 
aromatic tonic, and is much used, either alone or as an adjuvant 
of other medicines. 

QuiNiiB Sulphas. TJ. S. Sulphate of Quinia is the most 
commonly employed of all the preparations obtained from the 
cinchona barks. Its mode of preparation has been explained 
under the head of quinia. It was formerly obtained exclusively 
from the yellow bark, but the monopoly in this bark, and its 
high price, has compelled the manufacturer to procure it from 
the inferior but cheaper Carthageua barks. It occurs in snow- 
white, feathery crystals, much interlaced, or grouped in starlike 
tufts, odorless, and of an intensely bitter taste. It is very 
slightly soluble in cold, more so in boiling, water ; soluble in 
sixty parts of alcohol ; at 212° F. it loses its water, and at 240° 
melts like wax, and at a more elevated temperature is dissipated. 
The ofl&cinal salt is a disulphate, consisting of two equivalents 
of base to one of acid ; with an additional equivalent of sulphuric 
acid it forms a neutral sulphate, which is much more soluble. 

Owing to its high price it is often adulterated with sulphate 
of lime and other earthy and alkaline salts, gum, starch, fatty 
matter, sugar, salicine, and various other substances. Mineral 
substances remain behind when the salt is exposed to a red beat; 
gum and starch are left behind by alcohol, and fatty matters by 
water acidulated with sulphuric acid. Sugar maybe recognized 
by its sweet taste when the quinia is precipitated from solution 
by carbonate of potassa, and salicine by the red color it gives 
with sulphuric acid. 

Sulphate of quinia produces all the effects of the bark on the 
system, and is preferred on account of its smallness of bulk, its 



74 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

certainty and uniformitj of dose, and its freedom from offensive 
qualities, except bitterness. Twelve grains are generally con- 
sidered equivalent to an ounce of good bark. The dose varies 
according to the condition of the patient, and the object to be 
accomplished. As a tonic simply, one grain repeated two or 
three times a day ; as an antiperiodic, from ten to twenty grains 
may be given either at once or in divided doses, according to the 
condition of the stomach, or the length of the paroxysm. The 
quantity required is very different in different individuals ; some 
are very easily affected by small doses, as shown by the ringing 
in the ears ; while in others much larger doses are required to 
produce the same effect. It may be administered in the form of 
pill, or in solution with an acid, or simply suspended in water by 
the intervention of syrup or mucilage. When from any cause it 
is impossible to administer it by the stomach, it may be given 
with good effect by enema, in two or three ounces of any bland 
fluid ; or it may be employed endermically, by sprinkling it, diluted 
with gum arable, upon a surface previously denuded of the cuticle. 
Advantage sometimes results from combining it with other medi- 
cines. Opium adds to its antiperiodic powers ; while aroraatics 
and gastric stimulants may be added in cases attended with torpor 
of the stomach. 

QuiNi^ Yalerianas. U. S. Valerianate of Quinine is made 
by dissolving freshly precipitated quinia in diluted valerianic 
acid, heated to near the boiling point, and crystallizing by cool- 
ing. It is a colorless or white salt, crystallizing in rhomboidal 
plates, and has the peculiar repulsive odor of valerian, with the 
bitter taste of the quinia. It combines the tonic properties of 
the quinia with the antispasmodic effects of the valerian, and is 
useful in nervous diseases attended with debility. Dose, 1 to 5 
grains. 

Besides the sulphate and valerianate, other unofficinal salts of 
quinia have been employed, but they possess no advantage over 
the sulphate. The phosphate, citrate, lactate, acetate, and mu- 
riate may be obtained by saturating a solution of the acids 
respectively with quinia, and evaporating the solution. The 
tannate is procured by precipitating an infusion of bark, or a solu- 
tion of the sulphate, by a solution of tannic acid, washing and 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. Y5 

drying- the precipitate. It has little taste, and has been of late 
highly recommended as a remedy in the nocturnal sweats of 
phthisis and other exhausting- diseases. The Arsenite, procured 
by dissohang quinia in boiling alcohol with arsenious acid, pos- 
sesses the power of the quinia to prevent the coming paroxysm, 
and the permanent tonic influence of the arsenic to prevent a 
renewal of the attack. It also proves useful in chronic cutaneous 
diseases attended with debility. Dose, J of a grain. The chlo- 
rate, from the powerful oxidizing and general stimulating agency 
of chloric acid, and the influence of quinia as a nervine, has been 
recommended in low forms of disease, 

QuiNOiDiA. Quinoidine, more commonly known as amorphous 
quinia or precipitated extract of bark, is obtained by precipita- 
ting the mother-liquor, left after the crystallization of sulphate of 
quinia in the preparation of that salt, by carbonate of soda, 
and extracting with alcohol. It is a reddish-brown mass, of 
a resinous appearance. Pasteur found it to consist of two alka- 
loids, derived from quinia and cinchonia in the process for extract- 
ing them from the bark, and with which they are respectively 
isomeric, and named in view of their origin quinicia and cincho- 
nicia. It has strong febrifuge powers, and in doses double that 
of the sulphate of quinia is efficient in the cure of intermitte'nts. 

Cinchonia Sulphas. U. S. Sulphate of Cinchonia may be 
obtained by adding solution of soda to the mother-water left after 
crystallizing the sulphate of quinia, collecting and washing the 
precipitate with successive small portions of alcohol, to remove 
other alkaloids which may be present. The residue is then dis- 
solved in diluted sulphuric acid, boiled with animal charcoal, and 
filtered while hot, when the sulphate is deposited on cooling. It 
crj'^stallizes in white, shining, short, oblique prisms with dihedral 
summits. It melts at 212°, loses its water of crystallization at a 
somewhat higher temperature, and it is entirely dissipated at a 
red heat. It has a very bitter taste ; it is soluble in fifty-foui 
parts of cold, and much less boiling, water ; is readily soluble in 
alcohol, but very sparingly in ether. Its action on the system is 
similar to that of the sulphate of quinia, and it may be given in 
the same doses, and in the same manner. 



T6 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 



CORNUS FLORIDA. U. S. Dogwood. 

The BARK of Cornus Florida, a small tree growing in every 
part of the United States, and bearing a profusion of large, white 
flowers in May and June. The bark of the stem and branches is 
used, that of the root contains a greater amount of the active 
principles, and is preferred. 

Properties. It is in pieces of various size, more or less rolled, 
sometimes invested with a fawn-colored epidermis, sometimes 
deprived of it ; of a reddish-gray color, slight odor, astringent and 
aromatic taste, very brittle, and affording, when pulverized, a 
grayish-red powder. It yields its virtues to water and alcohol, 
and contains tannin, bitter extractive, and a peculiar principle 
termed cornine. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is a mild tonic and feeble 
astringent, possessing properties analogous to those of Peruvian 
bark, for which it has been occasionally substituted in the treat- 
ment of intermittents. Dose of the powder, from 20 to 60 grains, 
often repeated. 

Decoctum Cornus FLORiDiE. U. S. Decoction of Dogwood, 
prepared by boiling a troyounce of dogwood bark in a pint of 
water. Dose, f^ij. 

The bark of Cornus sericea, swamp dogwood, and G. circi- 
nata, round-leaved dogwood, possesses the same properties, and 
may be substituted for the officinal. 

Salix. U. S. Secondary. Willow. The bark of Salix alba, the 
European or white willow. The natural order Salicacese em- 
braces a very large genus, growing in the temperate regions of 
both hemisphereSjand used for their therapeutic virtues at a very 
early period. The bark of the S. alba only is used in medicine. 
When dried it is usually in rolled pieces, is fibrous, somewhat 
flexible, and difficult to pulverize ; it has a slight aromatic odor, 
and a bitter, astringent, but peculiar taste, which it jields to water. 

It contains tannin, and a crystalline principle, called salicine. 
This may be obtained by treating a boiling concentrated decoc- 
tion of the bark with oxide of lead, to remove the gum, tannin, and 
extractive matter; purifying by digestion with animal charcoal. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. tt 

evaporating, and crystallizing. When pure, it crystallizes in 
white, silky needle,s ; is inodorous, very bitter, neutral to vege- 
table colors, soluble in water and alcohol, but not in ether. It 
produces a blood-red color with sulphuric acid, by which test it 
is distinguished from quinia. 

The willow bark is tonic and astringent. At one time salicine 
was supposed to possess properties analogous to quinia, but it is 
not much used. Dose, 10 to 15 grains, repeated so that from 20 
to 40 grains maybe taken in the interval between the paroxysms 
of an intermittent. 

PRUNUS yiRGINIANA. TJ. S. Wild-Cherry Bark. 

Bark of Cerasiis serotina, a large, indigenous tree, abound- 
ing in the Middle Atlantic States, and in those bordering on the 
Ohio, The part used in medicine is the inner bark of the 
root, trunk, and branches ; the former of which is the most active, 
and always to be preferred. 

Properties. As found in the shops it is in pieces of various 
length and size, of a reddish-cinnamon color, brittle, with a red- 
dish-gray fracture, and easily pulverized, affording a fawn-colored 
powder. When fresh it has an odor resembling that of peach 
leaves, a bitter and aromatic taste, which it loses by long keep- 
ing and exposure to the air. It imparts its virtues to water, but 
boiling water impairs its medicinal virtues, in consequence of the 
chemical changes effected by heat, and the volatilization of its 
active principles. It contains, besides the bitter principle, 
amygdalin and emulsin ; on macerating the bark in water, 
hydrocyanic acid is generated. This does not pre-exist in the 
bark, but is supposed to be formed by the reaction of water upon 
amygdalin and emulsin. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The wild cherry in moderate 
doses is tonic to the digestive organ s, and at the same time sedative 
to the nervous and circulatory systems. This combined action 
renders it peculiarly applicable to the treatment of cases of 
debility with impaired digestive function, and morbid irritability 
of the nervous system, in cases of hectic fever from pulmonary 
disease, and in convalescence from fevers and other acute diseases. 



78 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

In phthisis the amount of hydrocyanic developed often tends to 
abate the cough and morbid irritability present; while its tonic 
properties invigorate the stomach, and give tone to the whole 
digestive system. It has been used as a febrifuge in intermit- 
tents; and although not adapted to arrest the paroxysm, it may 
be employed successfully as a prophylactic, and during conva- 
lescence, where the disease has been arrested by quinine. Dose 
of the powder, from 30 to 60 grains ; but it is seldom used in this 
form. 

Infusum Pruni Virginians. U. S. Infusion of Wild- Cherry 
Baric (half a troyounce to a pint of cold water) has the agree- 
able bitterness and peculiar flavor of the bark, and may be given 
in doses of f^ij, repeated as often as may be necessary. 

Syrupus Pruni Virginians. U. S. Syrup of Wild- Cherry 
Bark, prepared by adding sugar to a strong infusion, has all the 
effects of the bark unimpaired by heat. It is an agreeable prep- 
aration, and may be used as a vehicle for other sedative 
medicines, or as an addition to cough mixtures. Dose, f^ss. 

ExTRACTUM Pruni Virginians Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Ex- 
tract of Wild- Cherry Bark contains the virtues of the bark in a 
concentrated, liquid form. To prepare it, all the soluble principles 
of the bark, except the emulsin, are extracted by alcohol, which is 
then distilled off, and water added to hold the amygdalin in solu- 
tion. An emulsion of sweet almonds is then added, which 
furnishes all the conditions requisite to the generation of the 
hydrocyanic acid. One fluidounce represents the virtues of half 
an ounce of the bark. Dose, f5i-f3ij- 



STIMULATING TONICS. 

These are distinguished by possessing a certain degree of 
stimulant as well as tonic power, which they owe to the union 
of- a bitter principle with a volatile oil. In virtue of these con- 
stituents they have a double action: in moderate doses improv- 
ing the appetite and digestive functions; in larger doses, espe- 
cially in warm infusion, promoting the secretions, particularly 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. *l^ 

those from the skin and kidneys ; and in still larger doses acting 
as emeto cathartics. 

EUPATORIUM. U. S. Tlwroughwort. 

The HERB of EujMtorium perfoliatum, an indigenous plant, 
commonly known as Boneset, Indian Sage or Vegetable Antimony. 
It is a small shrubby plant, with many erect, hairy, herbaceous 
stems, simple at the base, branched above, with opposite, oblong, 
tapering, serrated leaves, and numerous white flowers, which 
bloom in August, and continue to blossom till October. 

Properties. The whole plant is used, and is generally found 
in the shops in packages put up by the Shakers. It is intensely 
bitter, with a peculiar flavor, without astringency or acrimony, 
and yields all its sensible and medicinal properties to water and 
alcohol. It contains a bitter proximate principle, with a large 
amount of resinous matter, gum, etc. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This plant has a diversity of 
properties, and will fulfill a variety of indications according to 
the dose and mode of exhibition, being a stimulating tonic, dia- 
phoretic, or emetic. In cold infusion it is well adapted to those 
cases of dyspepsia and want of tone in the system requiring the 
use of bitter tonics. In warm decoction, in small doses, it is 
an excellent stimulating diaphoretic in catarrh and influenza, 
inducing a healthy and free perspiration, and replacing the chilly 
or febrile sensations with a. uniform and healthy glow. In large 
doses it acts as an emetic. 

Inpusum Eupatorii. U. S. Infusion of Tlwroughwort is pre- 
pared by macerating a troyounce of the dried herb in a pint of 
boiling water. Dose, as a tonic, foi-fo'j> taken cold, three or four 
times a day ; as a diaphoretic or emetic, the warm infusion should 
be drank freely. 

ANTHEMIS. U. S. Chamomile. 

The FLOWERS of Anthemis nohilis, a small, trailing, herbaceous 
plant, native of Europe, but largely cultivated in this country 
for medicinal purposes. It has a round, slender, stem, from six 
to twelve inches long, with bipinnate leaves, and small, acute. 



80 3IATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

thread-like leaflets, divided into three segments. The flowers are 
solitary, with a bright-yellow, convex disk, surrounded by white 
rays, which become more numerous by cultivation, and gradually 
take the place of the yellow disk florets. These are collected 
before fully blown. 

Properties. As found in the shops they are almost spherical, 
of a dull-white color, a peculiar fragrant odor, and a bitter aro- 
matic taste. They yield their virtues to water and alcohol. 
They contain tannin, a peculiar bitter extractive, and a volatile 
oil. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Chamomile is a mild aromatic 
and bitter tonic in small doses, but acts as an emetic in larger 
ones. In cold infusion it is very useful in cases of enfeebled di- 
gestion, and especially in general debility, with languid appetite, 
which so often attends convalescence from acute diseases. The 
tepid infusion is often given to promote the operation of emetics, 
or to assist the stomach in relieving itself when oppressed by its 
contents. It was formerly in much repute in intermittents, but 
is now never used. Externally, the flowers are sometimes ap- 
plied in the form of fomentation in inflammations, and as a gentle 
excitant to ill-conditioned ulcers. Dose of the powder, from 30 
to 60 grains ; the infusion is generally preferred. 

Infusum Anthemidis. U. S. Infusion of Chamomile is made 
with half an ounce of chamomile to a pint of boiling water. 
Dose, as a tonic, a wineglassful or two before meals ; as an emetic 
it should be administered tepid, and in large draughts. 

SERPENTARIA. U. S. Virginia Snakeroot. 

The EGOT of Aristolochia Serpentaria, A. reticulata, and 
perhaps of other species of Aristolochia, herbaceous or shrubby 
plants growing abundantly in rich, shady woods, throughout 
the Middle and Southern States. The A. Serpentaria, the most 
common variety, has a perennial root, composed of numerous 
slender fibres arising from a short, knotty head, sending up a num- 
ber of simple, or slightly branching, stems, with alternate, oblong, 
cordate leaves of a pale yellowish-green color, and purple, tubular 
flowers, proceeding from joints near the root. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 81 

Properties. The root, as found in the shops, consists of brittle 
or yellowish-brown tufts of slender, long, matted fibres, attached 
to a short knotty head, possessing an agreeable, camphoraceous, 
aromatic odor, and a pungent bitter taste. It affords a grayish- 
brown powder, and yields its virtues to w^ater and alcohol. It 
contains a volatile oil, extractive, resin, and a yellow bitter prin- 
ciple. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Serpentaria is a stimulating 
tonic, combining the virtues of the simple bitters and the aro- 
matic class of stimulants, with diaphoretic or diuretic proper- 
ties, according to the mode of administration. It is admirably 
adapted to those conditions of the system attendant on, or fol- 
lowing, febrile diseases, w^here the system requires support, and 
where it is desirable to promote a tendency to the skin. In the 
exanthemata, w^here the eruption is tardy in its appearance, or 
has been repelled, it is useful in restoring the functions of the 
organs. Before the discovery and isolation of quinine it was 
generally employed as a prophylactic and remedy for intermit- 
tents, and is still used extensively in domestic practice. Dose of 
the powdered root, 10 to 30 grains; but the infusion is almost 
always preferred. 

Inpusum SerpentarIjE. U. S. Infusion of Serpentaria is 
made by percolation (half a troyounce to one pint water). Dose, 
fsitof^ij. 

TiNCTURA Serpentaria. U. S. Tincture of Virginia Snake- 
root (four troyounces to two pints diluted alcohol) is sometimes 
added to bitter infusions. Dose, f 5i to fjij- 

ExTRACTUM Serpentaria Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract 
of Serpentaria is a concentrated tincture, and contains all the 
virtues of the root within a small bulk. Dose, 20 to 30 minims. 

ANGUSTURA. U. S. Angustura. 

The bark of Galipea officinalis, a small tree growing in the 
warm regions of South America, principally in the district bor- 
dering on the Orinoco, and also of the G. Cusparia, a tall forest 
tree of the same region. 

Properties. It occurs in pieces of various length and size, flat 

6 



82 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

or slightly curved, more rarely quilled, covered externally with 
a grayish-yellow, soft or spongy epidermis, internally of a yel- 
lowish fawn color. It is fibrous, breaking with a compact resin- 
ous fracture, and affording a pale-yellow powder; it has a pecu- 
liar unpleasant odor, and a warm, bitter, somewhat acrid taste. 
When macerated in water, it becomes soft and tenacious. It 
contains a peculiar bitter principle, cusparin, gum, lignin, and a 
trace of volatile oil, and imparts its virtues to water and alcohol. 
It is often adulterated with the bark of some unknown species 
of Strychnos, which may be readily detected by its physical as 
well as chemical properties. The false bark is much thicker, 
harder, and more compact, has a more resinous fracture, is in- 
odorous, and intensely bitter, and when steeped in water does 
not become soft. A drop of nitric acid upon the inner surface 
produces a blood-red, and upon the external, an emerald-green 
color ; while in the true bark a dull-red color is produced by the 
acid upon both surfaces. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Angustura is an excellent 
stimulant tonic, devoid of astringency, and may be used in atonic 
dyspepsia, and in the advanced stages of diarrhoea and dysentery 
attended with great debility. It was at one time much used as 
an antiperiodic, but, in consequence of its liability to adulteratiofi, 
is now seldom or never used. ,The dose in substance is from 10 
to 30 grains. 

Infusum Angustura. U. S. Infusion of Angustura (half a 
troyounce to a pint of water). Dose, f ^ij, repeated according to 
circumstances. 

CASCARILLA. U. S. Cascarilla. 

The BARK of Croton Eleuteria, a shrub or small tree grow- 
ing in the Bahamas and other West India islands. 

Properties. It is found in the shops in short broken quills, 
having a whitish-gray epidermis, or in thin flattened pieces 
without the epidermis, generally somewhat twisted, of a reddish- 
brown color, hard and brittle, breaking with a close, compact 
fracture. It has an aromatic odor, which is much increased by 
friction, or when the bark is burned, and a warm, spicy, bitter 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 83 

tasto. It contains a bitter, crystallizable principle, cascarillin, 
and a volatile oil, and yields its properties to alcohol and par- 
tially to water. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is an aromatic and mild 
carminative tonic. It is principally used as an agreeable addi- 
tion to more powerful tonics in dyspepsia and chronic diseases 
of the bowels. Dose of the powder, 10 to 30 grains, but gener- 
ally given in infusion. 

Inpusum Cascarill^e. TJ. S. Infusion of Cascarilla, a tro j- 
ounce to a pint of boiling water. Dose, f3ij. 

MYRRH A. TJ. S. 3Iijrrh. 

The CONCRETE JUICE of Balsamodendron Myrrha, a small, 
shrubby tree, growing in Arabia. The juice exudes spontane- 
ously from the bark of the tree, and is at first of a soft, oily con- 
sistence, and of a pale-yellow color, but soon becomes hard and 
darker colored. 

Properties. The best myrrh (Turkey myrrh) is in small, 
irregular-shaped fragments or tears, or in agglutinated masses of 
various size, of a reddish-yellow color, somewhat translucent, 
having an agreeable, fragrant odor, and a bitter, aromatic taste. 
It is brittle and pulverizable, affording a powder of a light-yel- 
lowish color. It is inflammable, and is softened by heat, but does 
not melt. The? Inferior variety (East India myrrh) is much 
darker colored, more opaque, and less odorous. It contains gum, 
resin, n volatile oil, and bassoriu, and is partially soluble in water, 
alcohol, and ether. Triturated with water it forms an opaque, 
yellowish or whitish emulsion, which deposits the larger portion 
on standing. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Mjvvh is a stimulating tonic, 
in small doses promoting the appetite and aiding digestion. It 
also appears to possess the power of diminishing profuse dis- 
charges from mucous membranes, particularly from the pulmonary 
and genito-urinary system. It is accordingly used as an expec- 
torant in debilitated conditions of the system, and where there is 
a total absence of febrile and inflammatory excitement. It may 
be used in chronic catarrh, humoral asthma, phthisis, and other 



84 MATERIA ME Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

pulmonary affections in which there is excessive secretion, but a 
deficiency of power to expectorate. In amenorrhoea it is often 
combined with iron and aloes, and appears to impart to these 
medicines an activity which they do not possess when given 
singly. It is also used with advantage as a local stimulant to 
spongy gums, ulcerated throat, and foul ulcers. Dose, 10 to 
30 grains, given in powder, pill, or suspended in water. 

TiNCTUKA Myrrhs. U. S. Tincture of Myrrh (three troy- 
ounces to two pints alcohol) is seldom used internally. As a 
local application it is employed as a stimulant to foul and indo- 
lent ulcers, and diluted with water or some astringent infusion, 
as a mouth-wash in sponginess of the gums, and as a gargle in 
ulcerated sore-throat. 

The following substances possess the properties of the stimu- 
lating tonics, with a diaphoretic tendency, and may be used for 
the same purposes and in the same manner as the preceding. 

LiRiODENDRON. U. S. Secoiidm^y. Tulip-tree Bark. The 
BARK of Liriodendron tulipifera, one of. the most beautiful of 
our American forest trees. 

Magnolia. U. S. Secondary. The bark of Magnolia glauca 
and of other species of Magnolia, indigenous trees, conspicuous 
for the beauty of their foliage and the delightful odor of their 
flowers. 

Achillea. U. S. Secondary. Yarrow or Milfoil. The herb 
and FLOWERS of Achillea millefolium, a perennial plant growing 
throughout the United States. 

Angelica. U. S. Secondary. The root of Angelica Archan- 
gelica, a European plant cultivated in this country. 

Contrayerva. The root of Dorstenia Contrayerua, a plant 
growing in Mexico, South America, and the West Indies. 

Marrubium. U. S. Horehound. The herb of Marrubium 
vulgare, a perennial herbaceous plant, growing wild in Europe, 
and fully naturalized in this country. 



GENERAL REMEDIES —TONICS. 85 



AEOMATIOS. 

These, in addition to their bitter property, contain an aromatic 
principle, generally a volatile oil, which gives them a fragrant 
odor, and a pleasant spicy taste. They are used principally as 
stimulants to thegastro-intestinal canal, and many of them are in 
common use as corrigents of food which might disagree with the 
stomach. When administered in dyspeptic cases to promote di- 
gestion, they act as stomachics and cordials. When given to dis- 
pel flatus and relieve colicky pains, they are termed carminatives. 
They are extensively used as adjuvants to other medicines to 
disguise their taste and odor, and to render them more accepta- 
ble to the stomach. 

The volatile oils may be separated by distillation with water, 
and possess, in a high degree, the sensible and medical properties 
of the plant from which they are procured. They may be admin- 
istered alone upon a lump of sugar, or made into an emulsion 
with Water, sugar, or gum. The aromatic waters, so much used 
as vehicles for other medicines, are prepared by impregnating the 
water with the volatile oils by trituration with carbonate of mag- 
nesia, thus bringing them to a state of minute division, and pre- 
senting a larger surface to the action of the solvent. 

AURANTU CORTEX. U. S. Orange Peel. 

The dried outer rind of the fruit of Citrus vulgaris, the Seville 
or bitter orange, and of Citrus Aurantium, the sweet orange, 
small evergreen trees, natives of Eastern Asia, but growing 
abundantly in all tropical climates. It is usually in elliptical con- 
cavo-convex pieces, or thin |)arings, retaining more or less of the 
pithy, white substance which unites the rind with the pulp. 

Properties and Uses. It has a grateful aromatic odor, and a 
warm, bitter taste, which depends on the volatile oil contained in 
the minute vesicles. The rind of the Seville orange is much more 
bitter, and is most generally used. Both yield their virtues to 
water and alcohol. The bitter orange is a mild aromatic and 
bitter tonic ; the sweet is simply aromatic. They are employed 



86 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

in medicine principally for their agreeable flavor as an addition to 
infusions and decoctions. 

CoNPECTio AuRANTii CoRTicis. U. S. Confection of Orange 
Peel (prepared by beating together one part of peel, grated fro.m 
the fruit, and three parts of sugar, until they are thoroughly 
mixed) is used as a grateful vehicle for other medicines. 

Syrupus Aurantii Corticis. TJ. S. Syrup of Orange Peel 
is prepared by first obtaining a concentrated tincture by percola- 
tion and evaporation, and adding sugar and v^^ater to form a syrup, 
taking care to incorporate the tincture with the vsrater by means 
of carbonate of magnesia. It is employed for its agreeable flavor. 

Aqua Aurantii Florum. U. S. Orange-Floiver Water. The 
fresh flowers (Aurantii Flores, U. S.) impart to water distilled 
from them their peculiar fragrance and a bitterish aromatic taste. 
It is used on account of its agreeable odor as a vehicle, and is 
sometimes useful as a gentle antispasmodic in hysteria and 
nervous affections. The oil of neroli, distilled from the flowers, 
is much used in perfumery and in the composition of liqueurs. 

CINNAMOMUM. U. S. Cinnamon. 

The BARK of Cinnamonium Zeylanicum, a native of Ceylon 
and Java, and of Ginnamomum aromaticum, a tree of China. 
There are two varieties of cinnamon in commerce, the Ceylon and 
the Chinese. The Ceylon is obtained by the cultivation of the 
plant. It occurs in long pieces, composed of quills, the larger 
inclosing the smaller ; the finest is procured from the stalks or 
twigs, which shoot up after the tree has been cut down, and is in 
splintery rolls, very thin, — not much thicker than writing-paper, — 
of a light brownish-yellow color, smooth, and with a splintery frac- 
ture. It has an aromatic and fragrant odor, and a warm, sweetish, 
and feebly astringent taste. The inferior sorts are in coarser 
quills, of a darker brown color, and with a less agreeable odor and 
taste. 

The Chinese or cassia cinnamon is the variety generally kept 
in the shops, and is in much larger rolls, from the eighth of an 
inch to an inch in diameter, of a redder and darker color, thicker, 
rougher, and breaking with a shorter, resinous fracture, with a 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 8T 

less fragrant and delicate odor, a more pungent and astringent, 
but less pleasant, taste. Cinnamon yields its virtues wholly to 
alcohol, and less readily to water ; and contains a volatile oil, 
and a small proportion of tannin. 

Medical Properties. It is an aromatic stimulant tonic, with 
slight astringency, and is much employed as a carminative, and 
as an addition to other medicines. Dose of the powder, 10 to 20 
grains. 

Oleum Cinnamomi. U. S. Oil of Cinnamon is obtained from 
the bark of either variety, and is of a light-yellow color, becom- 
ing deeper by age, and ultimately red. It has all the cordial 
properties of cinnamon, without its astringency, and is much em- 
ployed to correct or conceal the taste of other medicines. Dose, 
1 or 2 drops. 

Aqua Cinnamomi. U. S. Cinnamon Water is made by rub- 
bing up f 5ss of the oil, with sixty grains of carbonate of magnesia, 
then with two pints of distilled water, gradually added, and after- 
ward filtering. It is much used as a vehicle for other less pleas- 
ant medicines. 

TiNCTURA Cinnamomi. U. S. Tincture of Cinnamon is pre- 
pared by percolating three troyounces of powdered cinnamon with 
a mixture of two parts of alcohol and one of water until two 
pints are obtained. Dose, fji to fjiij- 

Spiritus Cinnamomi. U. S. Spirit of Cinnamon, made by 
dissolving one part of the oil in fifteen parts of alcohol, is an 
agreeable aromatic cordial in doses of from 10 to 20 drops. 

PuLVis Aromaticus. U. S. Aromatic Poioder is prepared by 
thoroughly mixing two parts each of finely powdered cinnamon 
and ginger, with one part each of nutmeg and cardamom, and is 
an excellent aromatic addition to other medicines when given in 
the form of powder. A mixture of aromatic powders in the form 
of cataplasm, known as spice plaster, is an excellent mild rube- 
facient, and is much employed as an application to the abdomen 
in infantile colic, and in the nausea and vomiting which attend 
infantile diseases. 

CoNFECTio Aromatica. TJ. S. Aromatic Confection, made 
by rubbing together equal parts of aromatic powder and honey, 
affords a convenient means of administering the spices contained 
in it. 



MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 



CANELLA. U. S. Canella. 

The INNER BABK of Canella alba, a tall tree, native of Jamaica 
and other West India islands. The bark of the branches, which 
is preferred, is removed by an iron instrument, deprived of its 
epidermis, and dried in the shade. 

Properties and Uses. As found in the shops, it is either in 
quilled pieces, which are of a light-bufP color, pale internally, or 
in flat fragments, which are thicker and rather darker. It has a 
faint aromatic odor, and an acrid spicy taste ; is brittle, and 
affords a yellowish-white powder. It contains a volatile oil, re- 
sin, and bitter extractive, and imparts its virtues to alcohol and 
partly to water. 

It possesses the ordinary properties of the aromatics, and is sel- 
dom used, except in combination. Dose, 10 to 40 grains. It en- 
ters into the composition of the well-known Hiera picra, Pulms 
aloes et canella. 

WiNTERA. Winter^s Bark. The bark of Drimys Winteri, a 
very large tree, native of the southern parts of South America, is 
often confounded with the true canella, but differs from it in con- 
taining tannin. It may be used for the same purposes as cinna- 
mon or canella. Dose, 30 to 60 grains. 

MYRISTICA. TJ. S. Nutmeg. 

The KERNEL of the fruit of Mijristica fragrans, a native of 
the Moluccas and other neighboring islands. The tree is about 
twenty-five to thirty feet high, having some resemblance to a 
pear-tree. The fruit is round or oval, about the size of a peach, 
with a fleshy pericarp, which, when ripe, divides in the middle, 
disclosing a thin, brown shell, within which is the kernel, sur- 
rounded by a thin arillus, which is the mace of commerce. 

Properties. Nutmegs are round or oval, externally of a 
grayish-brown color, and marked by irregular furrows, internally 
of a lighter color, and traversed by reddish veins. They have a 
fragrant odor, and a warm aromatic taste, which they impart to 
alcohol, and only partially to water. They contain a volatile oil, 
obtained by distillation, and a fixed oil, procured by subjecting 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 89 

them to heat and pressure. The latter, known as oil of mace, is 
a soft, unctuous, yellowish or orange-yellow solid. 

Macis. U. S. Mace, the arillus of the fruit, is in the shape of 
a flat, irregularly slit, smooth, soft, and flexible membrane, of 
an orange-yellow color, with an odor and taste like that of nut- 
megs. It also yields a volatile oil by distillation, and a fixed oil 
by pressure. 

Properties and Uses. Both nutmegs and mace are almost 
wholly employed as a condiment for preparations of milk and 
farinaceous substances. Nutmegs possess slight narcotic prop- 
erties, which render them useful as a substitute for opium, es- 
pecially in the diarrhoea of children, when an aromatic is needed, 
and where opiates are contraindicated. Dose, 5 to 20 grains ; 
it may be reduced to powder by grating. 

Oleum Myristic^. U. S. Volatile Oil of Nutmeg is colorless, 
or of a pale-straw color, limpid, lighter than water, and soluble 
in alcohol, ether, and boiling water. It maybe used for the same 
purposes as nutmeg in the dose of 2 or B drops, but is not often 
employed. 

Spiritus Myristic^. U. S. Spirit of Nutmeg, made by dis- 
tilling two troyounces of nutmeg in eight pints of diluted alcohol 
and a pint of water to eight pints, is used as a flavoring addi- 
tion to other medicines. 

CARYOPHYLLTJS. TJ. S. Cloves. 

The UNEXPANDED FLOWERS of Caryophyllus aromaticus, a 
handsome tree, native of the Moluccas, and growing freely in all 
parts of the East and West Indies. The clove is the undevel- 
oped flower-bud, consisting of the tubular calyx, resembling a 
nail, with the unexpanded corolla, forming a small, round ball 
between its four teeth. " 

Properties and Uses. When good they are dark, heavy, and 
perfect, of a peculiar, agreeably aromatic odor, and a hot, acrid 
taste. They contain tannin, gum, extractive, and about IS 
per cent, of volatile oil. They are the most stimulating of the 
aromatics used as adjuncts to other substances, but are principally 
employed for culinary purposes. 

Ineusum Caryophylli. U. S. Infusion of Cloves, made by 



90 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

macerating one hundred and twenty grains in a pint of boiling 
water, is a warm and grateful stomachic, and is sometimes used 
to relieve nausea, flatulence, and other dyspeptic symptoms. 
Dose, f^i-f^ij. 

Oleum Carygphylli. U. S. Oil of Gloves, obtained by dis- 
tillation with water, is pale, reddish-brown, becoming darker by 
age, and heavier than water. As usually obtained, it consists of 
two oils, one heavier, the other lighter, than water, a mixture 
of the two forming the oil of commerce. Dose, 2 to 6 drops. 

PIMENTA. r. S. Pimento. 

The dried, unripe berries of Eugenia Pimenta, a tall and 
handsome evergreen tree, native of the West Indies, and grow- 
ing abundantly in the Island of Jamaica, whence it is sometimes 
called JamaAca Pepper. 

Properties and Uses. When dried the berries are round, rough, 
wrinkled, and umbilicated, rather larger than those of black pep- 
per, of a brownish color, an aromatic, agreeable odor, resembling 
a mixture of cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg (hence familiarly 
called allspice), and a warm, aromatic, pungent taste, like that 
of cloves. It is stimulant and carminative, but little used in 
medicine. Dose, from 10 to 40 grains. 

Oleum Pimento. U. S. Oil of Pimento possesses the prop- 
erties of the bei'ries, and is given for the same purposes as the 
other aromatic oils. Dose, 3 to 6 drops. 

PIPER. U. S. Black Pepper. 

The dried, unripe berries of Piper nigrum, a perennial, climb- 
ing vine, native of various parts of the East Indies, but cultivated 
in tropical countries. The berries are gathered before they are 
quite ripe, and dried in the sun, and are known as Black Pep- 
per ; if permitted to ripen, and deprived of their outer coat by 
being soaked in water, they form the White Pepper of com- 
merce. 

Properties and Uses. The dried berries are about the size of 
a pea, nearly black, and shriveled, of a peculiar aromatic odor, 
and a hot, spicy, pungent taste. They impart their properties 



GENERAL RE3IEDIES.— TONICS. 91 

to alcohol and ether, but only partially to water. They contain 
an acrid resin, a volatile oil, and a peculiar neutral crystalline 
principle, called inperine. This, when pure, is in white or yel- 
lowish-wliite, transparent, rhombic crystals, inodorous and taste- 
less, insoluble in cold water, slightly so in boiling water, and 
soluble in alcohol and ether. 

Pepper is principally employed as a condiment, but has also 
been used in medicine as a warm carminative stimulant. Exter- 
nally, ground pepper is irritant, and is occasionally added to 
sinapisms to increase their activity. Piperine has been recom- 
mended as an antiperiodic, but its powers are very feeble ; it is 
an excellent adjuvant to quinia in persons of phlegmatic tem- 
perament, in whom there is sluggish circulation and feeble 
digestion. 

Oleoresina Piperis. U. S. Oleoresin of Black Pepper, known 
as oil of black pepper, is a fluid extract made by evaporating the 
ethereal tincture. It contains the volatile oil and the resin, and 
represents the virtues of the fruit. Dose, 1 or 2 minims, given 
in emulsion or pill. 

Piper Longum. The unripe fruit of Piper longum, a na- 
tive of the East Indies and other tropical countries. They are 
cylindrical, an inch or more in length, of a dark-gray color, 
and possess the sensible and medicinal properties of the black 
pepper. 

CUBEBA. IJ. S. Cuhehs. 

The dried, unripe berries of Piper Cuheha, a climbing peren- 
nial plant, native of Java and other parts of the East Indies. 

Properties. In their appearance they resemble the common 
black pepper, with the exception of being lighter colored, and 
having a small portion of the peduncle attached to them, whence 
the name, Piper Caiidatum. Within the cortical part, which is 
hard, there is a single, loose, round seed, with a black coat, 
whitish and oleaginous within. They have a strong, peculiar, 
aromatic odor, and a warm, pungent, camphoraceous, slightly 
bitter taste, leaving a sensation of coolness on the tongue. The 
powder is of a dark color, and has an oily appearance; they 
yield their virtues to alcohol, and only partially to water. They 



92 MATERIA ME Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

contain a resin, a volatile oil, and cubebin, a substance which 
bears a close resemblance to piperine. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Cubebs possess the stimulant 
and carminative properties of the other peppers ; but they also ex- 
ercise a specific influence on the urinary organs, indicated by their 
power in arresting urethral discharges. In gonorrhoea they prove 
eminently useful if administered in the earlier stages of the disease, 
and should be given in as large doses as the stomach can bear. 
They must be used with caution, as their improper use is apt to 
create irritation in the urinary passages, and to produce swelled 
testicles. In chronic bronchitis, and other pulmonary affections, 
they exercise a beneficial effect in checking the profuse secretion, 
and giving a gentle stimulus to the system. Dose of the powder 
in gonorrhoea, from 1 to 3 drachms, repeated three or four times 
a day ; for other affections the dose may be reduced to 10 grains. 
The powder should be always prepared fresh for use, as it rapidly 
deteriorates, owing to the volatility of its oil. 

Oleum Cubebs. U. S. Oil of Cubebs, obtained by distillation, 
is transparent, and, when pure, light colored, and has the pecu- 
liar odor and taste of the berries. It is a good form of giving 
the medicine. Dose, 10 to 12 drops. 

Oleoresina Cubebs. U. S. Oleoresin of Cubebs is the ethe- 
real fluid extract. Dose, 5 to 30 minims. 

TiNCTURA Cubebs. TJ. S. (four troyounces to two pints diluted 
alcohol). Dose, f 5ss to f 5ij, or more in gonorrhoea. 

CARDAMOMUM. TJ. S. Cardamom. 

The fruit of Elettaria Cardamomum, a perennial plant growing 
abundantly in the mountainous parts of the Malabar coast. The 
seed-pods are ovate-oblong, from three to ten lines long, obscurely 
triangular, rounded at the ends, Ipngitudinally wrinkled, and of 
a buff color. These contain numerous small, angular, rough, red- 
dish-brown seeds. There are three varieties recognized in com- 
merce, called, according to their length, shorts, short-longs, and 
longs. 

Properties and Uses. Cardamom seeds have an agreeable aro- 
matic odor, and a warm, slightly pungent taste ; they contain a 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 93 

volatile and a fixed oil, coloring' matter, etc. They are princi- 
pally employed in medicine as a flavoring ingredient in various 
mixtures, and as a corrective of tonic and purgative medicines. 
Dose of powder, 5 to 20 grains. 

TiNCTURA Cardamomi. U. S. Tincture of Cardamom (four 
troyounces to two pints of diluted alcohol). 

TiNCTURA Cardamomi Composita. U. S. Compound Tinc- 
ture of Cardamom (three hundred and sixty grains cardamom, 
one hundred and twenty grains of caraway, three hundred cin- 
namon, sixty grains cochineal, percolated with diluted alcohol 
until two pints and six ounces are obtained, and adding two 
ounces of clarified honey). Both of these tinctures are agreeable 
aromatic preparations, and are perhaps more used than any of 
the aromatic tinctures. Dose, f5i-f5'j- 

ZINGIBER. U. S. Gi7iger. 

The RHizoMA of Zingiber officinale, na'.ive of the East Indies, 
but cultivated in all tropical countries. It is an annual plant, 
with a tuberous, knotty, creeping root or rhizoma, and a round, 
erect stem two or three feet high, inclosed in an imbricated, 
membranous sheathing. The fresh root is in various sized pieces, 
knotty, irregularly branched or lobed, of a light ash color exter- 
nally, yellowish-white and fleshy internally. In the young state 
these roots are preserved in sugar, forming a well-known sweet- 
meat; when old they are taken up, scalded in hot water, and 
dried, in which state they constitute the ginger of commerce, or 
Black Ginger; if they are deprived of the epidermis by scrap- 
ing, previous to being dried, they form the White or Jamaica 
Ginger. 

Properties. Black ginger is of a dirty-gray color, and rugose 
externally, yellowish-brown and stringy within. White ginger 
is whitish or pale-yellow externally, pale-bufl' within, with a 
somewhat starchy texture. They have a peculiar, rich, aromatic 
odor, and a hot, pungent, and biting taste. The powder is of a 
light yellowish-brown color, and loses its properties on long ex- 
posure. Its virtues are extracted by water and alcohol, and 
depend upon a pale-yellow, volatile oil, a soft, acrid, resinous 



94 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

matter ; besides which, it contains gum, starch, and the usual 
vegetable constituents. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Ginger is a powerful aromatic 
stimulant, increasing the tone of the digestive oi'gaas, and con- 
sequently is much employed as a condiment. In medicine it is 
principally employed to give warmth and tone to other medicines 
in atonic conditions of the stomach, and where there is flatulence 
and pain. Dose of the powder, 5 to 20 grains. 

iNrusuM ZiNGiBERis. U. S. Infusion of Ginger is made by 
infusing half a troyounce of ginger in a pint of boiling water, 
and may be given in doses of fgij. 

TiNCTURA ZiNGiBERis. XJ. S. Tincture of Ginger (eight troy- 
ounces to two pints alcohol) is much employed as a carminative 
in flatulent colic, and is an excellent remedy in the hot summer 
season, when there is strong tendency to diarrhoea. It may 
also be beneficially added to tonic and purgative infusions or 
mixtures in debilitated states of the alimentary canal. Dose, f5i. 

EXTRACTUM ZiNGiBERis Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of 
Ginger is a highly concentrated alcoholic solution of the active 
principles of ginger. Dose, 10 or 20 minims. 

Oleoresina ZiNGiBERis. U. S. Oleoresin of Ginger. Dose, 
1 minim. 

Syrupds ZiNGiBERis. U. S. Syrup of Ginger is prepared by 
mixing one part of tincture of ginger with seven parts of syrup. 
It is a convenient addition to mixtures, and is much used to im- 
part flavor to drinks, particularly to carbonic acid water. 

AsARUM. U. S. Secondary. Wild Ginger, Canada Snakeroot. 
The ROOT of Asarum Canadense, an indigenous plant. As found 
in the shops, the root is in long, more or less contorted, pieces, of 
the thickness of a pipe-stem or larger, brownish and wrinkled 
externally, whitish internally, hard and brittle, with a slightly 
bitter and. aromatic taste. It imparts its virtues to diluted alco- 
hol, and slightly to water. Its action is similar to that of 
serpentaria, and in the form of syrup it is an excellent remedy 
in obstinate colds and affections of the respiratoiy organs. 

Calamus. U. S. Secondary. Sweet Flag. The rhizoma of Aco- 
rns Calamus, an indigenous plant, growing abundantly in swamps 
and along the borders of streams. The root should be dug up 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 95 

late in the autumn and dried. As found in the shops, they are df 
various sizes; externally wrinkled, and of a yellowish-brown color; 
internally whitish, and of a spongy texture. It has a strong 
and fragrant odor, and a warm, bitterish, and pungent taste. Its 
active principles are taken up by boiling water. It possesses 
the ordinary properties of the aromatics, and is generally given 
in infusion, made in the proportion of an ounce of the root to a 
pint of boiling water. 

FCENICULUM. U. S. Fennel. 

The FRUIT of Foeniculum vulgare, an umbelliferous plant, 
native of Europe, and cultivated in this country. 

Pr^operties and Uses. Fennel seeds are of a dark-brown color, 
with an agreeable aromatic odor, and a warm, sweetish, some- 
what acrid, taste, which properties they owe to a volatile oil. 
Fennel is a warm aromatic stimulant, and may be employed for 
the same purposes as the aromatics. 

Oleum Fceniculi. U. S. Oil of Fennel is colorless, or yellow- 
ish, with the odor and taste of the seeds. Dose, 5 to 15 drops. 

Aqua Funiculi. U. S. Fennel Water is an agreeable vehicle 
for other medicines, and is useful when a mild aromatic is 
needed. 

CARUM. U. S. Carawaxj. 

The fruit of Carum Carui, a small biennial plant, native of 
Europe, but introduced into this country. 

Properties and Uses. Caraway seeds are of a brownish color, 
with an aromatic odor, and a warm, spicy, somewhat bitter taste. 
It is an agreeable aromatic stimulant, and is much employed as 
a seasoning and flavoring agent. 

Oleum Carl U. S. Oil of Caraway is much used to impart 
flavor to medicines, and to correct their nauseating and griping 
effects. Dose, 1 to 10 drops. 

ANISUM. U. S. Anise. 

The FRLHT of Pimpinella Anisum, a small, annual plant, native 
of Egypt and the Levant, but extensively cultivated in various 
parts of Europe. 



96 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Properties and Uses. The seeds, commonly called aniseed, are 
oval, about a line in length, striated, downy, of a yellowish-brown 
color ; they have a peculiar, sweet, aromatic odor, and a warm, 
sweetish taste. Anise is an excellent carminative and stomachic, 
and as such is employed in flatulent colic, and in the diarrhoea of 
infants and children. 

Oleum Anisi. U. S. Oil of Anise is transparent, and nearly 
colorless, having a slight greenish-yellow tinge. Dose, 2 to 
5 drops. 

CORIANDRUM. U. S. Coriander. 

The FRUIT of Coriandrum sativum, an annual plant, native of 
Europe. 

Properties and Uses. The seeds are round, about the size of 
white pepper, finely ribbed, of a brownish-yellow color, with an 
agreeable aromatic odor, and a warm, peculiar taste, which 
depends upon a volatile oil. They possess the ordinary virtues 
of the aromatics, and are chiefly used as an adjunct to other 
medicines to cover their taste and render them more acceptable 
to the stomach. 

The following substances belong to the natural order Labtatse 
or Lamiacese. This order embraces numerous genera and 
species of herbaceous plants, having quadrangular stems, and 
opposite branches and leaves, studded with vesicles containing 
a highly aromatic essential oil. They are all destitute of any 
poisonous properties, and most of them are fragrant, and agree- 
able to the taste. They are much used as stimulants, cordials, 
carminatives, etc., and also as kitchen herbs for flavoring sauces. 

LAYANDULA. U. S. Lavender. 

The FLOWERS oi Lavandula vera, a small, shrubby plant, native 
of Southern Europe, but extensively cultivated in this country. 
The flowers, which are in spikes, of a purple color, are gathered 
when in full bloom, and dried in the shade ; they have a strong, 
fragrant odor, and an aromatic, warm, bitterish taste, which 
they impart to water and alcohol. 



GENERAL REMEDIES —TONICS. 9t 

Oleum Lavandula. TJ. S. Oil of Lavender, obtained by 
distillation from the flowers, is very fluid, of a lemon-yellow 
color, with the odor and taste of the flowers. Dose, 1 to 5 
drops. 

Spiritus Lavandulae. U. S. Spirit of Lavender, made by 
distilling alcohol from the fresh flowers, or by dissolving the oil 
in alcohol, is used chiefly as a perfume, and as an ingredient of 
other mixtures. 

Spiritus Lavandula Compositus. U. S. Compound Spirit 
of Lavender is prepared by percolating two troyounces of cin- 
namon, half a troyounce of cloves, a troyounce of nutmeg, 
and three hundred and sixty grains of red saunders, mixed 
together, with a mixture of six pints of alcohol and two pints 
of water, in which f^i of oil of lavender and f5ij of oil of rose- 
mary have been dissolved, and adding diluted alcohol until the 
filtered liquid measures eight pints. This preparation is an 
excellent compound of spices, and is much used as an adjuvant 
and corrigent of other medicines, and as a remedy in flatulent 
colic and gastric uneasiness. Dose, fji. 

ROSMARINIJS. TJ. S. Rosemary. 

The flowering tops of Rosmarinus offt-cinalis, a small ever- 
green shrub, native of Southern Europe, and cultivated in this 
country. The dried tops have a fragrant odor, and a pungent, 
bitter taste. 

Oleum Rosmarini. U. S. Oil of Rosemary is limpid, color- 
less or amber-colored, with the odor and taste of the herb in an 
intense degree. It is frequently added to stimulating liniments, 
and much diluted {aqua rosmarini), is useful in preventing the 
hair falling off after fevers and debilitating diseases. 

MENTHA PIPERITA. U. S. Peppermint. 

The HERB of Mentha pipeyHta, a European plant, naturalized, 
and growing wild in this country. The herb, both in the recent 
and dried state, has a peculiar, agreeable odor, and a pungent, 
somewhat bitter taste, followed by a marked sensation of coolness, 

t 



98 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

which properties it yields to alcohol and partly to water. It is, 
perhaps, the most used of all the aromaticsto expel flatus, obviate 
nausea, relieve pain in the bowels, and to disguise the unpleasant 
taste of other medicines. 

Oleum Mentha Piperita. U. S. Oil of Peppermint, ob- 
tained by the usual process of distillation, is limpid and colorless, 
acquiring a greenish tint from age, with the odor and taste of the 
plant in an iiitense degree. Dose, 1 to 3 drops. 

Spiritus MENTHiB PIPERITA. XJ. S. Sjnrit of Peppermint is 
prepared by dissolving f^i of the oil in f|xv of alcohol, with one 
hundred and twenty grains of the powdered herb. The latter 
is added to impart color to the spirit. It affords a convenient 
method of administering the oil. Dose, 20 to 30 drops. 

Aqua Mentha Piperita. U. S. Peppermint Water is one 
of the most grateful and most commonly employed medicated 
waters, as a vehicle of medicines given in the form of mixture. 

Mentha Viridis. U. S. The herb of Mentha viridis, com- 
mon garden mint, also a European plant, extensively cultivated 
in this country. Its virtues and applications are the same as 
those of peppermint, but not so powerful. The ofBcinal prepara- 
tions, the oil, water, and spirit, are prepared in the same way as 
those of the preceding, and are often substituted for it. 

MoNARDA. U. S. Horsemint. The herb of Ilonarda j^unctata, 
an indigenous herbaceous plant, is used for the same purposes as 
the other aromatic herbs. The oil, Oleum Monard.^, U. S,, is 
powerfully rubefacient, quickly producing pain, redness, and ves- 
ication. 

Cataria. it. S. Catnep or Catmint. The leaves of Nepeta ca- 
taria,Q. perennial, herbaceous plant, growing abundantly through- 
out the United States. The whole plant has a strong, peculiar 
odor, and a bitter, somewhat aromatic taste. It possesses the 
usual properties of the mints, and is much employed in domestic 
practice as a carminative and antispasmodic, in the form of infu- 
sion, especially in the colic of infants. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 99 



SALVIA. U. S. Sage. 

The LEAVES of Salvia officinalis, common garden sage, a peren- 
nial, shrubby plant, indigenous to the South of Europe, but cul- 
tivated abundantly in this country. The leaves have a strong, 
fragrant odor, and a warm, bitterish, aromatic, somewhat astrin- 
gent taste, which they owe to the presence of a volatile oil, which 
may be obtained by distillation. Sage is a stimulant tonic and 
astringent, principally employed as a condiment, but it is also 
used in medicine in the form of infusion. 

Inpusum SALVT.iE. U. S. Infusion of Sage (half a troyounce 
to a pint of boiling water) is much used, with honey and alum, 
as a mouth-wash in aphthous sore-throat, and as a gargle in 
inflammation of the throat and relaxation of the uvula. It is also 
sometimes employed as a drink in febrile diseases, or to allay 
nausea. 

GAULTHERIA. U. S. Partridge-berry. 

The LEAVES of GaiiUheria prociimbens, a small, indigenous, 
shrubby, evergreen plant, known as winter-green, deer-berry, etc. 

It has a peculiar aromatic taste and odor, which depend upon 
a volatile oil. 

Oleum Gaultheria. U. S. Oil of Gaullheria is the heaviest 
of all the essential oils. It is colorless when freshly distilled, but 
becomes yellowish or brownish by age, has a peculiar pungent 
taste, and an agreeable, characteristic odor. It is chiefly used to 
cover the taste of other medicines. 

HEDEOMA. U. S. Pennyroyal. 

The HERB of Hedeoma piilegioides, an indigenous annual plant 
abounding in all parts of the United States, and possessing the 
sensible and medicinal properties of the aromatic herbs. 

Oleum Hedeom.<e. U. S. Oil of Pennyroyal has a light-yel- 
low color, with the odor and taste of the herb. It is used as a 
remedy in flatulent colic, and to flavor purgative and other medi- 
cines which tend to gripe or excite nausea. Emmenagogue vir- 



100 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

tues are attributed to it, and it is much employed in domestic 
practice in amenorrhoea. Dose, from 2 to 10 drops. 

Melissa. U. S. Secondary. Balm. The hekb of Melissa 
officinalis, a European plant extensively cultivated in this country, 
and much used, in the form of infusion, as a domestic remedy in 
febrile complaints, and to promote the operation of diaphoretic 
medicines. 

Origanum. The herb of Origanum vulgare, or common mar- 
joram, a plant growing wild throughout the United States, pos- 
sesses the properties of the other members of its class. The oil 
is a powerful irritant, and may be resorted to in cases in which a 
stimulant and rubefacient action upon the skin is required. 

Thymus. Thyme. The flowering tops of Thymus vulgaris, 
a very common plant, indigenous to Southern Europe, and exten- 
sively cultivated as a kitchen herb, in our gardens. It has the 
aromatic properties of the other labiates, but is never used in 
medicine. The oil, Oleum Thymi, U. S., is used as a local appli- 
cation, and is substituted for the oil of origanum, in connection 
with spirit and camphor as a mild irritant in chronic rheumatism, 
bruises, sprains, etc. 



xMINERAL TOITICS. 

These are more local in their general action than the vegetable 
tonics ; they either operate more directly on the stomach, with- 
out their action being so quickly extended to the whole system, 
or they act by being received into the blood. Hence they pro- 
duce less general excitement, and it is only from their continued 
administration that their tonic effect is obtained. They differ 
also in power and their adaptation to peculiar states of the sys- 
tem. They include those pertaining to the metals and the 
mineral acids. 

FERRUM. U. S. Iron. 

Iron is the most abundant and universally diffused of all the 
metals. It rarely occurs native, but is found in almost all parts 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 101 

of the world as an oxide or sulphuret, and in saline combination 
Its physical properties are too well known to require descriptio 
here. In its metallic state it is probably inert, but when admin- 
istered in a finely divided state it readily oxidizes in the stomach, 
and thereby acquires medicinal activity. Its preparations, called 
chalybeales, are capable of being absorbed, and are among the 
most important tonics, well adapted to improve the condition of 
the blood when impoverished from any cause. Under their use 
the appetite is increased, the digestion improved, the pulse in- 
creased in frequency and fullness, and the general health improved. 
That iron is absorbed, is shown by its detection in the various 
secretions, and it is now an established fact that it acts entirely 
through and upon the blood, which it improves by increasing the 
quality and quantity of the blood corpuscles. Iron is an essential 
constituent of the red coloring matter of the blood, called hsemato- 
sin, and the existence of the proper amount of this substance is 
of vital importance. When it is diminished in quantity, the num- 
ber of these red globules is lessened in the same proportion, and 
there follows as a consequence anaemia: a condition characterized 
by a paleness of the tissues, an inactivity of the muscular fibre, 
and impairment of all the animal functions, accompanied by 
general languor and debility of the whole frame. In these 
cases, iron, in some form or other, is the appropriate remedy, re- 
storing to the blood this wanting hsemalosin ; and it often cures 
other diseases in which .anaemia is a prominent symptom, as 
amenorrhcea, menorrhagia, and other menstrual derangements ; 
chronic affections of the nervous system, as chorea, epilepsy, etc.; 
and various diseases of the digestive organs, neuralgia, etc. It 
has also been used with benefit in diseases of an intermittent or 
remittent type, in chronic enlargements of the liver and spleen, 
in- cancer, etc. The employment of the ferruginous preparations 
is contraindicated in plethoric conditions, and where there is a 
tendency to inflammation or active hemorrhage, and in the san- 
guine temperament generally. The following are the prepara- 
tions most generally resorted to in practice : 



102 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 



FERKUM REDACTUM. U. S. Beduced Iron. 

Ferri Pulvis. Poiuder of Iron, sometimes called Qaevenne's 
Iron., is obtained by passing a stream of hydrogen gas over the 
calcined sesquioxide of iron heated to redness. In this process 
the hydrogen unites with the oxygen of the oxide, forming water, 
and leaves the iron in its metallic state. 

Properties and Uses. It is a light, inodorous, and tasteless 
impalpable powder, of a steel-gray color, readily oxidized on expo 
sure to the air. It possesses all the properties of the ferruginous 
preparations without any astringency, which renders it a valua- 
ble chalybeate for children and persons of delicate stomachs. It 
sometimes gives rise to disagreeable eructations. Dose, 2 to 5 
grains. It may be given in the form of pill or powder, or bon- 
bons made with chocolate. 

Ferri Ramenta. Iron filiyigs, obtained by filing pure and 
soft iron, were formerly much employed, but are now entirely su- 
perseded by the powdered iron, which has the advantage of 
greater purity, and more ready solubility in the juices of the 
stomach. 

FERRI OXIDUM HYDRATUM. U. S. Hijdrated Sesqui- 
oxide Of Iron. 

This is obtained by adding ammonia, to the officinal solution of 
tersulphate of iron, when the sesquioxide is thrown down com- 
bined with water. Fe203-l-2HO. 

Properties and Uses. It is a soft, reddish-brown magma, 
and, owing to its proneness to decomposition, it should be kept 
under water, or prepared as wanted for use. It is used princi- 
pally as an antidote for poisoning by arsenious acid, which it 
converts into the insoluble and inert arseniate of iron. It should 
be given in doses of a table.spoonful every five or ten minutes 
The quantity required to neutralize the poisonous property of 
arsenic is at least twelve parts to one of the poison. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TOPICS. 103 



FERRI SUBC ARBONAS. U. S. Sabcarbonate of Iron. 

Precipitated Carbonate op Iron is obtained by precipitating 
a solution of sulphate of iron by carbonate of soda, washing and 
drAnng the precipitate on bibulous paper without heat. The 
precipitate when first formed is a carbonate of the protoxide of 
iron, and is of a whitish or bluish-white color, but by washing and 
dr3nng becomes almost entirely converted into a sesquioxide by 
absorbing oxvgen and by the loss of carbonic acid. The officinal 
subcarbonate is then the anhydrous sesquioxide of iron mixed 
probably with a very small amount of the carbonate of the pro- 
toxide. 

Properties and Uses. It is a reddish-brown powder, of a dis- 
agreeable taste, insoluble in water, but soluble in muriatic acid 
with slight effervescence. It possesses all the properties of the 
chalybeate salts, and from its mildness maybe given in large 
quantities without any unpleasant consequences. It is princi- 
pally used in the treatment of neuralgic affections, particularly 
tic douloureux. Dose, 5 to 30 grains. 

PihVLM Ferri Carbonatis. U. S. Pills of Carbonate of 
Iron. ValleVs mass is made by incorporating freshly precipitated 
carbonate of the protoxide of iron with sugar and honey, to pro- 
tect it from oxidation, and preserve it in the form of protocarbon- 
ate. It is in the form of a soft, pilular mass, of a dark-greenish 
color, and a strong ferruginous taste. It is one of the most 
valuable of the chalybeates on account of the facility with which 
it is absorbed. Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 

Mtstura Ferri Composite. U. S. Compound Mixture of 
Iron, commonly known as Griffith's antihectic 'mixture, is made 
by triturating together twenty-five grains of carbonate of potassa, 
and sixty grains, each, of myrrh and sugar, with f5vijss of rose- 
water, and foss of spirit of lavender, and adding twenty grains of 
sulphate of iron. In this process the carbonate of the protoxide of 
iron is formed by the reaction between the sulphate of iron and the 
alkaline carbonate, while the excess of the carbonate forms with 
the myrrh a saponaceous compound, which holds the iron in sus- 
pension. The solution is of a greenish color, which it loses on 



104 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

exposure, owing to the decomposition of the protocarbonate. It 
is an excellent chalybeate, and well adapted to the debility of 
phthisis, and in anaemia accompanying derangement of the men- 
strual functions. Dose, a tablespoonful or more. 

PiluLjE Ferri ComposiTuJ:. U. S. Compound Pills of Iron 
are prepared by thoroughly mixing one hundred and twenty grains 
of myrrh, and sixty grains, each, of carbonate of soda and sulphate 
of iron, with sugar to form apilular mass, and dividing into eighty 
pills. They are closely analogous in composition and properties 
to the preceding preparation. 

FERRI SULPHAS. TJ. S. Sulphate of Iron. 

This salt, known in commerce as Copperas or Green Vitriol, 
is prepared by dissolving iron wire in diluted sulphuric acid. 
The oxygen of the water converts the metal of the sulphate into 
the protoxide, with which the sulphuric acid unites, while hydro- 
gen gas is evolved. Composition, FeOjSOj+THO. 

Properties. When pure, sulphate of iron is in light, bluish- 
green rhomboidal prisms, having an astringent styptic taste. It 
is soluble in about two parts of cold, and in three-fourths of its 
weight of boiling, water, but is insoluble in alcohol; it effloresces 
slightly in dry air, and on exposure to moisture, absorbs oxygen, 
and becomes covered with a brownish-yellow persalt. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small doses it acts as a 
tonic and astringent ; in large doses as a local irritant to the 
stomach and bowels, causing nausea, vomiting, and purging; 
and in excessive doses it is an irritant poison. It is employed 
in passive hemorrhages, in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, and 
in atonic mucous discharges. In amenorrhoea with deficient. ac- 
tion, it may be advantageously combined with aloes, and the 
fetid and stimulant gums. When the long-continued use of the 
ferruginous compounds is required, it is not so well adapted as 
some of the other preparations, on account of its local action on 
the alimentary canal. As a topical remedy it may be used to 
check bleeding from small vessels, and ia solution as an astrin- 
gent lotion or injection to ulcers, and in chron'c discharges from 
mucous membranes. It is one of the cheapest and best of dis- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 105 

infectants, especially when mixed witli lime. Dose, 1 or 2 grains 
in pill. Solution is an objectionable form, as the sulphate is de- 
composed by the absorption of oxygen. 

Ferri Sulphas Exsiccata. U. S. Dried Sulphate of Iron is 
prepared by driving off six equivalents of the water of crystalli- 
zation, by exposing the sulphate to a heat not exceeding 300°. 
FeOjSOg+HO. It is used for making pills; the crystallized 
sulphate not being adapted for this purpose. Three grains 
equivalent to five of the crystallized salt. 

LIQUOR FERRI TERSULPHATIS. U. S. Solution of 
Tei'sulphate of Iron. 

This preparation is made by converting the sulphate of the 
protoxide into the tersulphate of the sesquioxide. This is 
effected by gradually adding twelve troyounces of the sulphate 
to a heated mixture of two troyounces and sixty grains of sul- 
phuric acid, and a troyounce and three hundred and sixty 
grains of nitric acid, diluted with a pint and a half of water. 
In this process the nitric acid is decomposed, nitric oxide escap- 
ing, and the oxygen uniting with the protoxide of iron to convert 
it into the sesquioxide, while the additional sulphuric acid is 
added for the complete saturation of the resulting sesquioxide. 
Composition, Fe^Oj.SSOj, in solution, in water. 

Properties and Uses. It is a dark-red, inodorous liquid, of an 
acid and astringent taste, miscible in all proportions with water 
and alcohol. It is chiefly used for the extemporaneous prepara- 
tion of the hydrated sesquioxide of iron, — the antidote for arseni- 
cal poisoning. 

Liquor Ferri Subsulphatis. U. S. Solution of Suhsul- 
phate of Iron. Solution of Persulp)hate of Iron, also known as 
IlonseVs solution, is prepared in the same way as the preceding, 
only adding one-half the quantity of sulphuric acid. The pro- 
toxide of iron is sesquioxidized at the expense of the nitric acid, 
but the sulphuric acid is in quantity insufficient to fully neutral- 
ize the sesquioxide ; a subsalt therefore results, with the compo- 
sition 2Fe.fl.^,bS0.^. 

Properties and Uses. This solution is an inodorous, syrupy 



106 MATERIA ME Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

liquid, of a ruby-red color, and of aa extremely astringent taste, 
without acridity. By evaporation at a moderate heat it yields 
the subsulphate of the sesquioxide, in the form of a light, reddish- 
brown powder, deliquescent, and readily soluble in water and 
alcohol. The solution is a powerful astringent, without any irri- 
tant properties. It has been used internally, in doses of from 5 
to 10 drops, with great benefit in hemorrhages from the stomach 
and bowels. As an external styptic it is perhaps more effectual 
than any we possess, and is well adapted to arrest hemorrhage 
from incised wounds, and from hemorrhoids, where it is desirable 
to avoid irritation. 

Ferri et Ammonia Sulphas. U. S. Sulphate of Iron and 
Ammonia. Ammonio -ferric Alum is obtained by heating a 
solution of the tersulphate of iron with sulphate of ammonia 
until the latter salt is dissolved, when the two salts unite to 
form the double salt. Fe203,3S03+NH^O,S03+24HO. 

Properties and Uses. It is in octahedral crystals, of a pale- 
violet color, and sour astringent taste, efflorescent on exposure, 
and soluble in water. It is astringent and tonic, and has been 
used in cases requiring a combined tonic and astringent treat- 
ment. Dose, 3 to 5 grains. 

FERKI CHLORIDUM. U. S. Chloride of Iron. 

This salt is procured by heating metallic iron, in the form of 
wire, with muriatic acid, and afterward treating it with muriatic 
and nitric acids, till red fumes are no longer evolved. By the 
action of muriatic acid upon the iron a protochloride results, 
which is converted into a sesquichloride by the action of the 
nitric acid. The nitric acid is decomposed, yielding two eqs. of 
oxygen to two eqs. of the hydrochloric acid, thus forming water, 
and setting free two eqs. of chlorine, which unite with the iron, 
converting the protochloride into a sesquichloride. Fe^jClj with 
a variable proportion of water. 

Properties and Uses. It is in orange-yellow cry.stalline 
masses, very deliquescent, inodorous, and of a strong styptic and 
ferruginous taste; wholly soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. 
Internally, it is used almost exclusively in the form of tincture; 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 107 

externally, it is used in watery solution as a styptic for arrest- 
ing bomorrhag'e fi'oni small vessels, and as an astringent wash. 

TiNCTURA Ferri Chloridi. U. S. Tincture of Chloride of 
Iron. Tincture of Muriate of Iron, as it is commonly called, 
is prepared by heating three troyounces of iron wire with eleven 
troj^ounces of muriatic acid till eflervescence ceases, and the 
acid is saturated ; the solution is then filtered, and heated to the 
boiling point, with six and a half troyounces of muriatic acid, 
and treated with nitric acid, gradually added, till effervescence 
ceases ; water is then added to make the liquid measure a pint, 
and afterward three pints of alcohol. The reactions which take 
place are the same as in the preceding preparation ; the alcohol 
reacts gradually with the acid, producing a small amount of 
muriatic ether, which gives a peculiar flavor to the tincture, and 
probably modifies its influence on the system. 

Pi'ojyerties and Uses. It is of a I'eddish-brown color, with an 
ethereal odor, and a very acid styptic taste. It is one of the 
most powerful and certain preparations of iron. Besides the 
tonic properties which it possesses in common with the other 
compounds, it is an energetic astringent and styptic, and in 
large doses acts as an irritant. It appears also to possess diu- 
retic properties, which render it highly useful in diseases of the 
urino-genital organs, as gleet, chronic gonorrhoea, vesical catarrh, 
and in chronic hemorrhages from the kidneys and bladder. It 
is also employed with great success in the treatment of erysip- 
elas, purpura hemorrhagica, and other diseases in which the 
blood is poisoned, and the symptoms are of a malignant type. 
Dose in ordinary cases, 10 to 20 drops three times a day; in 
erysipelas, etc. it may be repeated much oftener. 

FERRI lODIDUM. Iodide of Iron. 

This compound is prepared by gradually adding iron filings to 
a solution of iodine in distilled water, and gently heating, filter- 
ing, and evaporating the mixture. It is a deliquescent, crystal- 
line substance, of a greenish-black color, and styptic chalybeate 
taste. Owing to the strong affinity of iron for oxygen, ^nd the 
liability of the iodide to be decomposed on exposure to the air, 



108 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

it is only employed in combination with saccharine matter, 
which protects it from change. 

Syrupus Ferri Iodidi. U. S. Syrup of Iodide of Iron is 
prepared by adding sufficient syrup to the filtered solution of the 
iodide (made by digesting two troyounces of iodine and three 
hundred grains of iron wire in three fluidounces of water) to 
make the whole measure twenty fluidounces. Fel. 

Properties and Uses. It is of a clear, pale-green color, and, 
if pure, deposits no sediment by keeping, and does not tinge so- 
lution of starch blue ; mixed with sulphuric acid, it becomes 
brown, and the mixture emits violet vapors when heated. It 
combines the alterative effects of iodine with the tonic powers 
of iron, and is applicable to the treatment of scrofulous diseases 
in anemic patients. Dose, 20 to 40 minims. 

Pilule Ferri Iodidi. V. S. Pills of Iodide of Iron are 
prepared by mixing tlie recently prepared iodide of iron with 
sugar and reduced iron, to protect it from the oxidizing influence 
of the air, and adding raarshmallow and gum, to give consist- 
ency to the mass. Each pill contains about one grain of iodide 
of iron and one-half of a grain of reduced iron. 

FERRI ET POTASSE TARTRAS. Tartrate of Iron and 

Potassa. 

Tartarated Iron is obtained by gradually adding the recently 
prepared hydrated sesquioxide of iron to a solution of the bitar- 
trate of potassa, heated to 140°; filtering, evaporating to a syrupy 
consistence, and spreading upon plates of glass or porcelain to 
dry In this process the excess of acid in the bitartrate com- 
bines with the sesquioxide of iron, forming a neutral double salt. 
Fe,03,C,HA+K0,C,HA+H0. 

Properties and Uses. As thus obtained, it is in transparent, 
ruby-red scales, without odor, and with a sweetish, slightly fer- 
ruginous taste, wholly soluble in water. From its mild taste 
and ready solubility it is one of the best forms of giving the 
metal to children and persons of delicate stomachs. Dose, 10 
to 30 grains. 



GEXERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 109 



FERRI ET AMMONIiE TARTRAS. U S. Tartrate of Iron 
and Ammonia. 

Ammonio-tartrate of Iron. To prepare this salt the tartrate 
of ammonia is first prepared by saturating a solution of tartaric 
acid with carbonate of ammonia, and this is then converted into 
a bitartrate by the addition of tartaric acid. The recently pre- 
pared hydrated oxide of iron added to this solution gives the 
double salt. Fe,03,C,0,0.+NH,0,C,H,0,. 

Properties and Uses. It is in garnet-red scales, with a sweet- 
ish taste, very soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol and 
ether. It is a mild chalybeate, without astringency, and may be 
given in doses of from 10 to 30 grains. 

FERRI PHOSPHAS. U. S. Phosphate of Iron. 

This salt is formed by double decomposition between solutions 
of sulphate of iron and phosphate of soda. 2FeO,HO,P05. 

Properties and Uses. It is in the form of a powder, of a pale- 
blue color, insoluble in water, but soluble in the diluted acids. 
It possesses the general properties of the ferruginous preparations. 
Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 

Ferri Pyrophosphas. TJ. S. Pyrophosphate of Iron is 
made by precipitating a solution of the tersulphate of iron with 
the pyrophosphate of soda, and dissolving the gelatinous precipi- 
tate in a solution of the citrate of ammonia (formed by the direct 
union of its elements), and evaporating the solution till of suit- 
able consistence to be spread on plates of glass to dry. It is in 
thin and brittle scales, of an apple-green color, and an acidulous, 
somewhat saline taste, freely soluble in water. It contains about 
48 per cent, of anhydrous pyrophosphate of iron. It is a very 
good chalybeate, without any disagreeable taste, and from its 
ready solubility may be administered in any form that may be 
desirable. It is well adapted to those delicate conditions of the 
system in which iron is so often indicated. Dose, 2 to 5 grains. 

The phosphates of iron are sometimes administered with other 
phosphates in the form of syrup, and several preparations of this 
kind have been introduced by different pharmaceutists, and are 



110 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

used extensively in the treatment of various diseases requiring 
tonic treatment. The syrup of the phosphates of iron, quinia, 
and strychnia, }3repared according to Prof. Aitken's formula, 
contains in each drachm two grains of phosphate of iron, one 
grain of phosphate of quinia, and one-thirty-second of a grain of 
phosphate of strychnia ; it is an admirable general tonic, well 
adapted for certain chlorotic and anemic states. 

LIQUOR FERRI NITRATIS. U. S. Solution of Nitrate of 

Iron. 

This is a solution of the pernitrate of iron, Fe^O^.SNOg, in 
water. It is prepared by dissolving iron wire in nitric acid, and 
diluting with water. The liquid has a pale- amber color, with a 
sp. gr. 1-060, and a strong astringent taste. 

Medical Uses. It is astringent and tonic, and is a safe and 
efficient remedy in diarrhoea, dysentery, and in exhausting hemor- 
rhage from the lungs, uterus, or kidneys. The dose is T or 8 
drops, gradually increased to 15, sufficiently diluted with water. 

FERRI CITRAS. U. S. Citrate of Iron. 

This salt is prepared by saturating a solution of citric acid 
with the recently prepared hydrated oxide of iron, evaporating 
to the consistence of syrup, and spreading on glass to dry. 
Fe,03,C,,lL0,, 

Properties and Uses. It is in thin, transparent scales, of a 
garnet-red color, slightly soluble in cold water, and of a mild 
ferruginous taste. It is a pleasant chalybeate, best given in 
solution. Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 

Liquor Ferri Citratis. U. S. Solution of Citrate of Iron 
is a concentrated solution (each fluidounce contains half a troy- 
ounce of citrate of iron). It has a deep reddish-brown color, 
and slight, not unpleasant, ferruginous taste, and may be given 
for the same purposes as the other preparations. Dose, 10 minims, 
equivalent to 5 grains of the salt. 

Ferri et Ammonite Citras. U. S. Citrate of Iron and 
Ammonia. Ammonio-citrale of Iron is prepared by neutral- 
izing the acid citrate in solution with water of ammonia and 
evaporating the solution. It is a double salt (consisting of one 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. HI 

equivalent of each of its ingredients), and dissolves much more 
readily in cold water than the citrate. It is applicable to the 
strumous affections of children, and to invalids of delicate 
stomachs. Dose, 5 grains. 

Ferri et Quini^ Citras. U. S. Citrate of Iron and Qui- 
nine is obtained by adding quinia (prepared by precipitation from 
the sulphate by ammonia) to a solution of the acid citrate of iron, 
evaporating, and drying the mixed salt in the usual way ; five 
grains contain about one grain of quinia. It i^ in scales of a green- 
ish golden-yellow color, of a bitter and chalybeate taste, deli- 
quescent, and soluble in water. This salt combines the virtues 
of the two bases, and may be given in all cases in which they are 
indicated ; it is admirably adapted for children and delicate 
females, being easily borne when the stronger salts of iron are 
inadmissible Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 

Ferri et Strychnia Citras. Citrate of Iron and Strychnia 
is best obtained by dissolving nine hundred and eighty grains of 
citrate of iron in nine ounces of water, and mixing the solution 
with ten grains of citric acid and ten grains of strychnia in one 
ounce of water, evaporating and drying in the usual manner. 
The salt thus prepared contains 1 per cent, of strychnia, and pos- 
sesses the combined properties of iron, and strychnia. It has been 
successfully used in cases of paralysis, chorea, and amenorrhcea; 
five grains contain one-twentieth of a grain of strychnia. 

FERRI FERROCYANIDUM. U. S. Ferrocijanide of Iron. 

This salt, known as Prussian Blue, is obtained by double de- 
composition between solutions of ferrocyanide of potassium and 
tersulphate of iron. * 

Properties and Uses. It is of a rich blue color, inodorous and 
tasteless, insoluble in water and alcohol. Owing to the cyanogen 
which it contains, this s^lt is thought to possess sedative proper- 
ties, in addition to its chalybeate powers, and has been recom- 
mended in intermittent and remittent fever, and in neuralgic 
affections. Dose, 3 to 5 grains gradually increased. 



112 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

PERRI LACTAS. U. S. Lactate of Iron. ' 

This preparation is obtained by digesting iron filings in lactic 
acid, filtering, and evaporating the solution. 

Properties and Uses. It is in greenish-white crystalline crusts 
or grains, of a mild, sweetish, ferruginous taste, soluble in forty- 
eight parts of cold, and twelve of boiling water, but insoluble in 
alcohol. It is a mild and efficient chalybeate, and is said to have 
also the property of greatly increasing the appetite. Dose, 10 to 
20 grains daily, in divided doses. 

Besides the preceding officinal preparations of ii'on, various 
other combinations have, from time to time, been introduced and 
recommended in the practice of medicine. The following are 
among the most important: 

Ferri Acetas. Acetate of Iron, prepared by digesting the 
hydrated sesquioxide in acetic acid, is an agreeable, mild chalyb- 
eate, and is much used in Europe in the form of solution. 

Ferri Arsenias. Arseniate of Iron is prepared by mixing a 
solution of arseniate and acetate of soda with one of sulphate of 
iron, when the salt is deposited. 3FeO,As05. It is an amorphous, 
greenish-white powder, without smell or taste. It is supposed to 
possess the combined properties of iron and arsenic, and is used 
chiefly in skin diseases accompanied by anaemia. Dose, tt'^ to -J^ 
of a grain, in pill. 

Ferri Bromidum. Bromide of Iron is obtained by heating 
bromine and iron filings together in water. It is a very deliques- 
cent salt, of a brick-red color, and of a very disagreeable, styptic 
taste, and, like the iodide, is best given in combination with syrup. 
It acts as a tonic and resolvent, and may be used for the same 
purposes as the iodide. Dose of the syrup, 20 minims three times 
a day. 

Ferri Oxalas. Oxalate of Iron is obtained by mixing solu- 
tions of sulphate of iron and oxalic acid. It is of a beautiful 
3^ellow color, odorless, and almost tasteless, insoluble in water. 
It produces all the effects of the ferruginous preparations ; its 
entire want of astringency renders it an excellent form to intro- 
duce iron into the system. Dose, 2 or 3 grains three times a day. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONIC'S. 113 

Ferri Yalerianas. it. S. Valerianate of Iron is prepared 
by double decomposition between sulphate of iron and valerianate 
of soda. It is a reddish-brown powder with an intense odor of 
valerian, and with but little taste. It is recommended in hysteri- 
cal affections with chlorosis. Dose, 1 grain repeated several times 
a day. 

CUPRUM. Copper. 

Copper in its pure metallic state is inert, but in combination 
forms important medicines. Its preparations in small doses are 
tonic and antispasmodic ; in larger or full medicinal doses, emetic; 
and in still larger quantities, poisonous, giving rise to gastro-intes- 
tiual irritation and disorder of the nervous system. Their long- 
continued use, even in small doses, produces slow or chronic 
poisoning, indicated by chronic derangements of the digestive 
organs, various affections of the nervous system, slow fever, and 
wasting of the body. The best antidote for poisoning by the 
cupreous compounds is albumen, as white of eggs, milk, or wheaten 
flour. The ferrocyanide of potassium, given freely, also neutral- 
izes the poison by forming the insoluble ferrocyanide of copper. 

CUPRI SULPHAS. U. S. Sulphate of Copper. 

This salt, commonly known as Blue Vitriol or Blue Stone, may 
be obtained by evaporating the waters which flow through copper 
mines, and which hold it in solution ; or by roasting the native 
sulphuret (copper pyrites) in a reverberatory furnace, lixiviating, 
and evaporating the solution ; or by dissolving copper wire in 
diluted sulphuric acid. For medicinal purposes it is dissolved, 
filtered, and crystallized. CuO.SOj-f 5H0. 

■Properties. It is in semi-transparent, rhomboidal crystals, of 
a rich, deep-blue color, effervescing on exposure to the air, without 
odor, and of a harsh, styptic, metallic taste. It is soluble in four 
parts of cold and two parts of boiling water, and insoluble in 
alcohol. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small and repeated doses 
(one-fourth to one grain) it acts as a general tonic and astrin- 
gent ; in larger doses (three to ten grains) it proves a prompt and 



114 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

powerful emetic, acting without producing much nausea or de- 
pression of the system ; and in large doses it is a poAverful, irri- 
tant poison. In chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, combined with 
opium, it proves highly serviceable, and often succeeds in check- 
ing the discharges when the ordinary vegetable astringents fail. 
In chorea, epilepsy, and other spasmodic diseases, in small and 
gradually increasing doses, it has been found useful, and it has 
also been given in intermittent diseases. As an emetic it is used 
whenever speedy vomiting is desired, as in cases of narcotic 
poisoning, etc. Externally, it is applied in substance as an escha- 
rotic, to destroy unhealthy or excessive granulations, and as a 
styptic to bleeding surfaces ; in solution, as a wash to weak, irri- 
table, and indolent ulcers; and as an injection in chronic mucous 
discharges from the vagina or urethra. The solutions for exter- 
nal use vary in strength in different cases, from two to ten grains 
to the ounce of water. 

CUPRUM AMMONIATUM. U. S. Ammoniated Copper. 

A MMONio- Sulphate op Copper is prepared by rubbing to- 
gether in a glass mortar half a troyounce of sulphate of copper 
and three hundred and sixty grains of carbonate of ammonia until 
effervescence ceases, and drying with a gentle heat. When the 
two salts are rubbed together a reaction takes place between them, 
with the extrication of the water of crystallization of the sulphate 
of copper, and the carbonic acid of the ammonia, and the forma- 
tion of the compound salt. CuO,SO,+2NH3,HO. 

Properties. As usually met with, this preparation is in powder 
or prismatic crystals, of a fine, azure-blue color, with an ammo- 
niacal odor, and a styptic, metallic taste. It is soluble in water; 
and on exposure to the air parts with its ammonia, leaving behind 
a green powder, composed of sulphate of ammonia and carbonate 
of copper. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is tonic and astringent, pro- 
.ducing effects similar to those of the sulphate, and appears also to 
exercise an antispasmodic influence over the nervous system. It 
is principally used in the treatment of epilepsy, chorea, and other 
spasmodic affections, and is often productive of benefit when these 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 115 

diseases occur in debilitated constitutions, and are not associated 
with organic disease. Dose, :j of a grain, gradually increased to 
5 grains. 

CUPRI SUBACETAS. U. S. Subacefate 'of Copper. 

This preparation, known in commerce as Verdigris, is manufac- 
tui'ed on a large scale by exposing copper plates to the action of 
the fermenting refuse of the wine-press, or to pyroligneous acid. 

Properties and Uses. It occurs in powder, or amorphous 
masses of a beautiful bluish-green color, with a disagreeable 
acetous odor, and a styptic, metallic taste. It is a powerful irri 
tant poison, never given internally. It is sometimes applied ex 
ternally as a caustic to indolent ulcers, to venereal warts, and to 
fungous growths. 

CuPRi NiTRAS. Nitrate of Copper is obtained by dissolving 
copper, its oxide or carbonate, in nitric acid. Composition, CuO 
NO5+3HO. It crystallizes in deep-blue prisms, which are deli- 
quescent, and soluble in alcohol. It is a powerful caustic and 
escharotic, and has been used successfully in substance or concen- 
trated solution in inflammation and ulceration of the throat and 
tongue, in syphilis, etc. 

ARGENTUM. U. S. Silver. 

Metallic Silver is wholly inert, but is of great value as the 
basis of several officinal preparations. It is sometimes found 
native, or alloyed with other metals, or combined with sulphur, 
iodine, or chlorine. 

ARGENTI NITRAS. U. S. Nitrate of Silver. 

This salt is obtained by dissolving silver in nitric acid, evapo- 
rating the solution, and crystallizing. During the solution part 
of the acid is decomposed into nitric oxide (which is given off), 
and oxygen, which oxidizes the silver; the oxide formed then 
combines with the remainder of the acid and generates the nitrate 
of silver. AgO,N05. 



116 MATERIA MEDIOA AND T&RAPEUTICS. 

Properties. It crystallizes in colorless, transparent, right 
rhombic prisms, with a strong metallic and bitter taste. It is 
soluble in its own weight of water, and in four parts of boiling 
alcohol ; it does not deliquesce, but on exposure to air and light 
blackens, owing to the action of organic matters contained in the 
atmosphere. It fuses at 426°, and on concreting constitutes the 
Argenti Nitras Fusa, U. S., described under the head of caus- 
tics; at 600° it is decomposed. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This salt, in small and fre- 
quently repeated doses, acts as atonic, antispasmodic, and sedative; 
in large doses it is a corrosive poison. It is said that its long- 
continued use, in small doses, occasionally communicates a pecu- 
liar blue appearance to the skin. As a tonic it is useful in chronic 
affections of the stomach, particularly where there is morbid sen- 
sibility of the gastric and intestinal nerves. In these eases it 
seems to lessen the sensibihty of the nerves, and to render them 
insusceptible of irritation. In chronic diarrhoea, when astrin- 
gents have failed, it often proves effectual, and, in addition to 
checking the discharges, appears to alter the general assimilative 
functions. It has also been employed, and with benefit, in the 
diarrhoea of phthisis, and in acute and chronic dysentery. In the 
treatment of epilepsy and chorea, it perhaps holds the highest 
rank among the mineral tonics, but to be of benefit it should be 
continued for a long time. Dose, ^ of a grain to 2 grains. In 
cases of poisoning the proper antidote is common salt, which 
acts by converting the poison into the very insoluble chloride of 
silver. 

ARGENTI OXIDUM. TJ. S. Oxide of Silver. 

This oxide is obtained by decomposing the nitrate of silver by 
potassa or lime, and drying the precipitate. AgO. 

Properties and Uses. It is an olive-brown powder, very 
slightly soluble in water, but soluble in acids. E.xposed to heat 
it gives off oxygen, and is converted into metallic silver. Its 
medicinal properties are similar to, but milder than, those of the 
nitrate, and it may be used for the same purposes. Dose, ^ to 
2 grains. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. IH 



ARGENTI CYANIDUM. U. S. Cyanide of Silver. 

This compound is prepared by distilling into a solution of the 
nitrate of silver, a solution of ferrocyanide of potassium in diluted 
sulphuric acid. In this process the silver of the nitrate is con- 
verted into the cyanide by h3rdrocyanic acid, extricated from the 
fej'rocyanide of potassium by the action of sulphuric acid. It 
consists of one equivalent of cyanogen and one of silver. 

Properties and Uses. It is a tasteless white powder, insolu- 
ble in water, and is only used in medicine in the extemporaneous 
preparation of diluted hydrocyanic acid. 

Argenti Chloridum. Chloride of Silver, prepared by add- 
ing a solution of common salt to a solution of nitrate of silver, 
has been recommended as an alterative in epilepsy, in scrofulous 
and syphilitic diseases, in doses of from ^ of a grain to 1 grain. 

ZINCUM. U. S. Zinc. 

Zinc occurs only in the mineral kingdom, and is found in the 
form of oxide, of sulphuret, or in saline combination. In its me- 
tallic state it is inert, but in combination forms preparations 
which possess medicinal prf)perties similar to, but less energetic 
than, those of copper. 

ZINCI SULPHAS. TJ. S. Sulphate of Zinc. 

This salt, known in its impure state as White Vitriol, is ob- 
tained by dissolving zinc in diluted sulphuric acid. In this pro- 
cess, water is decomposed, the hydrogen escapes, while the oxy- 
gen unites with the zinc to form oxide of zinc, which combines 
with the sulphuric acid and forms the sulphate. ZnOjSOg+tHO. 

Properties. When pure it is in small, transparent, colorless, 
rhombic prisms, resembling crystals of sulphate of magnesia, 
without odor, and of a disagreeable styptic metallic taste. It 
effloresces slightly on exposure, and is very soluble in water, but 
insoluble in alcohol. It is incompatible with the alkalies and 
their carbonates, earths, acetate of lead, nitrate of silver, and as- 
tringent vegetable infusions. 



118 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small and repeated doses 
it is tonic and astringent, and when persevered in for a long time 
it appears to act also as an antispasmodic. In larger doses it 
proves a prompt and powerful emetic, producing but little nausea 
and subsequent depression. In excessive doses it is an irritant 
poison. As a tonic and antispasmodic it proves highly service- 
able in chorea, epilepsy, hooping-cough, and other spasmodic 
diseases. As an astringent it may be beneficially employed in 
chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, and in excessive secretion from 
the bronchial tubes. As an emetic it is much used in narcotic 
poisoning, and is applicable to any case in which we wish a 
single but complete evacuation of the contents of the stomach. 
Externally, it is employed in solution as a collyrium in chronic 
ophthalmia ; as a lotion in some chronic skin diseases ; as a wash 
in old ulcers attended with profuse discharge or with loose flabby 
granulations ; and as an injection in the advanced stages of 
gonorrhoea, gleet, and leucorrhcea. Dose as a tonic, 1 grain, 
gradually increased ; as an emetic, from 10 to 30 grains. For 
external use, the solutions are of various strengths ; generally from 
one to twenty grains to the ounce of water, 

ZINCI ACETAS. U. S. Acetate of Zinc. 

This salt is prepared by double decomposition between solu- 
tions of acetate of lead and sulphate of zinc, or by dissolving the 
carbonate or oxide in acetic acid. ZnOjC^HgOg.-f^ 2H0. 

Properties and Uses. It is in thin, transparent, colorless, 
crystalline plates, with an astringent metallic taste. It effloresces 
in dry air, is very soluble in water, and moderately so in alcohol. 
In its medicinal effects it resembles the sulphate, but is seldom 
employed as an internal remedy. Externally, it is used as a 
collyrium in ophthalmia, and as an injection in gonorrhoea. The 
strength of the solution is one or two grains to the ounce. 

ZINCI OXIDUM. U, S. Oxide of Zinc. 

This is prepared by exposing the carbonate to a low red heat, 
until the water and carbonic acid are wholly expelled. It may 



GENERAL REMEDIES.^TONICS. 119 

also be obtained by the combustion of the metal, and when thus 
prepared was formerly called Jlowers of zinc, nihil album, etc. 
Composition, ZnO. 

Pro'perlies. It is a white, inodorous, and tasteless powder, in- 
soluble both in water and alcohol. It dissolves readily in acids 
without effervescence, and in alkalies. The commercial oxide is 
sometimes adulterated with starch, chalk, and the carbonate of 
zinc, which may be easily detected. The impure oxide, known 
as tutty, is formed during the smelting of lead ores containing 
zinc; it has a bluish cast, from the presence of metallic zinc. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The oxide of zinc possesses 
feeble tonic and antispasmodic properties, and has been used in 
epilepsy, chorea, and other spasmodic diseases. It is also re- 
commended as a remedy in the night-sweats of phthisis and other 
exhausting diseases. Externally, it is a mild absorbent and desic- 
cant, and is used as a dusting powder to excoriated surfaces, or 
in the form of ointment to chronic diseases of the skin attended 
with profuse secretion. 

Unuuentum Zinci Oxidi. U. S. Ointment of Oxide of Zinc 
is prepared by mixing eighty grains of the pure oxide with a 
troyouuce of simple ointment. 

ZINCI CARBONAS PR^CIPITATA. TJ. S. Precipitated 

Carbonate of Zinc. 

This preparation is obtained by the reaction between solutions 
of carbonate of soda and sulphate of zinc ; sulphate of soda is 
formed in solution, and carbonate of zinc is precipitated, washed, 
and dried by a gentle heat. SZnOjSCO^+GHO. The prepared 
calamine, obtained by burning and reducing to an impalpable 
powder, the native carbonate of zinc, was formerly used, but its 
use is now almost entirely abandoned. 

Properties and Uses. The precipitated carbonate is in the 
form of a very soft, loose, white powder, resembling magnesia. 
In its medicinal properties it .closely resembles the oxide, and is 
used externally as a dusting powder, either alone or mixed with 
starch, or in the form of ointment. 

Ceratum Zinci Carbonatis. U. S. Cerate of Carbonate of 



120 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Zinc is prepared by mixing one part of carbonate to fire parts 
of ointment of lard. This is a mild astringent application to 
excoriations, and superficial ulcerations produced by chafing 
of the skin, irritating secretions, burns, or other causes. 



ZINCI VALERIANAS. U. S. Valerianate of Zinc. 

This salt is prepared bv double decomposition between sulphate 
of zinc and valerianate of soda. Composition, Z\xO,G^^,^^,Oy 

Properties and Uses. It is in white, pearly scales, with the 
odor of valerian, and an astringent metallic taste ; it is soluble 
in one hundred and sixty parts of water, and sixty of alcohol. 
It is a nervine tonic, combining the antispasmodic virtues of zinc 
and valerian. It is found of superior efficacy in epilepsy to all 
the other salts of zinc, and also affords relief in neuralgia, where 
the disease is purely nervous, or accompanies uterine derange- 
ment. Dose, -^ of a grain, gradually increased to 3 grains ; it is 
best given in the form of pill, or suspended in a little mucilage. 

ZiNCi loDiDUM. Iodide of Zinc is prepared by digesting two 
parts of iodine and one part of zinc in four parts of water. 
Composition, Znl. It is a white, very deliquescent salt, soluble 
in water. It has been used internally, in doses of 1 grain thrice 
daily, in spasmodic diseases when complicated with scrofula; and 
externally, in the form of an ointment (5i to §i of lard), in en- 
larged lymphatic glands and scrofulous affections. 

ZiNCi Phosphas. Phosphate of Zinc is obtained by reaction 
between solutions of sulphate of zinc and an alkaline phosphate. 
Composition, ZnO,POg. It is a white salt, insoluble in water, but 
soluble in an excess of phosphoric acid. It has been recom- 
mended in epilepsy attended with disorder of the uterine functions, 
and in the night-sweats of phthisis. Dose, from 1 to 3 grains, in 
pill, or dissolved in water acidulated with phosphoric acid. 

ZiNCi Lactas. Lactate of Zinc, prepared by dissolving metal- 
lic zinc in dilute lactic acid and evaporating to crystallization, 
has been recommended as a remedy in epilepsy, as being more 
easily taken, and less liable to disagree with the stomach. Dose, 
2 grains three times a day, gradually increased till 10 grains are 
taken daily. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— TONICS. 121 



CADMIUM. U. S. Cadmium. 

Cadmium is a rare metal found associated with the zinc ores. 
It has a tin-white color, a high metallic lustre, is very malleable, 
and oxidizes slowly in the air. Its preparations possess medici- 
nal properties analogous to those of zinc ; in overdoses they act 
as irritant poisons. 

CADMII SULPHAS. U. S. Sulphate of Cadmium. 

This salt is obtained by dissolving the carbonate of cadmium 
in diluted sulphuric acid, concentrating the solution, and crystal- 
lizing. The carbonate is procured by first forming a nitrate (by 
dissolving the metal in diluted nitric acid), and then decomposing 
this with carbonate of soda. Composition, CdOjSOg+iHO. 

Properties and Uses. Sulphate of cadmium crystallizes in 
transparent and colorless oblique rhombic prisms, with an as- 
tringent, slightly acidulous taste. It efQoresces on exposure, and 
is very soluble in water. It resembles sulphate of zinc in its 
actions, but is much more powerful. It is chiefly used as a col- 
lyrium in nervous and inflammatory diseases of the eye, and as 
an injection in otorrhea. Strength of solution, one grain to f,^i 
of rose-water. 

Cadmii Iodidi. Iodide of Cadmium may be prepared by 
mixing iodine and filings of cadmium in a moist state. It is in 
large, white, transparent, six-sided crystals, soluble in water and 
alcohol. This preparation has been recommended as an efficient 
substitute for the iodide of lead, in the form of ointment, in 
enlarged scrofulous glands, and in certain cutaneous diseases, 
and is preferred by many, as it does not produce yellow dis- 
coloration. 

BISMUTHUM. U. S. Bismuth. 

This is a brittle, brilliant, crystalline metal, of a pinkish-white 
color, usually found native, associated with arsenic and copper, 
and occasionally in combination with oxygen and sulphur. It is 
extensively used in the arts in the composition of type metal, etc.; 
it is not used in medicine, except in the preparation of the sub- 



122 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

carbonate and subnitrate. It generally contains arsenic, and it 
is very important that this should be left behind in the preparation 
of these officinal preparations. 

BISMUTHI STJBNITRAS. U. S. Subnitrate of Bismuth. 

This salt, known as White Bismuth, is prepared by dissolving 
the metallic bismuth in dilute nitric acid to form a solution of the 
ternitrate of the oxide of bismuth As this is apt to contain 
arsenic, it is decomposed by adding carbonate of soda, thus pre- 
cipitating the insoluble carbonate of bismuth, and leaving in 
solution nitrate of soda, with any combinations of arsenic. The 
precipitate is then washed, and dissolved in nitric acid, and 
diluted with water till precipitation commences. Composition, 
BiOgjNOj^. It is a heavy, white powder, with a faint acid odor 
and taste, nearly insoluble in water. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Subnitrate of bismuth is a seda- 
tive and astringent tonic, principally used in painful affections of 
the stomach, unaccompanied by any organic disease, and in 
diarrhoea. In dyspepsia connected with irritability of the 
stomach, and characterized by pain after eating, it often proves 
serviceable when administered a short time before meals. In 
the diarrhoea of children, from irritability of the mucous membrane, 
and in the diarrhoea of phthisis, it proves very efficacious. It 
may often be given with advantage with, other medicines which 
allay pain, or neutralize acid, or restrain undue secretion. Dose, 
5 to 20 grains. 

BISMUTHI SUBCARBONAS. U. S. Suhcarhonate of Bis- 
muth. 

This is prepared by dissolving the freshly precipitated nitrate 
of bismuth in nitric acid by the aid of heat, diluting with water 
till the solution begins to be milky, and then gradually adding it 
to a solution of carbonate of soda, when an interchange of princi^ 
pies takes place, nitrate of soda remaining in solution, and carbo 
nate of bismuth being precipitated ; this is then carefully washed, 
to remove the soda, and dried. Composition, BiO^jCO^. 



GENERAL RE3IEDIES.— TONICS. 123 

Properties and Uses. It is a white or yellowish-wbite, in- 
odorous, and tasteless powder, insoluble in water, but soluble 
with effervescence in dilute acids. It has been recommended as 
a substitute for the subnitrate, and is applicable to the same 
diseases. It is more soluble in the gastric juice, is somewhat 
antacid, and is said not to constipate. Dose, 10 to 40 grains. 

BiSMUTHi ET Ammonia Citras. Citrate of Bismuth and 
Ammonia. To prepare this, the citrate is first made by double 
decomposition between the freshly precipitated subnitrate of bis- 
muth and citrate of potassa. The precipitated citrate thus formed 
is then rubbed with sufficient w^ater to make a paste, and water 
of ammonia is gradually added until it is dissolved. The solu- 
tion is filtered, and spread on glass to dry. Composition, BiOj, 
NH^O.Cj^HjOjj-f 5H0. It is in fine, glossy, translucent, color- 
less scales, of a slight, acidulous, somewhat metallic taste, very 
soluble in water. It possesses the advantage of being soluble, 
and hence acts with greater certainty and efficiency than the in- 
soluble and bulky preparations. Dose, 2 grains. 

Liquor BismiUlii is a solution of the above salt in water, pro- 
tected from spontaneous decomposition by a small quantity of 
ammonia and alcohol. There is, however, no occasion for a per- 
manent solution, as it may at any time be dissolved when wanted 
for use. 

BisMUTHi Tannas. Tannate of Bismuth may be obtained by 
triturating tannic acid with the oxide of bismuth, precipitated from 
a solution of the nitrate by caustic soda. It occurs in the form 
of a yellowish, insoluble, nearly tasteless powder. It combines 
the astringency of tannin with the sedative quality of bismuth, 
and is highly useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, both acute and 
chronic. Dose, 5 to 20 grains, in pill, or suspended in mucilage, 

BiSMUTHi Valerianas. Valerianate of Bismuth is formed by 
mixing a neutral solution of the subnitrate with valerianate of 
soda, washing the precipitate with water, and drying with a 
gentle heat. It is a white powder, soluble in water, and has 
been used in neuralgia, and in painful affections of the stomach. 
Dose, ^ to 2 grains repeated several times a day. 



124 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

MANGANESII OXIDUM NIGRUM. U. S. Black Oxide of 

Manganese. 

This is the native impure deutoxide of manganese. This metal 
is very generally diffused throughout the mineral kingdom, and 
may be obtained from the native black oxide (pyrolusite) by in- 
tense ignition with charcoal ; it is a hard, brittle, grayish-white 
metal, resembling iron in some of its chemical properties. The 
salts of manganese are tonic and alterative, closely resembling 
those of iron in their medicinal properties, and applicable to the 
same class of diseases. Only the oxide and sulphate are officinal, 
though several other of its combinations have been proposed 
as medicines : the Phosphate, Tartrate, Carbonate, and Iodide. 
The oxide is used in the arts for various purposes, in the labora- 
tory in the processes for obtaining oxygen and chlorine ; as a 
medicine it is seldom resorted to, but has been used as a tonic in 
doses of from 3 to 20 grains three times a day, given in the form 
of pill. 

MANGANESII SULPHAS. U. S. Sulphate of Manganese. 

This salt is prepared by heating the native black oxide with 
concentrated sulphuric acid ; oxygen is evolved, and a sulphate 
of the protoxide is formed. MnOjSOg. 

Properties and Uses. It is in transparent, rhombic prisms, of 
a pale-rose or pink color, with an astringent or bitterish taste, 
very soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol. In small doses 
(5 to 20 grains), it has been used as an adjuvant to iron in anae- 
mia, and other cases requiring mineral tonics ; in larger doses 
(1 to 2 drachms), it acts as a purgative, resembling the sulphate 
of soda in its operation. 

CERII OXALAS. Oxalate of Cerium. 

The metal Cerium is found in the form of oxide, associated 
with other metals, in cerite, a very rare mineral. The oxalate of 
cerium is prepared by double decomposition between oxalic acid 
and the protosulphate of cerium, procured from the mineral cerite 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— MINERAL ACIDS. 125 

by the action of sulphuric acid, and freed from the other metals 
b}^ a complex process. Composition, 2CeO,C^Op+GnO. 

Properties and Uses. The oxalate is a white, granular powder, 
inodorous and tasteless, insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether, but 
readily dissolved by sulphuric acid. It acts as a sedative tonic, 
and may be used with evident advantage in cases of dyspepsia 
with gastrodynia and pyrosis. It is also much used, and with 
decided success, as a remedy for obstinate vomiting in pregnancy. 
Dose, 1 or 2 grains three times a day in pills. 

The Nitrate of CeiHum (CeO,N05) possesses similar thera- 
peutic powers, and has been recommended in the same cases. 

NICCOLI SULPHAS. Sulphate of Nickel. 

This salt is obtained by dissolving the carbonate or oxide of 
nickel in dilute sulphuric acid, concentrating and crystallizing. 
NiOjSOg-f tHO. It occurs in emerald-green, prismatic crystals, 
of a sweetish, astringent taste, very soluble in water, but insolu- 
ble in alcohol. It acts as a gentle tonic, and has been success- 
fully used in cases of severe and obstinate periodic headache. 
Dose, ^ to 1 grain three times a day, in pill or simple solution. 



MINERAL ACIDS. 

The mineral acids, in their concentrated form, are caustic and 
escharotic, and when swallowed, act as corrosive poisons. They 
unite with the water, and coagulate the albumen of the tissues 
with which they come into contact, decomposing and destroying 
them. Properly diluted and in moderate doses they act as tonics, 
increasing the appetite and promoting the digestion. They are 
absorbed, and in their passage through and out of the system act 
as astringents to the glands generally, by corrugating and dimin- 
ishing the calibre of their minute ducts, and thus decrease the 
amount of the secretions. In poisoning by the mineral acids the 
antidotes are the alkaline earths, soap, and mucilaginous drinks. 



126 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 



ACIDUM SULPHFRICITM. U. S. Sulphuric Acid. 

This acid, formerly called Oil of Vitriol, is obtained by burn- 
ing a mixture of sulphur and nitrate of potassa over a stratum of 
water in a leaden chamber. Sulphur when burned forms sul- 
phurous acid, which, coming into contact in the form of vapor with 
nitrous acid from the burning nitre, becomes more highly oxidized 
into sulphuric acid, which unites with. one equivalent of water. 
H0,S03. 

Properties. It is a dense, oily-looking liquid, sp. gr. r845, 
colorless when pure, without odor, with an intensely acid and 
corrosive taste, evolving heat on the addition of water. It acts 
powerfully on organic bodies, whether vegetable or animal, by 
abstracting from them the elements of water, developing char- 
coal, and turning them black. Its presence may be detected, 
whether fr^e or in combination, by the white precipitate it affords 
with all the soluble salts of baryta, which is insoluble in water, 
in acids, and alkalies. 

Medical Uses. Externally, it is sometimes used as a caustic; 
internally, in small doses, properly diluted, it is a powerful tonic, 
refrigerant, and antiseptic. It is only prescribed in one of the 
following officinal diluted forms: 

AciDUM SuLPHURicuM DiLUTUM. U. S. Diluted Sulphuric 
Acid is prepared by gradually adding two troyounces of acid to 
sufficient water to make a pint. Sp. gr. 1-082. 

It is used as a refrigerant in fevers, as an astringent to check 
hemorrhage and passive mucous discharges, and as a general 
tonic, to improve digestion. It is beneficially employed in 
diarrhoea dependent on a relaxed state of the mucous membrane, 
and is one of our most efficient remedies for the colliquative 
sweats of phthisis. In convalescence from protracted fevers, 
combined with vegetable tonics, it proves of great service. It 
is also resorted to, both as a prophylactic and as a remedial agent, 
in colica pictonum. Dose, 10 to 30 drops, freely diluted, and 
repeated three times a day or oftener. 

AciDUM SuLPHURicuM Aromaticum. U. S. Aromatic Sul- 
phuric Acid, commonly called Elixir of Vitriol, is prepared by 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— MINERAL ACIDS. 127 

adding six troyounces of acid, gradually, to a pint of alcohol, and 
mixing with a pint of tincture, obtained by percolating a troyounce 
of ginger, and a troyounce and a half of cinnamon, with alcohol. 
It is a reddish-brown liquid, with an agreeable aromatic odor and 
taste. It possesses the same properties as the diluted acid, and 
is generally preferred as a tonic. It contains more acid than the 
diluted acid, but the dose in drops is about the same, the alco- 
holic liquid giving smaller drops than the aqueous, 

ACIDUM NITRICUM, U. S. Nitric Acid. 

This acid, cSiWeA Aqua Fortis, exists in nature in combination, 
and is sometimes free in spring-water. It is artificially obtained 
by distilling a mixture of equal parts by weight of nitrate of 
potassa and sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid combines with 
the potassa, and the nitric acid, being set free, is distilled over. 
The strongest acid containing one equivalent of water, HO, NOg, 
has a sp. gr. 1-5, but owing to the presence of water in the in- 
gredients used in its preparation, is usually of a lower specific 
gravity. The officinal acid contains four equivalents of water, 
^0^,4110, and has a sp. gr. 1-42. It contains about 15 per cent, 
of nitric acid, of the sp. gr. 1-5. 

Properties. The officinal acid is a strongly acid and corrosive 
liquid, colorless when pure, but usually of a yellowish tinge, due 
to the presence of nitrous acid, developed by the action of light ; 
it has a powerful affinity for water. It acts powerfully on animal 
matter, causing its decomposition. When uncombined, it may 
be recognized by its dissolving copper, with the production of red 
fumes, and by its forming nitre when saturated with potassa. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In its concentrated state it is 
a powerful caustic and escharotic, and is used to destroy warts, 
and as an application to hemorrhoids ; properly diluted, it may 
be applied as a wash to sloughing and ill-conditioned ulcers. 
Internally, diluted, it acts as a refrigerant and tonic. 

AciDUM NiTRicuM DiLUTUM. U. S. Diluted Nitric Acid is 
prepared by adding three troyounces of acid to water sufficient 
to make a pint. It is less used as a tonic than the sulphuric 
acid, but is often resorted to as an alterative after long courses 



128 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. * 

of mercury. It is highly recommended in secondary or consti- 
tutional syphilis, particularly in obstinate syphilitic eruptions. 
In chronic hepatitis, when the use of mercury is contraindicated, 
the symptoms will frequently be ameliorated by the use of this 
acid. Dose, 20 to 40 drops, diluted with water at the time of 
taking it. 

Nitrous Acid. The nitrous acid of the shops is nitric acid 
containing more or less hyponitric acid, N04, and is usually such 
as passes over at the commencement of the process for obtaining 
the nitric acid. It is chiefly used by the pharmaceutist in pre- 
paring Hope^s camplior mixture, which contains thirty minims 
of acid, and twenty minims of laudanum, in f Jiv of camphor- 
water. This is much used in diarrhoea and dysentery, in doses 
of f^ss every two hours. 

ACIDUM MURIATICIJM. U. S. 3Iuriatic Acid. 

Hydrochloric Acid (also called Marine Acid, Spirit of Salt) 
is an aqueous solution of muriatic acid gas, HCI, of the sp. gr. 
1-lGO. It is obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on chloride 
of sodium (common salt). The water of the sulphuric acid is 
decomposed, its oxygen combining with the sodium to form soda, 
which unites with the acid to form sulphate of soda, while the 
hydrogen of the water and the chlorine combine to form the 
gaseous hydrochloric acid, which distills over, and is absorbed 
by the water in the receiver. 

Properties. When pure it is a colorless and sour liquid, but 
as found in commerce has a yellowish or brownish tint, with an 
acid odor. On exposure it emits white, pungent fumes. 

Iledical Properties and Uses. The strong Ucid is caustic and 
escharotic, and may be employed for the same purposes as the 
nitric acid, though inferior to it. 

AciDUM MuRiATicuM DiLUTUM. U. S. Diluted Muriatic Acid, 
prepared by adding four troyounces of acid to water suQicient to 
make a pint, is an excellent alterative and tonic. It has been em- 
ployed with benefit in some forms of dyspepsia, and proves highly 
serviceable in typhus and typhoid fevers. It is an excellent ad- 
junct to gargles in ulcerated sore -throat and scarlatina maligna. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— STIMULANTS. 129 

Dose, 10 to 30 drops freely diluted. As a tonic it may be com- 
bined with the bitter tonic infusions. 



ACIDUM NITROMURIATICUM. U. S. NitromuriatiG 

Acid. 

This acid, the Aqua Begia of the earlier chemists, is prepared 
by mixing together three parts of nitric acid and five parts of 
muriatic acid. It is a compound of chlorine and nitric oxide, 
mixed with free chlorine. 

Properties. It has a golden-yellow color, with the odor of 
chlorine ; it possesses the property of dissolving gold and plati- 
num, which are insoluble in either of its components separately; 
owing to its proneness to lose its free chlorine, it should be made 
in small quantities at a time as required for use. 

Iledical Properties and Uses. The strong acid is caustic and 
escharotic. Internally, diluted, it acts as a tonic and alterative. 

AciDUM NiTROMURiATicuM DiLUTUM. U. S. Diluted Nitro- 
7)iuriatic Acid is prepared by mixing one and a half troyounces 
of nitric acid with two and a half troyounces of muriatic acid, and 
adding water to make a pint. This preparation is much used in 
calculous diseases, and in chronic diseases of the liver, and has 
also been highly recommended in syphilitic affections, especially 
where mercury is contraindicated by a scrofulous or broken-down 
constitution. Largely diluted, it is used as a bath or stimulating 
wash. Dose, 5 to 15 minims properly diluted. 



STIMULANTS. 

The term Stimulant is applied to all agents which increase the 
vital activity of the system. Food and fresh air are the essen- 
tial stimuli of the living organism, and heat, light, and electricity 
act as universal stimulants to the system. But in a medical 
sense we apply the term to those substances whose primary in- 
fluence is to increase the vital actions, and they may be 8ub- 

9 



130 3IATERTA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

divided into Arterial, Nervous, Cerebral, or Spinal Stimulants, 
according to their tendency to affect either of these systems. 



AETEEIAL STIMULANTS. 

This class of medicines, also termed Diffusible Stimulants, are 
those which act especially on the circulatory system, with com- 
parative little direct influence on the nervous system. Their 
general effects are simple and obvious. When swallowed, they 
produce a sensation of warmth in the stomach, which soon diffuses 
itself over the whole body. They are absorbed, and while in 
the blood increase the action of the heart and arteries, invigorate 
the muscular system, and impart general energy to the brain and 
nervous system. They differ from tonics in acting rapidly and 
forcibly, and without adding anything to the, blood, producing 
merely increased action, without power. Their effects pass off 
promptly, while those of tonics are permanent. In their pas- 
sage out of the system through the secretory organs they act as 
topical agents, and increase the secretions ; hence we find among 
them some of the most powerful expectorants, sudorifics, and 
diuretics. 

They are to be resorted to in cases of debility with great depres- 
sion of the vital powers, and where there is a tendency to pros- 
tration and collapse. They must be used with caution, in conse- 
quence of the danger of inordinate reaction. They are also used 
in hemorrhages, in debility occurring during the progress of acute 
disease, and sometimes to establish reaction at the onset of 
disease. Their use, as a general rule, is contraindicated during 
the existence of active local inflammation, and in organic disease 
of the heart, and in all cases must be used with caution. 

The number of agents producing a stimulant effect on the cir- 
culation is very large, but most of them possess other prominent 
properties, which rank them in other classes. Those only are 
mentioned here which are chiefly used in disease for their primary 
stimulant properties, and not for their secondary or remote 
effects. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ARTERIAL STIMULANTS. 131 

AMMONIJE CARBONAS. U. S. Carbonate of Ammonia. 

This salt, sometimes called Sesquicarbonate of Ammonia, is 
usually prepared by subliming a mixture of muriate of ammonia 
and ebalk (carbonate of lime) from an iron retort into a large 
earthen or leaden receiver. 

Properties. It occurs in commerce in white, hard, translucent 
lumps, of a fibrous, crystalline texture, with a pungent, ammoni- 
acal odor, and a caustic, alkaline taste, producing a protracted 
irritation in the throat. Composition, 2NH^O,3C02. On expo- 
sure it loses a portion of its ammonia, and becomes a white, pul- 
verulent mass, which is the bicarbonate of ammonia. It volatil- 
izes when heated, is soluble in water, sparingly so in alcohol, and 
effervesces with the dilute acids. 

Medical ProiDerties and Uses. Carbonate of ammonia is 
antacid, stimulant, and expectorant ; in large doses emetic, and 
in still larger doses irritant, causing great disturbance of the 
nervous system. As a stimulant, it is resorted to in the advanced 
stages of typhus and typhoid fevers, in which it possesses the 
power of increasing the action of the heart, without unduly excit- 
ing the brain. As a stimulating expectorant, it often proves ser- 
viceable in the advanced stages of pneumonia, when the inflam- 
matory symptoms have subsided and it becomes of importance to 
promote expectoration ; also in chronic bronchitis and catarrhal 
affections occurring in debilitated constitutions, and in the ad- 
vanced stages of croup. In skin diseases, and especially in the 
exanthemata when the eruption has suddenly disappeared, it 
proves a valuable remedy by removing the depression of the 
nervous system. As an antacid, it is less eligible than the other 
alkaline carbonates. Dose, 5 to 10 grains, in pill or solution, 
preferable in the latter. Its acrimony may be blunted by the use 
of sugar and mucilage. 

Spiritus Ammonia Aromaticus. U. S. Aromatic Spirit of 
Ammonia. (A solution of one troyounce of carbonate of ammonia, 
with three fluidounces of water of ammonia, in a pint and a half 
of alcohol, diluted with water sufficient to make a pint, and fla- 
vored with 5U^s of oil of lemons, forty minims of oil of nutmeg, 
and fifteen minims of oil of lavender.) An excellent stimulant, 
antispasmodiCj and carminative. Dose, fjss to fji. 



152 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Spiritus Ammonia. U. S. Spirit of Ammonia. (A solution 
of ammoniacal gas in alcohol.) This preparation is now but 
little used, the aromatic spirit, which is more pleasant, being 
preferred. As it dissolves gum-resins, it is a convenient addi- 
tion to liniments intended to produce a rubefacient effect. 

OLEUM TEREBINTHIN^. TJ. S. Oil of Turpentine. 

The volatile oil, obtained by distillation from the turpentine 
of Finns palustris and of other species of Pinus. It is chiefly 
procured from North Carolina, and maybe purified by redistilling 
it with water, which deprives it of the resin, which the commercial 
oil usually contains. Composition, C^^H^g. 

Properties. The oil, commonly called Spirit of Turpentine, 
is a colorless, limpid liquid, sp. gr. 0*86, with a powerful, pene- 
trating odor, and a burning, pungent taste. It is very volatile 
and inflammable; is very slightly soluble in water, soluble in 
alcohol and ether ; is miscible in all proportions with the fixed 
oils, and dissolves resins and fats. On exposure it absorbs oxygen, 
and becomes thicker and yellowish, owing to the formation of 
resin. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small doses, repeated, it is 
stimulant and diuretic ; in large doses, cathartic ; and applied to 
the skin, rubefacient. It is absorbed, imparting a violet odor to 
the urine, and, if long continued, produces painful irritation of the 
urinary passages, sometimes amounting to violent strangury. As 
a stimulant, it is of the highest value in typhoid fever, and in the 
advanced stages of continued and inflammatory fevers. In cases 
where the vital energies are depressed, and especially those in 
which the tongue has become perfectly dry, with a surface desti- 
tute of its ordinary papillary appearance ; when coma or stupor 
are present, or when delirium, with subsultus tendinum, exists, it 
often arouses the vital powers, and exercises a most beneficial in- 
fluence. In typhoid fever, in addition to its stimulant properties, 
it seems to have an alterative influence upon the ulcerated sur- 
face of the bowels characteristic of that disease. In intestinal 
hemorrhages, especially those of a passive character, in hemor- 
rhages from the lungs, uterus, and kidneys, and in cases of dys- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ARTERIAL STIMULANTS. 133 

entery, when the tongue is smooth and dry, it often proves highly 
useful. In small and repeated doses it also exercises a powerful 
influence in diseases of the genito-urinary organs, when chronic 
and unattended by inflammatory symptoms, as gleet, leucorrhoea, 
and gonorrhoea ; and Pereira says that it seems to act by setting 
up a new kind of irritation, which supersedes the previously ex- 
isting disease. In cerebral affections, particularly apoplexy, in 
the form of enema, it proves valuable as a revulsive and deriva- 
tive. In large doses, as a cathartic, it is an excellent anthel- 
mintic. It appears to destroy or debilitate the worm, which, 
losing its hold upon the bowels, is easily discharged. Dose, 10 
to 20 drops. As an anthelmintic, from 2 to 4 drachms, followed 
by castor oil in a few hours. 

LiNiMENTUM Terebinthin.<b. IT. S. Known as Kentisli's oint- 
ment (prepared by adding half a pint of oil of turpentine to twelve 
troyounces of melted resin cerate) is highly recommended as a 
remedy in burns and scalds. 

CAPSICUM. U. S. Cmjenne Pepper. 

This is commonly called Sed Pepper, and is the fruit of Cap- 
sicum annuum, and of other species of Capsicum, tropical plants, 
but extensively cultivated in this country. 

Properties. The fruit is a light, shining berry, of a bright-red 
or orange color, of a faint, peculiar odor, with a hot, acrid taste. 
This, when dried and ground, forms the Cayenne pepper of com- 
merce, and when fresh, is of a bright-red color, which it loses by 
age or exposure. Water and alcohol extract its virtues, which 
depend upon an acrid, volatile.principle, capsicin. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Capsicum is much employed as 
a condiment added to various articles of food, either to improve 
their flavor, or to promote their assimilation. As a medicine it is 
chiefly valuable as a local stimulant to the mouth, throat, and 
stomach. Internally, it is given in various diseases, attended 
with diminished susceptibility of the stomach, and proves a valu- 
able adjunct to other remedies, whose operation it promotes. As 
a gargle it is useful in relaxed conditions of the throat, and par- 
ticularly in that form of tonsillitis which arises in some cases of 



134 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

scarlet fever. Externally applied, it is a powerful rubefacient, 
well adapted to low forms of disease where a stimulant impres- 
sion is desired. Dose of the powder, 5 to 10 grains given in pill. 

Infusum Capsici. U. S. Infusion of Capsicum (half a troy- 
ounce to a pint of boiling water) is used chiefly as a gargle. 

TiNCTURA Capsici. IT. S. Tincture of Capsicum. (A troy- 
ounce to two pints of diluted alcohol.) This preparation is a 
useful stimulant in the low stages of typhus and scarlet fevers, 
and is often used to prevent the nausea which pil of turpentine 
is apt to occasion. Dose, f5ss to f5i. 

Oleoresina Capsici. U. S. An ethereal extract, possessing in 
a high degree all the properties of capsicum. It may be used 
when a powerful stimulating stomachic is needed. Dose, ^ to 1 
drop. 

ALCOHOL. TJ. S. 

"When the juices of certain saccharine vegetable substances are 
exposed to the action of air and moisture, they undergo what is 
called vinous fermentation. In this process the sugar disappears, 
and becomes converted into alcohol, which remains in the liquid 
and carbonic acid, which escapes. Thus the grape yields wine- 
the apple, cider, etc. These liquors contain alcohol, along with 
coloring matter and other principles. On subjecting them to 
distillation, we obtain what are called ardent spirits, as brandy, 
whisky, gin, rum, etc., which contain alcohol in a diluted state, 
with additional ingredients, which give to each its peculiar char- 
acteristics. By subjecting these again to distillation we obtain 
alcohol, which is officinal in different forms. 

Alcohol. U. S. Eectified Spirit. Sjnrit of Wine. Spirit of 
the specific gravity 835. 

Alcohol Fortius. U. S. Stronger Alcohol. Spirit of sp. gr. 
O'Sn (prepared by agitating officinal alcohol with heated car- 
bonate of potassa). 

Alcohol Dilutum. XJ. S. Diluted Alcohol. (Alcohol mixed 
with an equal measure of water.) Sp. gr. 0-491. 

Alcohol is a transparent, colorless liquid, with a pungent, 
rather agreeable odor, and acrid, burning taste. It is highly in- 
flammable, and burns with a pale-blue flame, free from smoke, 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ARTERIAL STIMULANTS. 135 

and boils at 173°. It unites in all proportions with water, 
dissolves many vegetable substances, most fixed oils and resins. 
Its formula is C^HgO.^, or, viewing it as a hydrated oxide ot 
ethyl, C,H,0 + HO. 

Spiritus Vini Gallici. U. S. Brandy. Spirit obtained by 
distillation from fermented grape-juice, containing from 48 to 56 
per cent, of alcohol. 

Spiritus Frumenti. U. S. Whisky. Spirit obtained from 
fermented grain by distillation, of the same strength. 

Besides these officinal liquors, we have Arrack from fermented 
rice, Rum from molasses or sugar, and others, manufactured from 
a variety of substances, and of varying degrees of purity, which 
are used when we wish to obtain the medicinal effects of 
alcohol. 

Physiological Effects. Alcohol is a powerful diffusive stimulant, 
exciting the nervous and vascular systems, producing general 
exhilaration of spirits, and occasioning a rapid flow of ideas. 
These effects vary according to the. strength of the liquor, the 
quantity taken, and the constitution of the patient. These are 
succeeded by a state of depression, varying in intensity 
to the previous amount of excitement. In large doses it pro- 
duces the well-known effects of intoxication; and iu excessive 
doses it acts as a powerful narcotic poison, causing death, 
preceded by slow pulse, contracted pupils, and coma. Exter- 
nally, it acts as a refrigerant and irritant. It also possesses the 
power of preventing the putrefaction of animal matter. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In moderate doses, properly di- 
luted, alcoholic liquors ace employed as stimulants to support 
the vital powers when exhausted, as in the advanced stages of 
fevers, particularly those of a typhoid character, and in conditions 
of collapse. Externally, alcohol may be employed as a refrigerant 
and stimulant for many forms of external inflammation, as 
erysipelas and erythema, for various skin diseases, and to prevent 
excoriation in parts exposed to prolonged pressure. In cases of 
poisoning by alcohol the stomach should be evacuated by an 
emetic, and should insensibility remain, the cold affusion will be 
found useful. The coma of ordinary intoxication is best treated 
by the internal use of ammonia, or of the solution of the acetate 
of ammonia. 



136 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

YiNUM. TJ. S. Wine is the fermented juice of the grape, the 
fruit of the Vitis vinifera, of which several thousand varieties 
exist. Wines vary in quality and character according to the 
plants from which they are produced, and the locality in which 
they grow. The most important constituent is alcohol, associated 
with coloring matter, volatile oil, extractive, and various acids and 
salts. The proportion of alcohol varies from t or 8 per cent, in 
claret to 22 in the best madeira. ThcAigh only Yinum Xericum, 
Sherry Wine, and Yinum Portense, Port Wine, are officinal, 
others, as claret, champagne, etc., are used as remedies in sev- 
eral forms of disease. 

Wine is a diffusible stimulant, and is preferable to ardent spir- 
its in acute inflammations, and fevers when typhoid symptoms 
develop themselves. It may be given pure, or in the form of 
wine-ivhey, made by adding wine to boiling milk, straining to 
separate the curd, and sweetening with sugar. In pharmacy it 
is used as a menstruum to extract the" virtues of several plants. 

Malt Liquors may be advantageously employed where we 
desire to give permanent support with as little stimulation as 
possible, as in diseases tending to emaciation, chronic ab- 
scesses, etc. 

Alcohol Amylicum. U. S. Amylic Alcohol. Fusel Oil is a 
peculiar alcohol obtained by continuing the distillation from fer- 
mented grain or potatoes after the ordinary spirit has ceased to 
come over. It is an oily, colorless liquid, of a strong, offensive 
odor, and acrid, burning taste. It is employed in pharmacy in 
the preparation of valerianic acid. 

PHOSPHORUS. U. S. 

Phosphorus is a non-metallic element, discovered in 1669, 
and found in the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, in 
the form of phosphoric acid, usually united with lime. It is ob- 
tained by treating with sulphuric acid the calcined bones of 
animals, and sublimating the mass with charcoal, when the 
phosphorus may be collected in a receiver containing water. 

Properties. It is a semi-transparent solid, resembling bleached 
wax, without taste, having a garlicky smdll. At 32° it is brittle, 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ARTERIAL STIMULANTS. 13t 

but at ordinary temperatures it is flexible, and may be easily cut. 
It fuses at 110°, is inflammable, and on exposure to the air at 
ordinary temperatures undergoes slow combustion, emitting va- 
pors, which are luminous in the dark. It is insoluble in water, 
but soluble in alcohol, ether, and fixed and volatile oils. 

Medical ProjDerties and Uses. In small doses phosphorus is 
stimulant and aphrodisiac ; in large doses, an irritant poison. It 
has been used in cases attended with great prostration of the vi- 
tal powers, as in the latter stages of fever, dropsies, and other 
diseases, occurring in debilitated subjects. It also acts on the 
genital organs, and has been given with reputed success in impo- 
tence. Dose, y'g to |- of a grain. The best form for internal use 
is the ethereal tincture (four parts of phosphorus in two hundred 
of ether), or phosphorated oil (ten grains of phosphorus in an ounce 
of oil). The dose of either of these formulas is from 5 to 10 
drops. 

AciDUM Phosphoricum Glaciale. U. S. Glacial Phosphoric 
Acid. Pure anhydrous phosphoric acid is only obtained when 
phosphorus is burned in oxygen gas. It is susceptible of three 
modifications, each characterized by peculiar properties, dis- 
tinguished by its relation to water acting the part of a base. 
It is called metaphosphoric acid, bibasic or tribasic acid, accord- 
ing as it is united with one, two, or three equivalents of water. 
The glacial acid (HO,POj;) is obtained by heating phosphate of 
ammonia to drive oif ammonia and all but one equivalent of 
water. 

Properties. It occurs in transparent, colorless, glasslike masses, 
slowly deliquescent in the air, soluble in water and alcohol, 
inodorous, and sour to the taste. It is only used in medicine in 
preparing the medicinal acid. 

AciDUM Phosphoricum Dilutum. U. S. Dilute Phosphoric 
Acid. This is a solution of tribasic phosphoric acid (SHOjPOg) 
in water. It may be prepared by boiling the glacial acid in 
water, with the addition of a little nitric acid, by which it be- 
comes converted into tribasic acid, or by the direct action of 
dilute nitric acid upon the phosphorus. 

Properties. The dilute acid is a colorless, inodorous, sour 
liquid, possessing strong acid properties. In small doses it 



138 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

is a tonic and refrigerant ; and in larger doses it acts as a power- 
ful stimulant to the nervous and vascular systems. It has been 
employed as a stimulant in purely chronic and asthenic cases, 
and occasionally with a view of correcting alkalescence in the 
urine. Dose, 10 to 40 drops, diluted. 



NERVOUS STIMULANTS. 

Nervous Stimulants or Nervines are those agents which stimu- 
late the nervous system, without acting especially on the brain, 
and without being followed by depression or insensibility. 

They are usually termed Antispasmodics, from their power of 
controlling irregular and inordinate muscular contraction, but this 
term is improper. It views them as correcting a single morbid 
condition of the system, and is not at all descriptive of the medi- 
cinal effects of these agents. Spasm may arise from a variety of 
causes, and whatever removes the cause of nervous irritation will 
prove antispasmodic. Thus purgatives, by removing an irritating 
cause from the intestinal canal, anodynes, by allaying irritation 
and pain, and tonics, by strengthening the whole system, act as 
antispasmodics. But there are certain medicinal agents which 
appear to exert a specific control over spasmodic action, independ- 
ent of any influence upon its exciting cause, and these seem to 
act by their stimulating effect upon the nervous system. Head- 
land says, " The spasms which these medicines relieve are due 
to a fault in the nervous polarity, commencing generally in the 
brain or nerve-centres, and are more or less subdued by general 
stimulation of the nervous functions." 

All the agents belonging to this class are remarkable for their 
peculiar odor and their volatility. They are absorbed unaltered, 
and their odor can readily be detected in the secretions. When 
taken internally they produce a feeling of heat and warmth in the 
stomach, which is speedily diffused throughout the .system. The 
circulation is increased, and they induce a tendency to sleep, not 
from any direct narcotic effect, but by relieving the system from 
pain, and quieting the nervous irritability, which so often prevents 
sleep. They act very rapidly, and their effects are only tempo- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— NERVOUS STIMULANTS. 139 

rary, thus requiring a repetition and increased doses of the medi- 
cine. 

They ma}^ be used to give tone in diseases which depend upon 
a morbid sensibility and impaired energy of the whole nervous 
system, and to allay that irregular and violent contraction of the 
muscular fibre which is called spasm. They ought not to be 
used where there is plethora or inflammatory action, 

CASTOREUM. U. S. Castor. 

A peculiar concrete substance, obtained from (membranous 
follicles which exist between the anus and external genitals of) 
Castor Fiber, the Beaver, an animal inhabiting the northern por- 
tions of Europe, Asia, and America. The drug is distinguished, 
according to its source, into the Canadian or American, and the 
Russian castor. The latter is considered the most valuable, but 
our market is supplied chiefly by the former. 

Properties. It consists of pear-shaped bags, much wrinkled 
and flattened, about two inches in length, of a dark-brown color 
externally, paler within, breaking with a resinous fracture, and 
feeling unctuous to the touch. It has a bitter taste, and a strong, 
fetid odor. It is insoluble in water and cold alcohol, but ether 
extracts its virtues, which depend upon a peculiar proximate prin- 
ciple termed casiorin. Besides this, it contains volatile oil, 
resin, and other unimportant substances. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Castor is a mild nervous stimu- 
lant, with but little effect upon the circulation, and may be used 
in low forms of fever, attended with nervous symptoms, and in 
spasmodic affections dependent upon uterine derangement. It 
is but little used. Dose, 10 to 30 grains, given in bolus or emul- 
sion. 

TiNCTURA Castorei. U. S. Tincture of Castor. (Two troy- 
ounces to two pints of alcohol.) Dose, 30 to 60 drops. 

MOSCHUS. U. S. Musk. 

Musk is a peculiar concrete substance, obtained from the pre- 
putial follicles of the Moschus moschiferus, an animal resem- 



140 MATERIA MEDIOA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

bling the deer in its general characters, and inhabiting the mount- 
ainous regions of Central Asia. 

Properties. The sac or bag which contains the musk is from 
two to three inches in length, bare on the side to which it is at- 
tached, and covered with stiff hairs on the convex side. The 
musk is granular, of a dark-brown color, soft and unctuous to the 
touch, of a bitter and aromatic taste, and of a well-known and 
remarkable odor. There are two varieties in commerce, the 
Russian, and the Chinese, which is the most valuable when 
genuine. The bags are frequently found to have been opened, 
and the musk adulterated with dried blood and other impurities, 
which may generally be detected by the feeble odor and gritty 
feel. It is insoluble in water, but yields its properties partially 
to alcohol and wholly to ether. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Musk is a powerful stimulant 
and antispasmodic, and may be used with decided advantage in 
the subsultus tendinum of fevers and other diseases assuming the 
typhoid type. Dose, 5 to 20 grains, given in pill or emulsion. 

ASSAFCETIDA. U. S. Assafetida. 

The concrete juice of the Narthex Assafoetida, a tall perennial 
plant, native of Persia, and the adjacent countries. The gum is 
obtained by slicing off the top of the living root, which is fleshy, 
a foot or more in length, and about three inches in diameter at 
the top, and then scraping off the juice with a knife as fast as it 
concretes. This process is repeated until the root is completely 
exhausted, and the juice is then allowed to harden in the sun. 

Properties. It is in lumps of different sizes and consistence, 
sometimes soft and adhesive, at others quite hard and brittle, of 
a brownish-yellow color, interspersed with tears of a white, red, 
or violet hue. Occasionally it is met with in distinct roundish 
or oval tears, varying from the size of a pea to that of a walnut. 
When cut it presents a waxy lustre, acquiring on exposure a rose 
tint. It has a powerful alliaceous and disagreeable odor, with a 
bitter and acrid taste ; softens at a moderate heat, and is inflam- 
mable. It is a gum-resin, containing about G5 per cent, of resin, 
with gum, bassorin, and a trace of volatile oil. It is insoluble 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— NERVOUS STIMULANTS. 141 

in water, but forms with it a milky emulsion (the gum being 
soluble suspends the resin in mixture); it is soluble in alcohol. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Assafetida is a powerful 
stimulating antispasmodic, the most active of all the fetid gum- 
resins, well adapted for the spasmodic nervous diseases of females, 
as hysteria, and some forms of chorea and epilepsy. In flatu- 
lence and flatulent colic, occurring in old or hysterical persons, 
in the convulsions of children, especially when dependent on flatu- 
lence, and in the chronic stage of hooping-cough, it is very effi- 
cacious. Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 

TiNCTURA AssAFCETiD^. U. S. Tincture of Assttfetida. (Four 
troj^ounces in two pints of alcohol.) This tincture becomes 
milky on the addition of water, owing to the precipitation of the 
resin, but possesses all the properties of the medicine. Dose, 20 
drops to f 5- 

MiSTURA AssAFCETiD^. U. S. Lac Assafoetida. Milk of As- 
safetida, prepared by rubbing 5ij of assafetida with half a pint 
of water until they are thoroughly mixed, is often employed as 
an enema. 

Emplastrum AssAFffiTiD^. IT. S. This plaster, made by in- 
corporating assafetida and galbanum with lead plaster and wax, 
may be advantageously applied over the stomach or chest, where 
we wish the effects of the medicine. 

AMMONIACUM. U. S. Ammoniac. 

The concrete juice of Dorema avimoniacum, an umbelliferous 
plant, native of Persia. The whole plant abounds in a milky 
juice, which exudes upon the slightest puncture, and this, when 
hardened, constitutes the gum ammoniacum. 

Properties. The purest ammoniac is met with in various sized 
roundish tears, of a reddish-yellow color externally, white and 
shining internally, hard and brittle. The inferior varieties occur 
in masses of a darker color and less uniform structure, appear- 
ing when broken as if composed of numerous tears imbedded in 
a brownish substance. The odor is peculiar, faintly nauseous, 
more powerful when heated ; the taste is bitter and disagreeable. 
It softens by heat, and is inflammable ; is soluble in alcohol and 
ether, and forms a milky emulsion with water. It is a gum-resin. 



142 3IATERIA ME Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

containing 80 per cent of resin, 18 of gum, with a trace of vola- 
tile oil. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Ammoniac resembles assa- 
fetida in its action ; but is much less powerful, and is seldom 
used as a stimulant. It is often resorted to, on account of its ex- 
pectorant properties, in asthenic pulmonary diseases, aiding in 
expelling the secretions, when they have become dry, and the 
patient has not the strength to expectorate. It is often employed 
as an external stimulant, in the form of plaster, to scrofulous 
tumors, chronic enlargements of the joints, and indolent gland- 
ular swellings. Dose, 10 to 20 grains. 

MiSTURA Ammoniaci. U. S. Prepared by rubbing two 
drachms of ammoniac with half a pint of water. 

Emplastrum Ammoniaci. U. S. This plaster is prepared by 
dissolving five troyounces of ammoniac in half a pint of dilute 
acetic acid and evaporating until it acquires the proper consist- 
ence. 

GALBANUM. U. S. 

The concrete juice of an unknown Eastern plant, and im- 
ported from India and the Levant. 

Properties. Galbanum is met with in tears and in lump ; the 
tears are irregular, about the size of a pea, usually agglutinated 
together, of a pale greenish-yellow color, having a strong, pecu- 
liar odor, and an acrid, bitter taste ; the lump variety is of a 
darker color, with a less powerful odor and taste. It consists of 
resin and gum, with a small proportion of volatile oil. It is 
soluble in, and forms an emulsion with, water. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is stimulant, antispasmodic, 
and expectorant, like the fetid gum-resins generally, and may be 
employed in the same cases as assafetida, with which it is some- 
times given in combination. Dose, 10 to 20 grains. Externally 
it is discutient and stimulant. 

Emplastrum Galbani Compositum. U. S. (Prepared by 
melting together eight parts galbanum, one part turpentine, three 
parts Burgundy pitch, and thirty-six parts lead plaster.) This 
plaster is an excellent local application to indolent tumors and 
scrofulous enlargements of the glands and joints. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— NERVOUS STIMULANTS. 143 

I PiLUL.E Galbani CoMPOSiTiE. U. S. Compound Pills of Gal- 
banum. (Three parts of galbanum and myrrh, each, and one part 
assafetida, with syrup to form a pilular mass.) Dose, 10 to 20 
grains. 

OLEU'M SUCCINI. U. S. Oil of Amber. 

The volatile oil obtained by the destructive distillation of 
amber. 

SucciNUM or Amber is a fossil resin of vegetable origin, 
washed up by the sea in different parts of the world, but found 
chiefly on the shores of the Baltic. It is a hard, brittle, and 
translucent substance, in irregular-shaped pieces, of various 
shades of yellow or brown, insipid, and inodorous, except when 
heated. It yields on destructive distillation an acid, succinic, a 
volatile oil, and resin. The crude oil is thick, and dark colored. 

Oleum Succini Rectificatum. U. S. Rectified Oil of Amber. 
The crude oil, by repeated distillation, is rendered pure and 
colorless. It is usually found of a light yellowish-brown color, 
with a strong, peculiar odor, and a hot, acrid taste, which proper- 
ties it imparts to water. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This oil was at one time much 
esteemed as a stimulant in nervous and spasmodic diseases, but 
is now rarely prescribed. Dose, 5 to 15 drops. Externally, it is 
rubefacient, and may be employed as an addition to stimulating 
liniments. 

Succinic Acid is a volatile, crystallizable acid, soluble in 
water, insoluble in cold alcohol It was formerly employed as 
a stimulant and antispasmodic, in doses of 5 to 15 grains. 

OLEUM CAJIJPUTI. U. S. Oil of Cajepuf,. 

The volatile oil distilled from the leaves of Melaleuca Cajuputi, 
a small tree, native of the Moluccas, and neighboring islands. 

Properties. When pure it is a transparent, limpid liquid, of a 
fine green color, a strong, penetrating odor, resembling that of 
camphor and cardamom, and an aromatic, camphoraceous taste, 
succeeded by a sensation of coldness. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Cajeput oil is a powerful dif- 



144 3IATERTA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

fusible stimulant and antispasmodic, useful in spasmodic affec- 
tions of the stomach, in hysteria, and in palsy of the tongue, 
where a stimulating action is desired. In the East it is much 
used in nervous diseases, and to raise the energy of the vital 
powers in low fevers and in cholera ; externally, it acts as a 
rubefacient stimulant. Dose, from 1 to 5 drops, given in pill 
or in emulsion. 

YALERIANA. U. S. Valerian. 

The root of Valeriana officinalis, or wild valerian, a tall, 
perennial plant, found in many parts of Europe, and introduced 
into the gardens of this country. The root should be gathered 
in the spring, before the stems begin to grow, or in the autumn, 
when the leaves decay. 

Properties. The root consists of numerous slender, cylindri- 
cal fibres, from two to six inches in length, attached to a rough, 
tuberculated head, often with a part of the stem attached. When 
dried it is of a yellowish-brown color externally, whitish inter- 
nally, of a powerful, penetrating odor, and a bitter, acrid, some- 
what nauseous taste. It imparts its active properties to both 
water and alcohol. It contains a volatile oil, resin, and a fatty 
acid, valerianic acid. 

Oleum Valerian.(E. U. S. Oil of Valerian is obtained by dis- 
tillation with water, and is of a yellowish or pale-greenish color, 
with the odor and taste of valerian. 

AciDUM Valerianicum. U. S. Valerianic acid is obtained by 
the action of sulphuric acid on valerianate of soda. This salt is 
prepared by neutralizing with caustic soda the artificial valerianic 
acid, which is formed when fusel oil is distilled with a mixture of 
sulphuric acid and bichromate of potassa. The acid, when pure, is 
a colorless or yellowish oleaginous liquid, with a strong, repulsive 
odor, and a pungent, soui*, acrid, and disagreeable taste. In this 
state it is not used as a medicine, but only to form salts with bases. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Valerian is one of the most 
valuable and efficacious of the nervous stimulants, and is generally 
resorted to in the treatment of functional disorders of the nervous 
system. Dose of the powder, from 30 to 90 grains ; of the oil, 
from 2 to 6 drops. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— NERVOUS STIMULANTS. 145 

Infusum Yalerian^. XJ. S. (Half a troyounce of valerian in. 
a pint of water.) Dose, fsss to f^ij. 

TiNC'iuiiA Valeeian^. U. S. Tincture of Valerian. (Pour 
troyounces of valerian in two pints of diluted alcohol.) Dose, 
f5i to f 5iv". 

TiNCTURA Valerian js Ammoniata. U. S. Ammoniated Tinc- 
ture of Valerian. This preparation is made by macerating four 
troyounces of valerian in two pints of aromatic spirits of ammonia, 
and is much employed as an antispasmodic in hysteria and other 
nervous affections. 

Extractum Yalerian^sj Alcoholicum. TJ. S. This extract, 
prepared by evaporating the concentrated tincture, contains the 
active properties of the root, and is useful for combining in pills. 
Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 

Extractum Yalerian.^ Fluidum. TJ. S. A concentrated tinc- 
ture fully representing the virtues of the root. Dose, f5i. 

Ammonijb Yalerianas. U. S. Valerianate of Ammonia is 
prepared by saturating valerianic acid with gaseous ammonia, and 
is in snow-white, pearly, quadrangular crystals, having the dis- 
agreeable odor of valerianic acid, and a sharp, sweetish taste. It 
is deliquescent in moist air, but effloresces in a dry atmosphere, 
and is soluble in water and alcohol. It is decomposed by potassa, 
and by the mineral acids. It is much used as a diffusible stimu- 
lant and antispasmodic in neuralgia, hysteria, and other nervous 
disorders. Dose, from 2 to 8 grains, dissolved in water or in 
elixir. The Elixir of Valerianate of Ammonia may be readily 
prepared by neutralizing the valerianic acid with carbonate of 
ammonia, and adding red Cura9oa cordial diluted with orange- 
flower water. It may be given in doses of f5i to f5ij. 

ARNICA. TJ. S. 

The flowers of Arnica montana, Leopard^ s-bane. A small, 
perennial, herbaceous plant, native of the northern portions of 
Europe and Asia, flowering in June and July. 

Properties. The flowers are either single or compound, of a 
golden-yellow color, with a strong, peculiar, aromatic odor, and 
an herbaceous, acrid, somewhat bitter taste. They yield their 

10 



14^ MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

virtues to water and alcohol. Thej contain a bitter acrid prin- 
ciple, termed cytisin, a resin, and a volatile alkaloid, arnicina. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Arniaa is a powerful nervous 
stimulant, and in large doses, emetic and cathartic. In Germany 
it is much used as a nervine, but in this country is seldom given 
internally. Externally, it is much used for the relief of bruises, 
sprains, and local rheumatism. Dose of the powder, 5 to 20 
grains, best given in infusion, made by adding half an ounce oi 
arnica to a pint of water. 

TiNCTURA Arnica. U. S. Tincture of Arnica. (Six troyounces 
of arnica to two pints of diluted alcohol.) Only used externally. 

ExTRACTUM Arnica Alcoholicum. U. S. Dose, 5 to 10 grains, 
principally employed in the preparation of the plaster. 

Emplastrum Arnica. U. S. Prepared by mixing a troyounce 
and a half of extract of arnica with three troyounces of melted 
resin-plaster. This is an excellent stimulant application in chronic 
rheumatism and chronic local inflammations. 

The following are substances of minor importance which are 
occasionally used as antispasmodics, and require a brief notice : 

Dracontium. U. S. Secondary. Skunk Cabbage. The root of 
Dracontium fostidum, also called Syniplocarpus foetidus, an 
indigenous plant. The root, which should be gathered in autumn, 
is a large tuber, with numerous fleshy fibres, with an acrid, rank, 
and nauseous odor, and a very acrid taste. In small doses it is 
stimulant and antispasmodic; in large doses, narcotic. Dose, 10 
to 20 grains. 

Scutellaria. U. S. Secondary. The herb of Scutellaria 
lateriflora, or Skullcap, an indigenous, perennial plant, grow- 
ing in all parts of the United States. This plant has enjoyed 
considerable repute as a tonic, nervine, and antispasmodic. It 
may be given in infusion or fluid extract. The oleoresin, ob- 
tained by precipitating the tincture, is sometimes used in doses of 
from 2 to 6 grains. 

Cypripedium. U. S. Secondary. The root of Cypripedium 
pubescens, or yellow ladies' slipper, also known as nerve I'oot, 
and American valerian, a small plant, inhabiting the woods in 
different parts of the United States. The dried root consists of 
a knotty head, with numerous, contorted fibres, of a yellowish- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STBIULANTS. I47 

brown color, an aromatic odor, and a peculiar bitter taste. It 
appears to act as a g-entle nervous stimulant, resembling valerian, 
though less powerful in its effects. Dose, 15 grains, given in 
powder, infusion, or tincture. 

Caffea. U. S. Coffee is the seed of the Caffea Arabica, a 
small tree, native of Southern Arabia and Abyssinia, but exten- 
sivel}'" cultivated in most tropical countries. It contains a volar 
tile, crystalline, highly nitrogenized substance, called caffeine. 
The berry, wlien dried and burnt, is tonic and stimulant, and 
when taken in large quantities produces restlessness, and other 
nervous symptoms. From its antisoporific properties it may 
be used to counteract the. effect of opium and other narcotics, and 
to relieve intoxication. Caffeine has been recommended as an 
antiperiodic. 

Tea. The dried leaves of Thea C/imensts, an evergreen shrub 
of China and Japan. There are several varieties in commerce, 
differing in color, flavor, and in strength ; but all contain tannin, 
a volatile oil, and a volatile, crystallizable, nitrogenized substance, 
thein, considered to be identical with caffeine. Tea is astringent 
and moderately stimulant, and a strong infusion will often relieve 
nervous headache. 



CEEEBEAL STIMULANTS. 

Narcotics are medicines which produce a primary stimulating 
effect on the nervous and vascular systems, w^hich is rapidly fol- 
lowed by depression of the vital powers, and sleep, or, if a large 
quantity be taken, by coma. Different names have been given 
to the medicines belonging to this class. Thus, they are called 
Sedatives, from their repressing action ; Anodynes, from their 
influence in relieving pain; Hypnotics or Soporifics, from their 
effects in inducing sleep ; and Anesthetics, from producing in- 
sensibility in general. In their action three stages are noticed : 
1st, that of excitement ; 2d, that of narcotism or sleep ; and, 
3d, that of depression. When administered in medicinal doses, 
the first effect is to excite the nervous and vascular systems,— 
quickening the pulse and increasing the energy of the brain. 
This is soon followed by a greater depression of the vital 



148 MATERIA ME Die A AND THERArEUTICS. 

powers than is commensurate with the degree of previous ex- 
citement, soon terminating in sleep. If a larger quantity be 
taken, the stage of excitement is so short, and the narcotic effect 
so immediate, that many regard them as producing a direct 
sedative effect upon the system. In larger doses they prove 
poisonous, inducing a state of the system to which the term 
Narcotism has been applied. This is characterized by a per- 
verted and prostrated condition of the brain and nervous sys- 
tem, followed by stupor or insensibility, and, toward the close, 
complete coma. Death ensues from the cessation of respiration 
consequent upon the want of cerebral influence. 

These medicines differ more or less from one another, in the 
degree of their narcotic power, in their relative effect upon the 
different organs, their manner of affecting them, and in their 
several local tendencies. They produce their effects when ap- 
plied to any part of the system capable of absorbing them, and 
when one fails to act, or their use must be long continued, an- 
other of analogous properties will often be found effectual. 
They are remarkable for the tolerance to their impression in- 
duced by long-continued use or by disease. This is remarkably 
the case with opium ; but it does not follow that when the sys- 
tem has become accustomed to one narcotic it is so to all others. 
On the contrary, a moderate dose of some other narcotic will 
produce its usual effects. In certain diseased conditions large 
quantities may be given with benefit, which in ordinary condi- 
tions of the system would prove fatal. They must be used with 
great caution in children, as the impression to their effects is 
proportionally much greater in them than in adults. 

This class of remedies is employed to relieve pain, allay irri- 
tation, and procure sleep ; to arrest inordinate secretion ; to con- 
trol inflammatory action or irritation ; or to make a powerful 
impression upon the nervous system. As a general rule, they 
are contraindicated where great plethora exists, or where in- 
flammation or active determination to the brain is present. 
Their application to particular diseases will be referred to when 
speaking of the individual remedies belonging to the class. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STIMULANTS. 149 



OPIUM. IT. S. 

Opium is the concrete juice of tlie unripe capsules of Papaver 
somniferum, or Poppy, a native of Persia, but now growing 
wild or extensively cultivated in Europe and this country. The 
poppy is an annual plant, with an erect, smooth, glaucous stem, 
from two to five feet in height, with large, ovate, alternate leaves, 
bearing large white, silver-gray, or violet-colored flowers. There 
are two varieties, — the white and the black, distinguished by the 
color of their seeds ; the former is usually described as the 
opium-plant. The capsule is smooth and globular, two or three 
inches in diameter, somewhat flattened at the top and bottom, 
and crowned by a starlike stigma, and when ripe, of a yellowish 
or brownish-yellow color. It contains numerous minute white 
seeds, which, when perfectly ripe, escape through small openings 
beneath the stigma. The capsules are sometimes used, in the 
form of syrup, as an anodyne for children, and applied externally 
in decoction, as an anodyne fomentation. The seeds are destitute 
of narcotic properties, but furnish, by expression, a bland oil, which 
is used in the East for culinary and pharmaceutical purposes. 

The opium- is obtained by making longitudinal incisions into 
the half-ripe capsules, taking care not to penetrate into the in- 
terior cavity, when a thick, milky juice exudes, which concretes 
on the edges of the cuts. This is scraped off, beat up to the 
proper consistence, and dried in the sun. 

Properties. Opium comes in opaque masses of various size, 
generally enveloped in the poppy leaf, of a compact texture and 
tenacious, of a reddish-brown or deep fawn color, with a strong 
narcotic odor, and a bitter, slightly acrid taste. On exposure to 
the air it becomes hard, breaks with a resinous fracture, and is 
easily pulverized, yielding a powder of a yellowish-brown color. 
It yields its virtues to water, alcohol, and the dilute acids, but 
not to ether. It becomes soft on the application of heat, and 
burns at a higher temperature. 

Commercial History. There are several varieties known in 
commerce, designated according to the countries in which they 
are produced. I. Turkey opium, including Smyrna and Con- 



150 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

stantinople. The Smyrna, called also Levant opium, is imported 
from Smyrna, and is the most esteemed for its cleanness and good 
quality. It occurs in irregular, rounded masses, of various size, 
covered with the capsules of a species of Rumex, with minute 
portions of the poppy capsule mingled with the mass, and when 
cut into, showing minute, shining tears. It contains more mor- 
phia than any other variety, averaging about 10 per cent. The 
Gonatantinople opium is in flattened cakes, covered with the 
leaves of the poppy, otherwise scarcely distinguishable from the 
former variety, except that it is destitute of the minute, shining 
tears. 2. East Indian, distinguished as Bengal, Patna, and 
Malwah opium, seldom reaches this country. 3. Egyptian opium 
is in flat, roundish cakes, and is distinguished from the Smyrna 
variety by being destitute of Pvumex capsules, and in being brittle, 
instead of tenacious, being equally hard in the centre as at the 
surface, and of a redder color. It is an inferior variety, yielding 
only 6 or t per cent, of morphia. 

Adulterations. Opium is often adulterated with the extract of 
poppy, various gums, aloes, sand, ashes, and other foreign sub- 
stances, sometimes amounting to one-fourth of its weight. Be- 
sides, much is brought into the market from which the morphia 
has been fraudulently extracted. Most of the impurities may 
be detected by a careful inspection, but the only reliable test of 
purity is to ascertain the proportion of morphia which it contains. 
Good opium should yield 10 or 12 per cent, of impure morphia, 
precipitated from the infusion by ammonia with alcohol. 

Chemical Constituents. Much attention has been paid to the 
analysis of opium, and it was the investigation of this substance 
that led chemists to the discovery of the alkaloids. The most im- 
portant constituents are morpihia, narcotina, codeia, narceia, and 
meconic acid ; but numerous other principles have been found in 
it, though many think that some of them may be the result of the 
processes to which opium is submitted for their extraction. 

Morphia. U. S. Morp)hia exists in opium combined with 
meconic acid, and is the principle upon which its narcotic effect 
essentially depends. It may be obtained by adding ammonia to 
an infusion of opium, and purifying the impure morphia by the 
agency of alcohol. Morphia is in colorless, shining crystals, in- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STIMULANTS. 151 

odorous and bitter, almost insoluble in water and ether, but solu- 
ble in alcohol, and in solutions of the caustic fixed alkalies. At 
a moderate beat it fuses, and at a red heat is dissipated. It as- 
sumes a fine blue color with the sesquichloride of iron. It is 
rarely administered, its salts being preferred, on account of their 
solubility. 

Narcotina, the bitter principle of opium, exists in a free state, 
and is left behind when the drug is macerated with water. It is 
a white, inodorous, insipid substance, crystallizing in silky, flex- 
ible needles, insoluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and 
very soluble in ether. It combines with acids and forms salts. 
From morphia it is distinguished by being insipid, soluble in 
ether, and by not giving a blue color with iron. It is entirely 
devoid of narcotic properties, but is supposed to be tonic and 
antiperiodic. 

Codeia exists, like morphia, in combination with meconic acid, 
and is extracted with it in the preparation of the muriate. If 
ammonia be added to the mixed solutions of the muriates, mor- 
phia is precipitated, and the codeia, remaining in solution, may be 
obtained by evaporation. It is a white crystalline solid, soluble 
in water, alcohol, and ether, but insoluble in alkaline solutions. 
It is distinguished from morphia by not becoming blue on the 
addition of the salts of iron. It possesses narcotic and sedative 
properties, but is inferior to morphia. 

Narceia is a white, inodorous, crystalline solid, with a bitter 
taste, obtained from the mother-liquor left after crystallizing out 
the salts of morphia. It is distinguished from other substances 
by the dilute mineral acids giving with it a fine light-blue color, 
and also by its forming a bluish color with iodine. It is without 
known influence on the system. 

Paramorphia or Thehaina is a white, crystalline, fusible solid, 
with an acrid, styptic taste, soluble in ether and alcohol, but 
hardly so in water. It is distinguished from morphia by not 
forming crystalline salts with acids. Pelletier considers it 
isomeric with morphia, and Magendie states that it acts like 
bjucia and strychnia. 

Meconin is a white, crystalline, odorless solid, with an acrid 
taste, slightly soluble in water, but readily dissolving in alcohol 



152 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

and ether. It is distinguished from morphia by its greater solu- 
bility in water, and from codeia by its not possessing alkaline 
properties. 

Meconic acid is found in the poppy tribe only, and is in white, 
transparent, crystalline scales, of a sour taste. It is procured 
from meconate of lime by the action of hydrochloric acid ; and 
is soluble in water, readily forms salts, and is remarkable for pro- 
ducing a deep-red color with the persalts of iron. It has little 
or no action on the system. 

Opium also contains several other principles, opiana, papave- 
rina, porphyroxin, whose properties have not been fully inves- 
tigated, besides resin, gummy, fatty, and extractive matters, a 
trace of volatile oil, and inorganic salts. 

Tests. It is very difficult to detect opium, either in its solid 
or fluid form, except by its peculiar odor. As morphia and me- 
conic acid exist only in the products of the poppy, the presence 
of opium in any substance may be shown by the detection of 
these two principles. Meconic acid yields a cherry-red color 
with the tincture of chloride of iron, and a pale-green precipitate 
with the sulphate of copper. The chloride of iron forms a deep- 
blue solution, and nitric acid gives an orange-red color to morphia. 
This latter property it possesses in common with brucia and 
strychnia. 

Physiological Action. In small doses, opium produces a stim- 
ulant effect, increasing the force, fullness, and frequency of the 
pulse, augmenting the heat of the body, and exhilarating the 
nervous functions. Its action is directed particularly to the brain, 
the mind becomes active, and crowded with ideas, and a sensa- 
tion of pleasurable comfort pervades the system. Unless the 
dose be repeated, these effects soon subside, and are succeeded by 
depression of the arterial system, with great mental languor, 
drowsiness, and sleep. In larger doses, the stage of excitement is 
shorter, and the depression much greater, and the medicine proves 
narcotic. On awaking from the sleep produced by opium, there 
is a sense of fullness and weight in the head, with some nausea, 
and a furred tongue, loss of appetite, and indisposition to active 
exertion, with other symptoms of irregular nervous action, which, 
however, soon yield to the recuperative powers of the system. 



GENERAL REMEDIED.— CEREBRAL STIMULANTS. 153 

While these effects are taking place, the secretions, except that 
of the skin, are diminished, and constipation usually follows. In 
some persons nausea and vomiting take place, and occasionally 
there is a disagreeable itching, or sense of pricking in the skin, 
sometimes attended with a species of miliary eruption. 

In large doses opium causes giddiness and stupor without any 
previous excitement. The pulse and breathing are much dimin- 
ished in frequency and force, the pupils become contracted, and 
insensible to light, with a dark suffusion of the countenance, coma 
soon supervenes, and death ensues unless the patient be relieved. 
The quantity necessary to produce these effects varies in different 
individuals, and is modified by age, sex, physical condition, and, 
above all, by habit. In many parts of the world, particularly in 
the East, opium is habitually employed with a view to its exhil- 
arating influence, and enormous quantities are sometimes taken 
daily for this purpose. This vice of opium eating and smoking 
renders the mind sluggish and torpid, and brings about a derange- 
ment of the physical functions, which hurries the victim to a pre- 
mature and miserable death. 

Toxicology. The effects of opium are exerted chiefly on the 
brain and nervous system, and death is produced by a suspension 
of respiration, arising from a want of due influence from the brain. 
Hence the post-mortem appearances in poisoning do not afford 
any very satisfactory evidence of its mode of operating. The 
most marked appearances are turgescence of the vessels of the 
brain, and watery effusion into the ventricles. Sometimes the 
lungs are found gorged with blood, and there is almost always 
more or less lividity of the skin, and generally a fluid state of 
the blood ; the body is also apt to pass rapidly into putrefaction. 
In poisoning by opium, the primary object is to remove the poi- 
son from the stomach; active emetics, such as the sulphate of 
zinc or copper conjoined with ipecacuanha, may be administered, 
and should these fail, the stomach-pump may be resorted to. 
The next object is to keep the patient constantly roused, and to 
obviate the debility which generally supervenes, by the use of 
internal stimulants, as brandy, ammonia, and strong coffee. If 
these means should fail, resort may be had to artificial respiration, 
by which the functions of the lungs and heart maj^ be sustained 



154 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

till the brain has overcome the effects of the narcotic. Of late 
years belladonna has been proposed as an antidote to poisoning 
by opium, on the theory of an antagonism between the physio- 
logical action of the two substances, and many cases are recorded 
of its successful employment. 

Therapeutic Uses. Opium is undoubtedly one of our most im- 
portant and valuable remedies. Pareira remarks, "for other 
medicines we have one or more substitutes ; but for opium, none. 
Its good effects are not, as is the case with some valuable medi- 
cines, remote and contingent, but they are immediate, direct, and 
obvious ; and its operation is not attended with pain or 
discomfort." As a general rule, it njay be resorted to where the 
object is to relieve pain, allay nervous irritation, or procure sleep. 
In fevers it is principally used to procure sleep, where there is 
great wakefulness and delirium present without vascular excite- 
ment, or where this has been subdued by appropriate treatment. 
It may also be used at a later period, when symptoms of general 
debility supervene, both as a general stimulant and with a view 
to relieving particular symptoms. In these cases it must be used 
with caution, and not persevered in if the pupils become con- 
tracted, or if stupor or coma supervene. In inflammatory diseases 
opium may be judiciously combined with the antiphlogistic 
treatment, either as auxiliary, or to palliate particular symp- 
toms, to mitigate pain, allay spasm, or to check excessive 
secretion. As a general rule, it should not be employed in 
imflammations of the brain or of the pulmonary organs, but in 
inflammations of the abdominal viscera, it may be freely used. 
In enteritis and peritonitis it is a remedy of the highest value, 
and may be employed in almost every form and stage of these 
diseases. In dysentery it allays the irritation of the intestines, 
relieves the perpetual desire to go to stool, and at the same time 
restrains the acrid secretions from the intestinal surface, and 
equalizes the circulation by determining to the skin. In cystitis^ 
and diseases of the genito-urinary organs, in nephralgia caused 
by the passage of calculi down the ureters, it proves useful by 
allaying spasmodic action and diminishing irritation. In pul- 
monary catarrh, when the first stage has passed by and 
secretion is fully established, opium may prove beneficial by 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STIMULANTS. 155 

diminishing the sensibility of the bronchial mucous membrane ; 
but great caution is requisite in these cases occurring in old or 
debilitated subjects. In diarrhoea it relieves pain, checks the 
excessive secretion of fluids into the intestines ; and in chronic 
forms of the disease, allays the morbid irritability of the bowels, 
and often of itself effects a cure. In internal hemorrhages, par- 
ticularly those from the lungs and uterus, it is a valuable 
adjuvant to astringents, as acetate of lead, etc.; and, though it 
has no influence upon the sanguineous discharge, it proves highly 
serviceable in allaying the nervous excitement which generally 
accompanies profuse hemorrhages. In delirium tremens, when 
the skin is cool and moist, the bowels free, and the pulse soft, 
without much prostration, opium as a general result produces 
profound and long-continued sleep ; but when the prostration is 
extreme and the pupils contracted, it is inadmissible. In neural- 
gia, rheumatism, and gout, it is constantly employed. In fact, 
there is hardly a disease which does not occasionally present 
symptoms demanding its use. As a general rule, opium is con- 
traindicated in all affections of the brain attended with congestion, 
as phrenitis, apoplexy, etc.; in inflammatory diseases in plethoric 
subjects ; in pulmonary affections, where the cough is dry and 
hard, and the expectoration is diSicult or scanty; and during 
pregnancy. Its use should be avoided in infants and young 
children, unless imperatively called for. 

Administration. The average dose of opium is 1 grain, ad- 
ministered either in pill or povv^der, or an equivalent dose of one 
of its numerous preparations. This dose, however, is subject to 
great variations, depending on the age or habits of the patient, 
the nature of the disease, and the object for which it is employed. 
When from any cause it cannot be administered by the mouth, it 
may be advantageously employed by the rectum, either in the 
form of enema or suppository, and when used in this way about 
twice the ordinary quantity should be given. It may also be 
applied externally, especially upon a part denuded of the cuticle. 
Morphia may be injected into the subcutaneous cellular tissue, 
and in this way acts with great energy. The effects are much 
modified by combination with other medicines : ipecacuanha in- 
creases its action on the skin ; mercurials obviate its constipating 



156 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

tendency; the antimonials lessen its peculiar action on the nervous 
system ; while it increases the power of astringents, without the 
production of narcotism. 

TiNCTURA Opii. U. S. Tincture of Opium. Laudanum. (Pre- 
pared by macerating two and a half troyounces of powdered 
opium in a pint of water for three days, then adding a pint of 
alcohol and macerating for three days longer, and percolating 
with diluted alcohol, until two pints of tincture are obtained.) 
Thirteen minims or twenty-five drops are equivalent to one grain 
of opium. This is the most common and extensively employed 
preparation, and may be used for all the purposes for which the 
opium itself is employed. 

TiNCTURA Opii Camphorata. U. S. Camphorated Tincture 
of Opium. Paregoric Elixir. (Prepared by macerating for 
seven days powdered opium and benzoic acid, each, sixty grains ; 
camphor, forty grains ; oil of anise, a flaidrachm ; clarified honey, 
two troyounces ; diluted alcohol, two pints.) Each half a fluid- 
ounce contains one grain of opium. In this preparation the 
combination of stimulants modifies their separate actions, and 
renders it a mild anodyne and antispasmodic. It is muCh used 
to allay troublesome cough, where there are no inflammatory 
symptoms, and to relieve nausea and slight pain in the bowels. 
Dose, for an adult, f 5i to f5ij ; for an infant, from 5 to 20 drops ; 
for children the dose varies, according to age, from 20 drops 
to f 5i. 

TiNCTURA Opii Deodorata. U. S. Deodorized Tincture of 
Opium is a watery infusion of opium, free from certain noxious 
ingredients in the crude drug. It is prepared by first macerating 
opium in water, and thus obtaining a liquid, watery extract, 
which is free from all the ingredients insoluble in water. This 
is then agitated with ether, which dissolves out the noxious 
odorous matter. The ether is then separated, and the solution 
mixed with enough alcohol to preserve it. It is of the same . 
strength as laudanum, and may be used in all cases in which 
opiates are indicated. 

TiNCTURA Opii AcETATA. U.S. Acetated Tincture of Opium is 
prepared by rubbing two troyounces of opium with twelve fluid- 
ounces of vinegar, and adding lialf a pint of alcohol. Ten minims 
or twenty drops equivalent to one grain of opium. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STIMULANTS. 157 

YiNUM Opii. U. S. Wine of Opium, a substitute for Syden- 
haiiVs laudanum, is prepared by adding two troyounces of 
opium, with sixty grains of cinnamon and cloves, each, to a pint 
of sherry wine. Strength same as that of laudanum. It is much 
used as an external application in chronic inflammation of the 
conjunctiva. 

AcETUM Opii. U. S. Vinegar of Opium. Black Drop. This 
preparation contains the morphia in a state of acetate, which is 
considered to be the most agreeable in its mode of action. It is 
prepared by macerating five troyounces of powdered opium, a 
troyounce of nutmeg, one hundred and fifty grains of saffron, in 
a pint of diluted acetic acid, and then percolating with the same 
menstruum till two pints are obtained. It is double the strength 
of laudanum. 

CoNPECTio Opii. U. S. Confection of Opium, prepared by 
beating opium with honey and spices. One grain of opium in 
thirty-five grains of confection. 

ExTRACTUM Opii. U. S. Extract of Opium is made by evap- 
orating the aqueous solution. It is about twice the strength of 
the opium itself, and is less stimulating and unpleasant. 

PuLvis Ipecacuanha Compositus. U. S. Pulvis Ipecacuanhee 
et Opii. Dover^s Powder. This valuable preparation is made 
by rubbing together one part of opium and ipecacuanha, each, 
with eight parts of sulphate of potassa. The sulphate of potassa 
serves by its hardness to promote the minute division and thor- 
ough intermixture of the active ingredients ; ten grains of the 
powder contain one grain of opium and one of ipecacuanha. 
Dover's powder is an admirable anodyne diaphoretic, unsur- 
passed by any other combination in its power of promoting per- 
spiration. The opium itself strongly determines to the skin, 
while the ipecacuanha has a relaxing influence over the cutaneous 
vessels, and the compound is more active in this way than either 
of its ingredients individually. It is contraindicated in irritable 
states of the stomach. 

PiLULiE Opii. U S. Pills of Opium are prepared by beating 
together sixty grains of opium and twelve grains of soap with 
water, to form a mass, and dividing into sixty pills. Each pill 
contains one grain of opium. 



158 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Pilule Saponis CoMPOSiTiB. U. S. Compound Pills of Soap, 
made of soap and opium, in the proportion of four grains of soap 
to one grain of opium. 

The SALTS OP MORPHIA are obtained by saturating the alkali 
with the acid, and evaporating the solution. They are all freely 
soluble in water, and produce analogous effects, being less apt 
to cause nausea, headache, and other unpleasant effects, than the 
opium itself. One-sixth of a grain equivalent to one grain ot 
opium. 

Morphia Sulphas. U. S. Sulphate of Morphia is in delicate, 
white, and feathery crystals, of a silky lustre, resembling very 
much in appearance the sulphate of quinia. It is the salt of 
morphia most generally used, and may be given in pill or solu- 
tion. 

Liquor Morphia Sulphatis. IF. S. Solution of Sulphate of 
Morphia is a simple solution in the proportion of one grain to 
an ounce of water. Magendie^s solution, which is sometimes 
used, contains sixteen grains to the fluidounce. 

Morphia Acetas. U. S. Acetate of Morphia is in the form 
of slender, acicular crystals, or of a white powder, wholly soluble 
in water and alcohol. 

Morphia Murias. U. S. Muriate of Morphia is in snow- 
white, feathery crystals, soluble in water and alcohol. 

We employ these salts in preference to opium, when we wish 
to obtain the medicinal effects by endermic application, or by in 
iection into the subcutaneous cellular tissue. 

MoRPHiiB CiTRAS. A Solution of the Citrate of Morphia is 
employed in some parts of the United States, It is prepared by 
dissolving sixteen grains of morphia with eight grains of citric 
acid and orie-quarter of a grain of cochineal in one ounce of water. 
It is considered two and a half times stronger than laudanum ; 
ten drops equivalent to one grain of opium. 

A Solution of Bimeconate of Morphia has also been intro- 
duced into medicine. It is of the same strength as laudanum, 
and is said to produce less cerebral disturbance and less consti- 
pation than other preparations of opium. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STIMULANTS. 159 



LACTUCARIUM. T. S. Lactucarium. 

The CONCRETE JUICE of Lactuca sativa, the common Garden 
Lettuce, an annual plant, cultivated in all parts of the civilized 
world. The leaves and stem abound in a milky juice, which is 
obtained by slicing off the flowering head before the flowers ex- 
pand, collecting the juice as soon as it concretes, and removing 
a fresh slice as long as it yields any white juice. 

Properties.' As met with, it is in small, roundish, rough 
masses, of a reddish-brown color, a narcotic odor, closely resem- 
bling that of opium, and a bitter and acrid taste. It yields its 
virtues to water and alcohol, and contains a peculiar neutral 
bitter principle called lactucin. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In its action on the system 
lactucarium closely resembles opium, but it produces scarcely 
any excitement, merely impairing the sensibility of the system 
and inducing sleep. It is sometimes employed to allay cough 
in phthisis and other pulmonary affections, and as an anodyne in 
febrile and inflammatory diseases, where opium, from its stimulant 
properties, is inadmissible. Combined with camphor it often gives 
relief in chordee and spermatorrhoea. Dose, 5 to 20 grains. 

Syrupus Lactucarii. IJ. S. Syrup of Lactucarium is pre- 
pared by adding a concentrated tincture of lactucarium to syrup. 
It possesses the virtues of the medicine, free from its inert albu- 
minous matter. Dose, f 5i to f5iij- 

HYOSCYAMUS. U. S. Henbane. 

The LEAVES and seeds of Hyoscyamus niger, Henbane, a 
biennial plant, with a long, tapering, fleshy root, bearing consid- 
erable resemblance to that of the common parsnip. It grows 
wild throughout Europe, and is naturalized in this country. 
All parts of the plant possess medicinal virtues, but only the 
leaves and seeds are officinal. 

Properties. The leaves should be gathered when the plant 
begins to bloom, and when fresh have a mucilaginous and acrid 
taste, with a strong fetid and narcotic odor. When dried they 
are of a greenish-yellow color, with but little odor or taste. 



160 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

They impart their virtues to water and alcohol. The seeds are 
small, roundish, of a grayish-yellow color, with an odor like that 
of the leaves, and a bitter, oily taste. Both leaves and seeds 
contain hijoscyamia, an alkaloid, crystallizing in transparent, 
colorless needles, inodorous, of an acrid and disagreeable taste, 
slightly soluble in water, and soluble in alcohol and ether. It 
possesses properties almost identical with those of atropia, from 
which it differs in being more soluble in water. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Hyoscyamus is anodyne, anti- 
spasmodic, and narcotic. In medicinal doses it soothes irritation, 
allays pain, and relieves spasm. It differs from opium in not 
checking secretion, causing constipation, or producing headache; 
besides, it dilates the pupil, while opium contracts it. In over- 
doses it produces the effects of the narcotic poisons. It may 
be employed in all cases where the stimulating effects of opium 
would prove injurious, as in delirium and cerebral affections ; 
in all forms of neuralgia and spasmodic diseases, attended 
with great excitability of the nervous system ; and in irritation 
of the bronchial tubes, causing cough. It is often combined 
with cathartics, to correct their irritating effects, without inter- 
fering with their activity. Dose, 5 to 20 grains, administered in 
substance, infusion, tincture, or extract. 

ExTRACTUM Hyoscyami. U. S. The Extract "of Hyoscyamus 
is the inspissated juice, obtained by evaporating the expressed 
juice of the fresh leaves to a proper consistence. It is of a dark- 
olive color, a narcotic odor, and a bitter, nauseous taste. Dose, 
"I to 3 grains. 

ExTRACTUM Hyoscyami Alcoholicum. U. S. The Alcoholic 
Extract of Hyoscyamus, obtained by evaporating the concen- 
trated tincture of the dried leaves, is of a more uniform strength 
than the common extract. Dose, 1 to 2 grains. 

ExTRACTUM Hyoscyami Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of 
Hyoscyamus is a concentrated alcoholic tincture, and may be 
given in doses of from 5 to 10 minims. 

TiNCTURA Hyoscyami. U. S. Tincture of Hyoscyamus (four 
troyounces of hyoscyamus leaves to two pints of diluted alco- 
hol) may be substituted for laudanum, when the latter disagrees 
with the patient, or is objectionable on account of its tendency 
to produce constipation. Dose, f3i. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STDIULAXTS. 161 



BELLADONNA. 

BELLADONNiE FoLiUM. U. S. Belladonna Leaves. Bella- 
donna Radix. TJ. S. Belladonna Root. The leaves aod root 
of Alropa Belladonna, or Deadly Nightshade, an herbaceous per- 
ennial plant, with a fleshy creeping root, native of Europe, but 
cultivated in this country. The stem is from three to four, feet 
high, with alternate, ovate, pointed leaves from three to six 
inches long, of a greenish color on their upper surface, and paler 
beneath, bearing large, bell-shaped, dull-red flowers. The fruit 
is a shining black berry, about the size of a small cherry. The 
whole plant is active, but only the leaves and root are used. 
The leaves should be collected when the plant is in flower, be- 
fore the ripening seeds have deprived them of their activity; the 
roots in autumn or early in the spring, and from plants three 
years old. 

Properties. The dried leaves are of a dull-greenish color, 
have a faint narcotic odor, and a sweetish, subacrid, nauseous 
taste. The root is long and fil)rous, of a reddish-brown color 
externally, whitish within, with little odor, and a feeble sweetish 
taste. Both the leaves and root Impart their active properties to 
water and alcohol. They contain a peculiar alkaline principle 
called atropia, in combination with malic acid. 

Physiological Action. In very small doses, belladonna pro- 
duces no sensible effects, except, perhaps, a slight dilatation of 
the pupil, and diminished sensibility and irritability when these 
are m-orbidly increased. In larger doses the most marked eftects 
are a sense of fullness and giddiness about the bead, dilatation 
of the pupil, more or less dimness of vision, with a sense of 
dryness and constriction of the fauces, frequently accompanied 
with difficulty of swallowing. These effects soon disappear on 
discontinuing the medicine. In large doses it acts as an ener- 
getic poison, and all these symptoms are present in an aggra- 
vated form, and are followed by extravagant delirium and coma. 
In comparing the action of belladonna with that of other nar- 
cotics, the most marked symptoms are dilatation of the pupil, 
with insensibility of the iris to light,, and disturbance of vision. 

11 



162 MATERIA- ME Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

It produces this effect in whatever way it is introduced into the 
system. When applied locally to the eye, it dilates the pupil, 
without causing any constitutional disturbance, and when ap- 
plied to one eyebrow does not affect the other. The manner in 
which it produces this is not fully understood. Headland says 
that there are several possible ways in which it may act : " By 
a direct paralyzing action on the muscles of the iris ; by para- 
lyzing the nerves of the pupil generally, or that part of them 
only which tends to cause lessening of the aperture ; or by 
stimulating the nerves which supply the radiating fibres of the 
iris, and so enlarging the aperture." 

Medical Uses. Belladonna is used as an anodyne to allay 
pain and quiet irritation in nervous and spasmodic diseases, and 
to produce dilatation of the pupil in diseases of the eye, and in 
ophthalmic surgery. As an antispasmodic it is one of our most 
reliable remedies in hooping-cough, diminishing in a marked 
degree the violence and frequency of the paroxysms of cough. 
In spasmodic asthma and spasmodic coughs it also exercises a 
beneficial influence. In epilepsy, chorea, and other derangements 
of the nervous system arising from irritability, it proves useful as 
a sedative and palliative, and may be advantageously conjoined- 
with the tonic treatment. In neuralgia, particularly of the head 
and face, it proves successful where all other remedies have failed. 
In dysmenorrhcea, in incontinence of urine, so common in chil- 
dren, it has also been found very efficacious. It has been used 
both as a remedy and as a preventive of scarlet fever, and medi- 
cal opinions are divided as to its value for the latter purpose. 
Externally it may be applied in rigidity of the os uteri during 
lingering labors, and in spasmodic strictures of the urethra, or 
of the sphincters of the bladder and rectum. It is also recom- 
mended to be applied in the form of plaster to the breasts, to 
arrest the secretion of milk. For dilating the pupil the atropia 
is generally preferred. Dose of the powdered leaves, |- to 1 
grain. It is, however, seldom used in this way, the extract 
being preferred. 

ExTRACTUM BELLADONNiE. U. S. Extract of Belladonna (pre- 
pared by evaporating to the proper consistence the expressed 
juice of the fresh leaves) is of a dark brown color, a slightly 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STIMULANTS. 163 

narcotic, not unpleasant odor, and a bitterish taste. It is uncer- 
tain, on account of its variable strength, and is best given in 
small doses, gradually increased till the effects of the medicine 
are experienced. Dose, 3- to |- graia. 

ExTRACTUM Belladonna Alcoholicum. U. S. Alcoholic Ex- 
tract of Belladonna. Made by evaporating the concentrated 
tincture. Dose, same as the simple extract. 

TiNCTURA Belladonna. U. S. Tincture of Belladonna (fonr 
troyounces of the dried leaves with two pints of diluted alcohol). 
Dose, 15 to 30 drops. 

Unguentum Belladonna. U. S. Belladonna Ointment is pre- 
pared by rubbing one drachm of extract, rendered soft with a 
little water, with a troyounce of lard. It is a convenient form 
for the external application of belladonna. Its tendency to be- 
come hard may be obviated by adding a little glycerin instead 
of water, as directed in the officinal process. 

Emplastrtjm Belladonna. XJ. S. Belladonna Plaster is pre- 
pared by mixing one part of alcoholic extract of belladonna 
with two parts of resin plaster. It is an excellent anodyne and 
antispasmodic application in neuralgia, rheumatic and other 
pains. 

Atropia. IJ. S. Atropia is procured by exhausting the root 
by alcohol, by means of percolation, and, after distilling ofiF the 
alcohol, adding sulphuric acid to convert the atropia into the 
sulphate. The liquid, still further concentrated, is then mixed 
with water to separate resinous and fatty matters, and, after fil- 
tration, is treated with chloroform and solution of potassa. The 
latter separates the atropia from the sulphate, and the former 
dissolves it and sinks to the bottom, and yields the atropia by 
evaporation. It is in needle-like, prismatic crystals, of a bril- 
liant white color, inodorous, of a bitter and acrid taste, sparingly 
soluble in water, more readily in alcohol and ether. It forms 
crystallizable salts with acids. Atropia is an energetic poison, 
producing effects analogous to belladonna, but much more 
powerful. Dose, g'g of a grain, rarely given internally, but 
chiefly externally, to dilate the pupil. It is sometimes used hy- 
podermically, but this method requires great caution. It is 
principally used in the form of solution, Liquor Atropise, made 



164 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

by dissolving four grains in seven drachms of water with one 
drachm of alcohol. One drop of this solution applied to the eye 
is sufficient to dilate the pupil. 

Atropine Sulphas. TJ. S. Sulphate of Atropia is prepared by 
dissolving atropia in ether, and adding sulphuric acid with a 
little alcohol, drop by drop, till the atropia is saturated, and 
evaporating the solution. It is a white, slightly crystalline 
powder, having the taste of atropia, very soluble in water and 
alcohol, but insoluble in ether and chloroform. The only advan- 
tage it possesses over the alkaloid is its solubility in water. 



STRAMONIUM. 

Stramonii Folium. U. S. Stramonium Leaf. Stramonii 
Semen. U. S. Stramonium Seed. The leaves and seed of 
Datura Stramonium. Thoriiapple, commonly called Jamestown 
Weed, is an herbaceous, annual plant, growing wild in all parts 
of the world. It has a leafy, branching stem, usually about three 
feet high, with leaves five or six inches in length, of an ovate, 
triangular form, dark-green on the upper surface, and pale be- 
neath. In July and August it bears large trumpet-shaped 
flowers, which are succeeded by a capsule, about the size of a 
hen's egg, covered with long prickles and filled with seeds. All 
parts of the plant possess medicinal properties, but only the 
leaves and seeds are officinal. 

Properties. The leaves should be gathered when the flowers 
are full-blown, and when fresh have a fetid, narcotic odor, which 
they lose on drying. They have a bitter and nauseous taste, 
and when chewed give the saliva a greenish tinge. The seeds, 
when ripe, are small, kidney-shaped, of a brownish-black color, 
without odor, but with a faint bitter taste. They are much more 
energetic in their action on the system than the leaves. Both 
the leaves and seeds impart their active properties to water and 
alcohol. They contain a vegetable alkaloid, daturia, which is 
similar in its chemical and physiological properties to atropia. 
When pure, it is a colorless, crystalline substance, without odor, 
of a bitterish, tobacco-like taste, alkaline in its reactions, 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STIMULANTS. 1G5 

sparingly soluble in water, except at a boiling temperature, but 
soluble in alcohol. 

Medical Properties and CZses. Stramonium is a narcotic, 
closely resembling hyoscyamus and belladonna in its effects, and 
may be used for the same purpose. It is, however, principally 
used as an inhalation, by smoking or otherwise, as a remedy for 
the asthmatic paroxj^sm, and the dyspno3a which occurs in em- 
physema of the lungs, and in organic diseases of the heart. 
Externally, it is much used in the form of ointment in hemorrhoids 
and other painful affections of the rectum, and often affords relief 
to the intolerable itching and burning so annoying in these 
affections. Dose of the powdered leaves, 2 grains ; of the seeds, 
1 grain. 

TiNCTURA Stramonii. U. S. Tincture of Stramonium (pre- 
pared by percolation ; four troyounces of seeds with two troy- 
ounces of diluted alcohol) may be used for all the purposes for 
which the medicine is given. Dose, 20 to 40 drops, repeated 
till it affects the system. 

ExTRACTUM Stramonii. TJ. S. Extract of Stramonium, the 
inspissated juice. Dose, 1 grain. 

ExTRACTUM Stramonii Alcoholicum. U. S. Alcoholic Extract 
of Stramonium. Prepared by evaporating the alcoholic tincture 
to the proper consistence. Dose, 1 grain. 

Unguentum Stramonii. U. S. Ointment of Stramonium 
(sixty grains of extract of stramonium, rubbed up with half 
a fluidrachm of water, and mixed with a troyounce of lard) is 
used as an anodyne application to hemorrhoids, irritable ul- 
cers, etc. 

DULCAMARA. TJ. S. Bittersweet. 

The stalks of Solanum Dulcamara, Woody Nightshade or 
Bittersweet, a woody creeping or climbing vine, indigenous to 
Europe, and naturalized extensively in this country. The 
officinal part is the stems, which should be collected in the 
autumn, after the leaves have fallen. 

Properties. As found in the shops, these twigs are about the 
size of a goose-quill, from two to three inches in length ; when 
fresh they have a faint nauseous odor, which they lose on dry- 



1G6 IIATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS 

lag, and a bitter taste, followed by sweetness. Water and alcohol 
extract their virtues, which depend principally upon an alkaline 
principle, solania, which also exists in the stalks of the S. tubero- 
sum, or common potato. It is a white, opaque powder, inodorous, 
very bitter, possessing narcotic and emetic properties, and is in 
large doses powerfully poisonous. 

Medical Properties and Vses. Bittersweet is slightly narcotic, 
with supposed sudorific and alterative properties. In overdoses 
it acts as an aero-narcotic poison. It is chiefly employed in 
chronic cutaneous diseases of an obstinate character, particularly 
those of a scaly nature, as lepra, psoriasis, and pityriasis, and 
in chronic rheumatism. It is usually administered in the form 
of decoction, extract, or fluid extract. 

Decoctum Dulcamara. ¥. S. Decoction of Bittersweet is 
prepared by boiling a troyounce of bittersweet in a pint of 
water, and, after straining, adding sufficient water to make the 
decoction measure a pint. Dose, fsi to fsij, three or four times 
a day. 

ExTRACTUM DuLCAMARiE. U. S. Extract of Bittersweet is 
prepared by evaporating the alcoholic tincture to the proper con- 
sistence. Dose, 10 to 20 grains. 

ExTRACTUM DuLCAMARiE Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of 
Bittersweet is prepared by adding sugar to the concentrated 
tincture. Dose, 30 drops to fji, three or four times a day, and 
gradually increased if necessary. 

HUMULUS. U. S. Hops. 

The STROBILES of Humulus Lupulus, or Hop vine, a perennial 
climbing plant, native of North America and Europe, and culti- 
vated throughout the world. These are picked when fully ripe, 
and carefully and gradually dried by artificial heat. 

Properties. The fruit or strobiles consist of thin, leaf-like 
scales, of a greenish-yellow color, with a strong, fragrant, some- 
what narcotic odor, and a bitter, aromatic taste. They impart 
their properties to boiling water and alcohol. They contain a 
bitter principle and a volatile oil, but the most active portion is 
a peculiar resinous secretion which covers the surface of the 
scales, called lupulin. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STIMULANTS. 167 

LupuLiNA. U. S. Lupulin may be obtained separate by thrash- 
ing and sifting the strobiles, of which it constitutes about one- 
sixth by weight. It occurs in small, shining, yellowish grains, 
with the peculiar flavor of hops, and a bitter taste. It is inflam- 
mable, and when moderately heated becomes somewhat adhe- 
sive. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Hops are tonic, diuretic, and 
slightly narcotic, and have been recommended in diseases of de- 
bility accompanied with wakefulness or other nervous derange- 
ment. They form an excellent anodyne when opium or other 
narcotics cannot be tolerated. A pillow of hops is sometimes 
resorted to, and is useful in allaying restlessness and producing 
sleep in nervous disorders. They are also applied as fomenta- 
tions in painful swellings and tumors. Their principal consump- 
tion, however, is in the manufacture of malt liquors, to which 
they communicate their bitter flavor and tonic properties. The 
effects of hops may be obtained most conveniently by the use of 
lupulin. The dose in substance is from 6 to 12 grains, given in 
the form of pill. 

Infusum Humuli. U. S. Infusion of Sops is prepared by 
macerating half a troyounce of hops in a pint of boiling water. 
Dose, fsi to fsij. 

TiNCTURA Humuli. IT. S. Tincture of Hops is prepared by 
percolation, with five troyounces of hops to two pints of diluted 
alcohol. Dose, fji to f5iij- 

TiNCTURA Lupulin^. IJ. S. Tincture of Lupulin is prepared 
by percolation, with four troyounces of lupulin to two pints of 
alcohqj. It is preferable to the tincture of hops. Dose, f 5i to 

f5ij. 

ExTRACTUM Lupulin^ Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of 
Lupulin is a concentrated tincture, containing the virtues of an 
ounce of lupulin in a fluidounce. Dose, 10 to 15 minims. 

Oleoresina Lupulin^, U. S. Oleoresin of Lupulin is the 
volatile oil and resin, extracted by efeher. Dose, 2 to 5 grains. 



168 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

EXTRACTUM CANNABIS. T. S. Extract of Hemp. 

An alcoholic extract of the dried tops of Cannabis sativa, 
variety Indica, an annual plant, native of Persia and the north- 
ern parts of India. It is cultivated in many parts of Europe and 
this country on account of the strong fibres of its bark, so exten- 
sively employed in the manufacture of rope. It is from the 
India variety only that the medicine is obtained; the heat of the 
country apparently favoring the development of its active proper- 
ties, which reside in a resinous substance exuding from glands 
upon the surface of the stalks and leaves. 

Properties. The extract, which is prepared by evaporating a 
tincture of the dried tops, is of a dark olive-green color, soft 
and adhesive when warmeii, of a fragrant, narcotic odor, and a 
bitter, acrid taste. It is soluble in alcohol and ether, but not in 
water. Its active principle is the resin cannahin ; it also con- 
tains a small portion of volatile oil. 

3Iedical Pi-operties and Uses. Extract of hemp is a powerful 
narcotic, causing exhilaration and intoxication, followed by de- 
lirium and stupor, with but little effect upon the circulation. It 
differs from opium in not decreasing the secretions, nor causing 
headache or subsequent constipation, and may be occasionally 
substituted for it ; but it is much less certain in its effects. In the 
East, both the herb and the resin are employed, under the name of 
hashish, for their intoxicating effects, which resemble somewhat 
those produced by alcohol and opium. Dose, ^ grain to 2 grains. 

ExTRACTUM Cannabis Purificatum. U. S. Purified Extract 
of Hemp is prepared by evaporating the tincture of the commer- 
cial extract. It has the advantage of being more uniform than 
the crude extract. 

TiNCTURA Cannabis. U. S. Tincture of Hemp is prepared 
by dissolving three hundred and sixty grains of the purilicd ex- 
tract in one pint of alcohol ; forty drops are equivalent to one grain 
of the extract. 

CONIUM. U. S. Hemlock. 

The leaves of Conium maculalum, an umbelliferous plant, 
native of Europe, but cultivated in this country for medicinal 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STIMULANTS. 1G9 

purposes. It is a large plant, with a tall, smooth, spotted stem, 
with smooth, tripinnate, bright-green leaves, flowering from June 
to August, and emitting a fetid odor, generally compared to that 
of the urine of a cat. The leaves should be gathered when the 
plant is in flower, and should be quickly dried, and kept in close 
vessels, excluded from the light. 

Properties. The dried leaves have a fine green color, a strong, 
heavy, narcotic odor, and a bitter nauseous taste, which is re- 
tained in the powder. All parts of the plant contain a volatile 
oil, and a volatile liquid alkaloid, conia or conine, united with 
conic acid. CoNiA may be obtained by distilling the fresh leaves 
or the alcoholic extract with water and caustic potash, when it 
readily passes over and floats on the surface of the water. It is 
in the form of a yellowish oily liquid,Jighter than water, with a 
strong, penetrating odor and an acrid taste. Sparingly soluble 
in water, freely so in alcohol, ether, and the oils. It is a highly 
energetic poison in very small doses. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Conium is narcotic, and some- 
what sedative to the circulation. It acts principally on the 
spinal cord, depressing the reflex action, and producing effects 
directly opposite to those of strychnia. As an anodyne and an- 
tispasmodic it has been used in asthma and hooping-cough, and 
may be substituted for opium to relieve the irritative cough of 
chronic catarrh and phthisis. In these cases it is soemtimes 
used with benefit by inhalation. To relieve pain it is used in 
connection with other narcotics in neuralgic and rheumatic affec- 
tions. In moderate and repeated doses it* is said to increase the 
secretions and to cause the absorption and disappearance of 
glandular enlargements, and at one time enjoyed great reputation 
in the treatment of cancerous tumors and scrofulous and syphi. 
litic swellings ; but beyond relieving pain and quieting nervous 
irritation it does not appear tb possess any peculiar powers in 
these diseases. The alkaloid conia acts very rapidly, prostrating 
the nervous power, and, according to Christison, producing paraly- 
sis of the voluntary muscles, and causing death by arresting re- 
spiration. Dose of the powdered leaves, from 3 to 5 grains, but 
the extract is generally preferred. 

ExTRAOTUM CoNii. U. S. Extract of Conium should be made 



170 MATERIA ME Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

by evapoi'ating the expressed juice of the fresh leaves, without 
the aid of heat. When pure, it has an olive-green color, with a 
strong narcotic fetid odor, and a bitterish -saline taste. Dose, 2 
grains, repeated till it affects the S3^steni. 

ExTRACTUM CoNii Alcoholicum. U. S. AlcolioUc Extract of 
Conium, when made from recently and carefully dried leaves, is 
a good preparation. Dose, same as simple extract. 

ExTRACTUM CoNii Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of Conium 
is a concentrated tincture, prepared with diluted alcohol to which 
acetic acid has been added. The acid not only increases the 
solvent powers of the menstruum, but contributes to protect the 
alkaloid against decomposition during the concentration. Dose, 
4 or 5 minims, increased if necessary. 

TiNCTURA CoNii. U. S. Tincture of Conium. (Four troy- 
ounces to two pints of diluted alcohol.) Dose, 30 minims to f5i- 
The best preparation of this medicine is the Succus Conii of the 
British Pharmacopoeia, prepared by adding one part by measure 
of alcohol to three parts of inspissated juice. 

CAMPHORA. U. S. Camphor. 

Camphor is a peculiar concrete substance obtained from Cam- 
phora officinarum, Camj^hor Laurel, a handsome evergreen of 
considerable size, native of China, Japan, and other parts of East- 
ern Asia. To procure the camphor, which is diffused through all 
parts of the plant, the small branches, the wood, and roots are 
cut into small pieces, and placed with a little water in large iron 
vessels, to the top of which are attached earthen receivers fur- 
nished with a lining of straw. A moderate heat is then applied, 
and the camphor, volatilized by the steam, is condensed upon the 
straw. This constitutes the crude camphor, which is imported 
chiefly from Canton. There are two varieties in the market, the 
Chinese or Formosa and the Japan or Dutch camphor, named 
from the place of its origin. For medicinal purposes it is relincd 
by mixing with it a little lime, and subliming it in thin glass or 
iron vessels. When thus purified, it is met with in the form of 
large circular cakes, one or two inches thick, concave on one side, 
convex on the other, and perforated in tlic centre. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— CEREBRAL STIMULANTS. 171 

Properties. Camphor is a white, translucent substance, solid 
at ordinary temperatures, somewhat unctuous to the touch, fra- 
gile, breaking with a shining crystalline fracture, yet so tough 
as to be pulverized with great difiSculty, unless with the aid of a 
little alcohol. It has a powerful, penetrating, diffusible odor, and 
a bitter, pungent, cooling taste. It is lighter than water, and so 
volatile that it evaporates at ordinary temperatures if exposed 
to the atmosphere, and if kept in bottles the vapor condenses 
in large and beautiful crystals. It melts at 288°, and forms a 
transparent liquid, which boils if the heat be increased to 400°. 
It is insoluble in water, requiring 1000 parts for its solution, to 
which, however, it imparts a decided camphoraceous odor and 
taste ; it is soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, and the fixed 
and volatile oils. It is highly inflammable, burning with a bril- 
liant flame and much smoke. In its chemical composition it is 
closely analogous to the essential oils, and is thought to be an 
oxide of camphene, a proximate principle, of the nature of a 
volatile oil, found in oil of turpentine, and which enters into the 
constituents of many vegetable organic substances. 

Borneo camphor, a variety highly esteemed by the Chinese, 
is found in the wood of Dryobalanops Gamphora, a large forest 
tree of Borneo and the adjacent islands. It exists, in concrete 
masses of considerable size, in the trunk of the tree, from which 
it is obtained by splitting it. It is white, opaque, of a foliaceous 
crystalline texture, analogous in odor and taste to the officinal 
camphor. The genuine is sometimes adulterated with artificial 
camphor, a product of the action of hydrochloric acid upon 
common oil of turpentine. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In moderate doses, frequently 
repeated, camphor first acts as a gentle stimulant, increasing 
somewhat the heat and strength of the body, and producing a 
determination to the skin. After this, or if a full dose be taken, 
it quiets irritation, allays pain, and induces sleep. In larger 
doses it acts as an acro-narcotic poison. Its moderate!}^ stimu- 
lating powers, its diaphoretic tendency, and its tranquilizing in- 
fluence over the nervous system render it particularly useful in 
fevers assuming the typhoid type, and in the advanced stages of 
acute inflammations when the vital powers are greatly exhausted. 



172 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

In these cases, when delirium, extreme restlessness, and great 
depression of the nervous energy are the prominent symptoms, 
it may advantageously be conjoined with stimulants and tonics. 
In diseases of the brain, attended with great wakefulness and 
irritability, it is one of the best remedies we possess. In disor- 
ders of the genito-urinary organs it exercises a most beneficial 
influence, and is extensively employed as an anodyne in a great 
number of spasmodic and nervous diseases. In many of these 
cases it is often combined with opium, and tends to prevent the 
headache and other disagreeable symptoms which that remedy is 
apt to occasion. In the exanthemata it is said to be effectual in 
restoring the eruption, when from any cause it has receded. Ex- 
ternally, dissolved in alcohol or oil, it forms a valuable anodyne 
embrocation in sprains, chronic rheumatism, indolent enlarge- 
ments of the glands, and in various inflammatory complaints. 
The medium dose of camphor is from 5 to 10 grains, but it may 
be diminished or increased to meet various indications. It may 
be given in pill, or diffused in water by trituration with various 
substances; the emulsion, made with gum arable and sugar, is 
the preferable mode of administering it. 

Aqua Camphors. U. S. Campho?^ Water- is prepared by rub- 
bing one hundred and twenty grains of camphor first with a 
little alcohol, then with carbonate of magnesia, and gradually 
adding two pints of water, and filtering. This preparation con- 
tains a little more than three grains of camphor in each fluiflounce. 
It is chiefly employed in low fevers and as a vehicle for the 
administration of other medicines. 

Spiritus Camphors. U. S. Spirit of Camplior, more com- 
monly called Tincture of Camphor, is prepared by dissolving 
four troyounces of camphor in two pints of alcohol. It is chiefly 
used as an anodyne application, but may be given internally 
in doses of from five drops to a fluidrachm. The camphor is 
precipitated on the addition of water, but may be suspended by 
the intervention of sugar. 

LiNiMENTUM CxVMPiiORiE. XJ. S. Liniment of Campjhor is 
prepared by dissolving one part of camphor in four parts of olive 
oil, and is an excellent anodyne embrocation in sprains, bruises, 
and local pains. 



GENERAL REMEDIES —ANJESTHETICS. 173 

LiNiMENTUM Saponis. U. S. Soap Liniment, or, as it is more 
commonly called, Camphorated Tincture of Soap, is prepared 
by digesting- four troyouncos of Castile soap in two pints of alco- 
hol, with four fluidounces of water, until it is dissolved, and then 
adding two troyounces of camphor and half a fluidounce of oil 
of rosemary. This is used for the same purposes as the pre- 
ceding. 

CoccuLus. Cocculus Indicus. The dried fruit of Anamirta 
Cocculus, a strong climbing plant, native of the Malabar coast 
and of India. As found in the shops, it is round or kidney- 
shaped, about the size of a jsea, with a thin, dry, blackish-brown, 
wrinkled integument, inclosing a whitish, oily, very bitter kernel.. 
The seed owes its activity to a non-nitrogenous crystalline prin- 
ciple termed jp'^crotoxiyi, and an alkaloid, menispermia. The 
Cocculus is an acrid cerebro-spinal narcotic, rarely employed 
internally, but sometimes used externally, in the form of oint- 
ment, to destroy pediculi, and in obstinate cutaneous diseases. 
Dishonest brewers use it for adulterating malt liquors to increase 
their intoxicating effects. 



ANESTHETICS. 

Anesthetics are agents which prevent pain and diminish 
sensibility ; but the term may more properly be applied to those, 
the vapors of which induce more or less complete insensibility, 
and thus allow the performance of surgical and other operations 
without pain or consciousness on the part of the patient. The 
properties common to all articles of this class are volatility, the 
presence of carbon, and solubility in the serum of the blood. The 
primary action of all is more or less stimulating. The principal 
substances used to produce anaesthesia are ether and chloroform ; 
but of late many others have been introduced for this purpose. 



174 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 



JETHER. U. S. Ether. 

Sulphuric ether is prepared by the reaction between sul- 
phuric acid and alcohol. Alcohol is the hydrated oxide of ethyle, 
and ether is the oxide of ethyle without water. On the addi- 
tion of sulphuric acid, which has a great affinity for water, the 
alcohol parts with this element, and an impure ether is obtained. 
This is purified by redistillation with a solution of potassa, to 
remove sulphurous acid, and agitated with water to remove 
alcohol. 

^THER FoRTiOR. U. S. Stronger Ether is prepared by first 
agitating the ether with water, in order that the latter, by its 
superior affinity for alcohol, may take it from the former, and 
afterwards with the chloride of calcium and lime, to separate 
from the ether any water that may be united with it. It is then 
distilled to further strengthen the ether. Composition, C^H^O. 

Properties. Ether is a clear, colorless, very volatile and in- 
flammable liquid, of a pungent odor, and a warm, acrid taste, 
followed by a sensation of coldness. When pure it has the sp. 
gr. 713, boils at 96°, and forms a vapor which has a density 
2'586. It is soluble in water and alcohol, and dissolves oils, 
many resins, and some vegetable alkaloids. It evaporates rap- 
idly, producing a sensation of coldness. 

Medical Pj'operties and Uses. Internally administered, ether 
is a diffusible stimulant, possessing antispasmodic and anodyne 
properties, and proves very useful in painful and spasmodic affec- 
tions unaccompanied by inflammation, as hysteria, asthma, and 
spasmodic diseases of the bowels. Dose, 30 to 60 minims, fre- 
quently repeated when the full effect of the remedy is desired. 
Externally, it is used to produce cold by its speedy evaporation, 
and in this way sometimes relieves severe headache, and has been 
employed to reduce hernia ; but if evaporation is prevented, it 
proves a rubefacient, and even a vesicant. Its vapor is power- 
fully anesthetic. Its application for this purpose in surgery was 
first made by Dr. Morton in 1846, since which time it has been ex- 
tensively used to relieve pain during surgical operations and to 
prevent the shock which the system would otherwise suffer in 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ANJESTIIETICS. 1^5 

consequence of pain. The introduction of anaesthesia is one of 
the most important discoveries of our age, and a great blessing 
to humanity, by removing all the horrors of operative surgery. 
It is, however, attended with some risk, and cannot be resorted 
to with impunity in all constitutions and in all cases. The pre- 
cautious necessary and the contraindications to its use will be 
mentioned when treating of chloroform. 

Spiritus ^theris Compositus. U. S. Compound Spirit of 
Ether. Hoffmann'' s Anodyne Liquor is an alcoholic solution of 
ether, impregnated with heavy oil of wine. It is a colorless, 
volatile liquid, having a slightly sweetish taste and the peculiar 
odor of ethereal oil. It possesses the same medicinal properties 
as the ether, but is more used as a tranquilizing and anodyne 
remedy in nervous irritation and in certain disturbed states of 
the system. It is also an excellent adjunct to laudanum, to pre- 
vent the nausea which the latter so often produces. Dose, 30 
drops to 1 or 2 fluidrachms, given in sweetened water. 

Oleum tEthereum. U. S. Ethereal Oil. Heavy Oil of Wine. 
This is one of the results of the distillation of alcohol with a 
large excess of sulphuric acid. The officinal oil is the proper 
oil diluted with an equal volume of stronger ether. It is a yel- 
lowish liquid, of an oleaginous consistency, with a penetrating, 
aromatic odor and a sharp, bitter taste. It has antispasmodic 
and anodyne properties, but is only used in medicine as an 
ingredient of the compound spirit of ether. 



CHLOROFORMUM. U. S. Chloroform. 

Chloroform is generated by the reaction between alcohol 
and chlorinated lime. In this process the hypochloride of lime 
contained in the chlorinated lime reacts upon the alcohol, displaces 
a portion of its hydrogen to form water, and replaces it with 
chlorine to form chloroform. 

Chloropormum Purificatum. U. S. PmHfied Chloroform is 
prepared by agitating the impure or commercial chloroform with 
one-sixth its weight of pure sulphuric acid, then removing any 
acid and water that may be present by means of alcohol and 



176 MATERIA ME Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

carbonate of potassa previously heated to redness, and distilling 
the mixture to dryness. 

Properties. Chloroform is a dense, limpid, colorless liquid, sp. 
gr. 1-48, readily evaporating, possessing an agreeable, fruit-like 
odor, and a sweet, saccharine taste. It boils at 140°; it is not 
inflammable, but its vapor burns with smoke and a yellowish 
flame. It is very slightly soluble in water, but mixes in all pro- 
portions with alcohol and ether ; it possesses extensive solvent 
powers, being capable of dissolving most resins and fats, the 
organic alkalies, and many other substances. Composition, 
CgjHCl,. A terchloride of forviyle. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Taken internally, chloroform 
acts as a sedative narcotic, operating through the nervous system, 
and may be used as an anodyne and antispasmodic in asthma, 
spasmodic cough, and various diseases attended with nervous 
irritability. It often relieves the vomiting, cramps, and other 
symptoms of cholera morbus, and has been used with good 
effects in lead colic. Externally, it is anodyne and counter-irri- 
tant, and often affords speedy and permanent relief in neuralgia 
and other severe local affections, when applied over the seat of 
pain. Inhaled in the form of vapor it is anaesthetic. When 
first inhaled it gives rise to exceeding pleasant sensations and a 
rapid flow of ideas, which soon become confused and incoherent; 
this is soon followed by an absolute relaxation of the voluntary 
movements and a total insensibility to external impressions. 
In administering chloroform, care must be taken that atmos- 
pheric air be inhaled at the saaie time : this is necessary not only 
to moderate the action of the remedy, but that the vital function 
of respiration may not be interfered with. Another point of 
importance in its administration is the state of the stomach at 
the time of inhalation. If it is given when the stomach is full, 
there will be much greater congestion of all the important or- 
gans, in addition to the sickness that follows, which is sometimes 
most troublesome. It must be used with great caution when 
there exists any serious disease of the lungs or heart, and should 
never be given when the pulse is very weak and intermitting, or 
in poisoned conditions of the blood. The occurrence during its 
administration of sudden pallor or lividity, with flickering of the 



GENERAL REMEDIES..— ANZESTHETICS. It 7 

pulse and feeble respiration, indicates danger. If these sy-mptoms 
are urgxnit, the tongue should be pulled forward so as to admit 
air into the larynx, cold water dashed on the face and chest, and, 
if these measures fail, resort should be had at once to artificial 
respiration. In addition to its use to produce insensibility 
during surgical operations, it has also been extensively employed 
to relieve pain during parturition, and its value in these cases has 
been a matter of much difiTerence of opinion. The object here 
is to keep the patient in a state unconscious of pain, yet not so 
deeply anaesthetized as to interrupt the uterine action. While 
there may be doubt as to the propriety of its use in natural labor, 
it may certainly be employed with advantage in various obstet- 
rical operations ; as forceps, turning, craniotomy, and extraction 
of retained placenta, unless the patient is too much enfeebled by 
hemorrhage. It is also resorted to with success to relieve pain 
in various spasmodic and painful diseases ; as hooping-cough, 
astjima, hysteria, nephritic colic, puerperal convulsions, tetanus, 
and sometimes in the convulsions of children. The dose for in- 
ternal administration is 1 to 10 minims, rubbed up with syrup or 
mucilage ; for inhalation, a fluidrachm or more, repeated in a few 
minutes till the desired effect is produced. 

Spiritus Chlgroformi. U. S. Spirit of Chloroform, formerly 
called Chloric Ether, is prepared by dissolving one troyounce of 
chloroform in six fluidounces of stronger alcohol. It is more 
convenient for internal administration, more readily mixing with 
water. Dose, 30 minims to a fluidrachm. 

MiSTURA Chlgroformi. U. S. Mixture of Chloroform is 
prepared by mixing half a troyounce of chloroform and sixty 
grains of camphor in six fluidounces of water, by the interven- 
tion of the yelk of egg. It forms an agreeable and easy mode of 
administering these medicines jointly. Dose, 1 or 2 table- 
spoonfuls. 

LiNiMENTUM Chlgroformi. U. S. Liniment of Chloroform, 
made by mixing three parts of chloroform and four parts of olive 
oil, is an excellent local application in painful affections. 

Chlorodyne is a popular anodyne and narcotic preparation ex- 
tensively used in England in doses of from 5 to 10 drops. It 
consists of muriate of morphia, chloroform, and prussic acid 

12 



Its MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

dissolved in alcohol, with sjrup, extract of liqaorice, and oil of 
peppermint. 

Many other substances have been inti'oduced and recom- 
mended as ansesthetics. Among the most important are the 
following : 

Rhigolene. a petroleum naphtha, obtained by the distillation 
of petroleum. It is a hydrocarbon, wholly destitute of oxygen, 
the lightest of all known liquids, very volatile, and highly 
inflammable; sp. gr. 0-625, boils at tO°. It is the most conveni- 
ent, rapid, and easily controlled freezing liquid that can be used, 
and is an excellent agent to produce local anaesthesia for the 
opening of felons and other abscesses, and the removal of small 
tumors. For large operations it is obviously less convenient than 
general anaesthesia, and will never supersede it. 

Amylene was discovered by Balard, in 1844, and was intro- 
duced as an anaesthetic agent by Dr. Snow, in 1856. It is a 
hydrocarbon, having the formula Cj„,H^g, and is prepared by 
distilling amylic alcohol with a concentrated solution of chloride 
of zinc. It is a colorless liquid, having a peculiar disagreeable 
odor, soluble in alcohol and ether in all proportions, but very 
sparingly so in water. 

Aldehyde is obtained by the distillation of sulphuric acid, 
water, alcohol, and peroxide of manganese, an^ rectified with 
chloride of calcium. It is a colorless, very inflammable, ethereal 
liquid, having a pungent taste and odor. It boils at 193° F. 
It is a powerful anaesthetic, but is objectionable on account of its 
very unpleasant odor, and is consequently better suited when local 
anaesthesia is to be induced. 

Bichloride of Methylene is developed by the action of nas- 
cent hydrogen upon chloroform. Composition, CH^.Cl^. It is a 
colorless fluid, having an odor like that of chloroform ; sp. gr. 
1-34, boils at 88°, and mixes with ether and chloroform in all pro- 
portions. By recent observers it is considered superior to chlo- 
roform, its effects being more rapid and attended witli less dan- 
ger to life. Administered internally by the stomach, in doses of 
from 10 to 20 minims, it is a good anodyne. 

Protoxide of Nitrogen. Nitrous Oxide (NO) is a safe, pleas 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— SPINAL STHIULANTS. 179 

ant, and cEficieut anaesthetic, well adapted for employment in the 
extraction of teeth; but its effects are too transient to render it 
available for surgical operations. 



SPINAL STIMULANTS. 

Cerebro-Spinants, by some called Spastics, are medicines 
which act exclusively upon the spinal cord and nerves issuing 
from it, exciting muscular contraction. Under this head are 
placed only those vegetable substances which contain strychnia 
and brucia, and ergot, which is used to excite uterine contrac- 
tions. 

NUX VOMICA. IT. S. Nux Vomica. 

The SEED of Strychnos nux vomica, or poison-nut tree, a tree 
of moderate size, growing in various parts of the East Indies. 
This tree yields a round fruit, about the size of an orange, covered 
with a smooth, hard, yellow rind, and filled with a soft, jelly-like 
pulp, in which are imbedded from three to five seeds. These 
seeds are the officinal portion, and are round, less than an inch 
in diameter, nearly flat, or convex on one side and concave on the 
other, with a depression in the centre. They have two coats: 
the outer one, or testa, is simple, fibrous, of a grayish-yellow color, 
and covered with short, silky hairs; within this is the inner coat, 
which' is thin, and envelops the kernel or nucleus of the seed. 
This is hard, tough, almost horny, and of a yellowish-white color. 

The powder is of a yellowish-gray color, with an odor analo- 
gous to that of liquorice, and an intensely bitter taste. The seeds 
impart their virtues to water, but more readily to alcohol. They 
contain the alkaloids strychnia and brucia, in combination with 
a peculiar acid, termed igasuric or sirychnic acid, with other 
less important ingredients. 

Strychnia. U. S. This vegetable alkaloid was discovered in 
1818 byPelletier and Caventou in the seed of nux vomica, the 
St. Ignatius bean, and in other varieties of the genus Strychnos. 



180 3IATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

It may be obtained by boiling the seeds, first rasped or softened 
by steam, in water acidulated with muriatic acid, and decompos- 
ing the resulting muriate of strychnia and brucia by lime. The 
strychnia is then separated from brucia by boiling alcohol, which 
deposits it on cooling, leaving the brucia in solution. It is a 
white, crystalline substance, permanent in the air, inodorous, with 
an intense bitter taste, almost insoluble in water, sparingly so in 
cold alcohol and ether, but readily soluble in boiling alcohol. It 
is alkaline in its relation to vegetable colors, and forms crystalliz- 
able salts with acids. It is liable to be adulterated with lime or 
magnesia. When perfectly pure, it is entirely soluble in boiling 
alcohol, and is decomposed and dissipated when exposed to a 
calcining heat with the access of air. Brucia may be detected 
by the blood-red color it gives with nitric acid. 

Bru'cia is a crystalline substance, of a white color, without 
odor, with a very bitter taste, but less than that of strychnia. Its 
effects on the system are the same as those of strychnia, though 
less active, being considered about one-twelfth its strength. 

Physiological Action. In small doses, nux vomica, or its alka- 
loid, strychnia, acts as atonic, improving the appetite and tone of 
the digestive organs, sometimes producing a slight laxative or 
diaphoretic effect. In larger doses, so as to bring the sj^stem 
decidedly under its influence, it stimulates the functions of the 
spinal cord and its system of nerves without affecting the brain, 
except that portion which is immediately associated with the 
spinal system. Its operation is manifested by pain in the head, 
a feeling of weight and weakness in the limbs, a slight trembling 
or stiffness of the muscles or joints, anxiety of mind, greatly in- 
creased nervous sensibility, and loss of appetite. In still larger or 
poisonous doses, the above symptoms are increased in intensity, 
and are rapidly followed by tetanic and general convulsions, 
which affect both the limbs and trunk. Death takes place from 
a suspension of respiration, resulting from spasm of the muscles 
concerned in the act. Where it does not prove rapidly fatal, in- 
tense thirst, vomiting, diarrhoea, and severe colic arc present. 

TJierapeutical Uses. The prominent indications for the use of 
nux vomica and its preparations are torpid orparah'tic conditions 
of the motor or sensitive nerves, or of muscular fibre. In paraly- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— SPINAL STUIULANTS. 181 

sis it has been used with variable success, on account of its inju- 
dicious employment in all forms of this disease. Where the lesion 
is of recent occurrence, or wliere it has been of so serious a nature 
as to admit of no ultimate repair, the remedy will be ineffectual ; 
but where the injury to the nervous centre has healed up, and the 
effusion been absorbed, and where the limb continues paralyzed, 
merely because the motor nerves have lost the power to trans- 
mit the necessary impulse, as if from habit, it will prove success- 
ful. Upon the same principle it proves useful in habitual consti- 
pation, depending upon deficient tone of the muscular coat of the 
large bowels and imperfect propelling power of the upper part 
of the rectum. In incontinence of urine, prolapsus of the rectum, 
in spermatorrhoea, and in all cases dependent upon impaired 
power in the muscular system it may be used with benefit. In 
amenorrhoea, depending upon diminished action in the uterine 
vessels, it is beneficial by stimulating these, while at the same time 
it improves the general tone and vigor of the system. Where 
there is a tendency to costiveness it is best to combine it with 
purgatives. As a tonic it proves useful in those eases of dys- 
pepsia which depend on, or are connected with, an atonic condi- 
tion of the muscular coat of the stomach. In intermittent fever 
it frequently effects cures where the ordinary antiperiodic treat- 
ment has failed. Dose of the powdered seeds, from 1 to 5 grains 
(the extract is usually preferred). The effect of strychnia is 
similar in every respect; and it is generally preferred on account 
of the certainty and uniformity of its action. Dose, y'^ to ^\ of 
a grain, gradually increased if necessary. Whenever in medici- 
nal doses it causes muscular stiffness or convulsive twitchings, 
it should be discontinued for a few days, and then resumed if the 
circumstances of the case require it. In cases of poisoning, the 
stomach should be evacuated as speedily as possible. No chemi- 
cal antidotes are known. Iodine, chlorine, or bromine have been 
recommended, on the supposition that they form with strychnia 
compounds which are not deleterious ; but as absorption takes 
place so rapidly after its administration, but little reliance can be 
placed on them. As conia and nicotia produce directly opposite 
physiological effects, they may be tried. To relieve the spasms, 



182 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

opium, camphor, and other narcotics may be given, and of late 
chloroform has been used with good effects. 

ExTRACTUM Nucis YoMic^ Alcoholicum. U. S. Alcoholic 
Extract of Nux Vomica is prepared by evaporating a strong 
tincture. It is an active preparation, but, owing to the variable 
proportion of strychnia in the nux vomica, not always of uniform 
strength. Dose, \ grain to 2 grains. 

TiNCTURA Nucis YoMiCiE. U. S. Tincture of Nux Vomica is 
prepared by percolation (eight troyounces of powdered nux 
vomica to two pints of alcohol). Dose, 20 minims, increased if 
necessary. 

Strychnia Sulphas. U. S. Sulphate of Strychnia may be 
readily obtained by neutralizing the alkaloid with dilute sul- 
phuric acid. It occurs in colorless, prismatic crystals, which 
effloresce on 'exposure ; the salt is inodorous and extremely bitter. 
It is freely soluble in water, which gives it an advantage over 
the alkaloid for external use and for subcutaneous injection. The 
dose is the same as that of the alkaloid itself. The 7iitrate, 
muriate, and acetate of strychnia have also been occasionally 
used on account of their solubility. They are prepared by 
neutralizing the acid with strychnia, and evaporating. 

IGNATIA. IT. S. Ignatia. 

Bean of St. Ignatius. This is the seed of Strychnos Ignatia 
(by some called Ignatia amara), a tree of the Philippine Islands. 
The seed is about the size of a small olive, flat on one side and 
irregularly convex on the other. Externally, it is rough, and 
of a pale-brown color ; internally, hard, horny, and semi-trans- 
parent. The seeds contain about three times as much strychnia 
as the nux vomica, and are principally used for obtaining the 
alkaloid. 

ExTRACTUM Ignatia Alcoholicum. U. S. Alcoholic Extract 
of Ignatia is prepared in the same way as the extract of nux 
vomica, and possesses the same medicinal properties. Dose, ^ 
grain to 2 grains, repeated until its effects begin to be experi- 
enced. 

Several other species of Strychnos have attracted attention for 



GENERAL REMEDIES —SPINAL STIMULANTS. 183 

their poisonous properties. Of these the most celebrated are the 
S. Tieute, a large, climbing shrub of Java, from which is obtained 
an extract, known in the East as Upas Tieute ; and the S.toxi- 
fera, a native of South America, and supposed to be an ingre- 
dient of the Woorari poison of Guiana. 

Toxicodendron. U. S. Secondary. The leaves of JRhus Toxi- 
codendron, Poison oak, a climbing vine, growing abundantly in 
all parts of the United States. They possess properties similar 
to those of nux vomica, and have been used for the same purposes. 
Dose of the powdered leaves, from |- to 1 grain. 

ERGOTA. U. S. Ergot. 

The diseased seeds of Secale cereale, common rye. The dis- 
ease called gpur, caused by the growth of a fungus on the grain, 
is common to various grains, but the rye seems peculiarly sub- 
ject to it. 

Properties. Ergot or spurred rye is a cylindrical body, from 
the third of an inch to an inch or more in length, marked with 
longitudinal furrows, and slightly curved like the sptjr of a cock. 
Externally, it is of a dingy-purple color ; internally, of a pale 
grayish-red or yellowish. When perfectly dry it is brittle and 
easily pulverized. It has a peculiar, musty odor, and a bitter, 
acrid taste. It loses much of its efficacy if exposed to the air, 
and deteriorates by age. Its medicinal virtues are extracted by 
water and alcohol. It contains a fixed oil and a peculiar sub- 
stance, ergotin. The oil is obtained by evaporating the ethereal 
tincture, formed by the process of displacement, by a gejitle heat. 
It is of a reddish-brown color, with an oily and slightly acrid 
taste, is lighter than water, and is soluble in alcohol and in alka- 
line solutions. At one time it was thought to be the active in- 
gredient, but is now supposed to be a mixture of several proxi- 
mate principles. The ergotin is prepared by digesting the ergot 
in ether, to remove the oil, and then in boiling alcohol, evaporating 
the alcoholic solution, and treating the extract thus obtained with 
water, when the ergotin remains undissolved. It is a brownish- 
red substance, with an acrid, bitter taste, and an unpleasant 
odor, soluble in alcohol, but insoluble in ether and water. Re- 



184 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

cently a volatile alkaloid has been detected in ergot, united with 
an acid termed ergotic acid. This is called secalia, and has been 
ascertained to be identical with propylamin, the odorous prin- 
ciple of herring-pickle ; it may be obtained by distilling the 
watery extract of ergot with potassa. 

Physiological Effects. On the adult male ergot does not pro- 
duce any very marked effects, unless it be taken in large or long- 
continued doses, when it gives rise to a train of symptoms called 
ergotism. Two distinct varieties of this have been noticed : the 
one, a nervous disease, characterized by weight and pain in the 
head, giddiness, delirium, and stupor, followed by violent spas- 
modic convulsions ; the other, a depraved state of the constitu- 
tion, accompanied by great depression of the vital powers and 
coldness of the extremities, followed by gangrene. This last 
effect is probably due to its causing obstruction in the vessels by 
diminishing their calibre. In medicinal doses in the female, in- 
dependent of its action on the cerebro-spinal system, it acts as a 
stimulant to the nerves of the uterus and excites uterine contrac- 
tions. The pains and contractions produced by ergot may be 
distinguished from those of natural labor by their steady continu- 
ance, commencing usually within a period varying from five min- 
utes to half an hour after the medicine has been administered, 
and becoming stronger and more frequent, without any distinct 
interval between them, until the child is expelled. In most cases, 
if judiciously administered, it produces no ill effects, either tempo- 
rary or permanent, on the mother; but much difference of opin- 
ion prevails as to its effects upon the foetus, most writers agreeing 
as to its injurious effects. 

Therapeutic Uses. Ergot is principally used on account of its 
power of producing contraction of the uterus, and is resorted to 
when the pains are feeble in protracted and lingering labors, or 
when the life of the patient is endangered by alarming symp- 
toms. In these cases care must be had that the os uteri is soft 
and dilatable, and that no obstacle exists to a natural labor, either 
from deformity of the pelvis or from mal-presentation. It may 
also be given with advantage to cause the expulsion of the pla- 
centa, when its retention depends on feebleness or absence of 
uterine contractions, or when there is much hemorrhage after de- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.—SEDATIVES. 185 

livery. In women who are known to have been subject to alarm- 
ing- hemorrhage in their preceding labors, it may be given just be- 
fore delivery, to secure a good and permanent contraction of the 
uterus. Sometimes it is used to provoke abortion when, from 
any proper cause, this becomes necessary. It may also be em- 
ployed in hemorrhages unconnected with pregnancy, and has 
been found particularly efficacious in menorrhagia. It is also 
used with success in leucorrhoea and gleet. It is usually given in 
substance, tincture, or fluid extract. Dose of the powder, 15 to 
20 grains, repeated every twenty minutes till its effects are expe- 
rienced. 

ExTRACTUM Ergot.^ Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of Ergot, 
prepared by evaporating the tincture (made with acetic acid and 
diluted alcohol), possesses all the virtues of the medicine in a 
concentrated state. It is a clear, reddish-brown liquid, having 
the taste of ergot, but without its fishy odor, owing to the fixa- 
tion of the alkaloid propylamin, upon which that odor depends. 
One fluidounce represents a troyounce of ergot. Dose, 10 to 20 
minims. 

ViNUM ERGOTiB. TJ. S. Wine of Ergot is prepared by exhaust- 
ing two troyounces of powdered ergot with one pint of sherry 
wine. Dose, from 1 to 3 fluidrachms, repeated if necessary. 



SEDATIVES. 

Sedatives are medicines which directly and primarily depress 
the vital powers without inducing any previous excitement. 
From their action being the reverse of stimulant, they are some- 
times called CoNTRASTiMULANTS. Some writers confound them 
with narcotics. Both impair and repress action, but narcotics 
are excitant in their primary action, and only secondarily act as 
sedatives ; besides, sedatives exert little or no effect upon the mind. 
Their effects must also be distinguished from the exhaustion re- 
sulting from overstimulation, in which case the stimulus, having 
exhausted the nervous power, leaves the system in a state of 



186 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

collapse. They may be divided into those which are more espe- 
cially directed to the arterial, and those which act upon the nerv- 
ous system. The two systems, however, are so closely connected 
by sympathy, that any great disturbance in the one seldom exists 
without inducin": disorder in the other. 



ASTEEIAL SEDATIVES. 

These are those medicines which lessen the force and frequency 
of the circulation, independent of any depletion, and only indi- 
rectly affect the nervous system. Though sedative in their gen- 
eral influence, they act as stimulants to particular functions or 
organs, and in large quantities act as local irritants. Their influ- 
ence on the system is shown by the diminished force, frequency, 
and fullness of the pulse, and, as a consequence, the diminished 
temperature of the body: On account of this latter eifect, they 
are sometimes called Refrigerants. They may be used in all 
acute inflammations attended with fever and not complicated with 
a typhoid tendency, and in all fevers in which the grade of action 
is above the healthy standard. Even where the vital forces are 
impaired they may be cautiously used to diminish preternatural 
beat and febrile excitement ; but in these cases the vegetable acids 
and such as have the least depressing tendency should be selected. 
The most important remedies belonging to this class are the an- 
timonial preparations. 

ANTIMONIUM. Antimony. 

Metallic Antimony, Stibium, exists in nature as an oxide, 
and in the form of tersulphuret ; from the latter all the metal of 
commerce is extracted. It is a brittle, highly crystalline metal, 
of a bluish-white color, and bright, metallic lustre ; sp. gr. 6"T. It 
burns when submitted to a high temperature, giving off dense 
vapors of the oxide. The absolutely pure metal has no medi- 
cinal property, but its compounds are among the most valuable 
articles of the Materia Medica. They are active in proportion 
to their solubility in the gastric juice, and, according to most 
observers, become converted into soluble double chlorides. The 
preparations were introduced into medicine by Basil Va entine, 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ARTERIAL SEDATIVES. ^ 181 

a German monk, from whose unfortunate administration of it to 
his brother monks it is supposed to have derived its name. 

ANTIMONII ET POTASS^ TARTRAS. U. S. Tartrate 

of Antimony and Fotassa. 

Tartar Emetic. Tartarized Antimony. This salt is ob- 
tained by boiling a mixture of bitartrate of potassa and teroxide 
of antimony in water, thereby saturating the excess of tartaric 
acid in the bitartrate with the oxide of antimony. It is a double 
salt, consisting of tartaric acid united with potassa and teroxide 
of antimony. KCSbOg (C3HPJ + 2HO. 

Propeiiies. When pure, it is in colorless, transparent, rhom- 
bic, octahedral crystals, which effloresce and become opaque on 
exposure to the air. As found in the shops, it is a white powder, 
inodorous, with a nauseous styptic taste ; it is soluble in fifteen 
parts of water, insoluble in alcohol, but dissolves in proof spirit 
or wine. It is incompatible with acids, alkalies, and alkaline 
carbonates ; it is also precipitated in an insoluble form by 
astringent solutions. 

Physiological Effects. In small and repeated doses, it lessens 
the action of the heart and blood-vessels, and at the same time 
promotes the secretions of the mucous membranes and of the 
skin. In larger doses, it acts as a nauseant and emetic. In ex- 
cessive quantities, it acts as an irritant poison. It is absorbed 
into the system and exercises a peculiar action on the stomach 
and alimentary canal, as is shown by the fact that it produces 
nausea and vomiting when applied to the denuded skin or in- 
jected into the rectum. Headland says : " It is by the production 
of nausea that antimony becomes so valuable an agent in the 
control of sthenic inflammations and high fever." 'The force of 
the heart being diminished, the fever is allayed, and the active 
congestion which was maintained by the violent action of the 
heart is subdued. At the same time absorption is favored by 
the removal of the pressure from the capillary circulation. It 
produces the same effects as blood-letting, but in a different way, 
— it diminishes the pressure on the vessels by weakening the 
force of the heart, whereas blood-letting weakens the force of the 
heart by diminishing the pressure on the vessels. 



188 . MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Therapeutical Uses. Tartar emetic is capable of fulfilling nu- 
merous indications in disease, according to the dose and the pecu- 
liar circumstances under which it is administered. In minute 
doses, it has been found useful as an alterative in certain diseases 
of the skin. In small doses, either alone or combined with saline 
remedies, it proves useful in febrile and inflammatory diseases, by 
subduing the increased vascular excitement and determining freely 
to the skin. In pneumonia, acute bronchitis, and in all inflam- 
mations, except those of the stomach and alimentary canal, it 
controls the inordinate action of the heart and arterial system, 
and is most beneficially conjoined with calomel and opium. As 
a powerful antiphlogistic in the treatment of acute inflammations, 
it was recommended in large doses by llasori, and this plan was 
adopted by Laennec and by others, and though its efficacy in these 
cases is undoubted, it is not now given in such large doses. It 
seems most beneficial when given in frequent small doses, not 
exceeding the fraction of a grain. By cautiously increasing the 
dose, a degree of tolerance of the remedy may be established in 
the system, so that large doses may be given without producing 
any great sensible effects. Tartar emetic also proves useful in 
pulmonary and bronchial disease as an expectorant, and with this 
view is often conjoined with squill and similar remedies. As an 
emetic, it is useful where we wish to make a powerful impression 
on the system and put a stop to the progress of disease ; it is 
sometimes administered for this purpose in the early stages of 
fever, particularly when accompanied by bilious disorders, and 
in some inflammatory diseases, as tonsillitis, orchitis, etc. Where 
the object is simply to evacuate the stomach, as in cases of nar- 
cotic poisoning, mustard or sulphate of zinc, which acts without 
producing nausea, should be preferred. Before the introduction 
of chloroform it was much used as a nauseant, to reduce the force 
of the circulation and diminish muscular power, to facilitate the 
reduction of dislocations and of hernia. Externally, it is often 
employed as a counter-irritant It possesses the power of inflam- 
ing the true skin and of producing a pustular eruption. In cases 
of poisoning, vomiting should be promoted by the free use of 
diluents. The best antidote is any astringent infusion or decoc- 
tion containing tannin, which decomposes it and forms an insol- 
uble tannate with the teroxide of antimony. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ARTERIAL SEDATIVES. 189 

Administration. Dose, as an alterative, from -g'^ to -/^ of a 
grain ; as a diaphoretic or expectorant, y'^ to ;§- of a yrain ; a<j a 
nanseant, from ^ to -g- of a grain, repeated every few hours accord- 
ing to circumstances ; as an emetic, 1 grain, repeated every fifteen 
minutes till it vomits. In all cases it should be used with caution 
in children, as it sometimes, even in small doses, acts with unex- 
pected violence. 

ViNUM Antimonii. U. S. Wii^e of Antimony is prepared by 
dissolving tartar emetic (previously dissolved in a little water) in 
sherry wine, in the proportion of two grains to each fluidounce. 
It is a very convenient form of administering the medicine to 
children, or where it is desired to give it in minute doses. Dose, 
as an expectorant or diaphoretic, 10 to 30 drops ; as an emetic for 
children, 30 drops to a fluidrachm, repeated till it operates. 

TTnguentum Antimonii. IJ. S. Tartar Emetic Ointment is 
prepared by thoroughly mixing one hundred and twenty grains 
of tartar emetic with a troyounce of lard. The proportion of 
tartar emetic, however, may be varied to suit the indications. It 
is n)osrt generally resorted to when we wish to obtain the peculiar 
pustular effects of the remedy. 

Emplastrum Antimonii. U. S. Plaster of Antimony is pre- 
pared by adding one part of tartar emetic to four parts of melted 
Burgundy pitch. It affords a convenient method of obtaining the 
local effects of tartar emetic. 

■ ANTIMONII OXIDUM. U. S. Oxide of Antimony. 

This oxide is prepared by first obtaining a solution of the ter- 
cliloride of antimony, by digesting the tersulphuret in muriatic 
acid, and afterwards adding a little nitric acid to complete the 
decomposition of the sulphuret. Water is then added to precipi- 
tate the impure oxide, formerly called oxychloride or powder of 
Algaroth. This is then washed and treated with water of am- 
monia, which decomposes any chloride and converts the whole 
into the teroxide. SbOg. 

, Properties. When pure, it is a heavy, grayish-white powder, 
inodorous, tasteless, insoluble in water, but readily dissolved by 
weak acids. It fuses at a red heat, forming a yellowish liquid, 



190 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

which concretes on cooling into a crystalline mass of a pearl 
color. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The oxide has the general 
therapeutic properties of the antimonials, and is the active ingre- 
dient of all the medicinal preparations, but is principally used in 
the preparation of tartar emetic. Dose, 1 to 3 grains. 

PuLVis Antimonialis. Antimonial Powder is an imitation 
of Jameses powder {Pulvis Jamesii), prepared by mixing thor- 
oughly one part of teroxide of antimony with two parts o^ pre- 
cipitated phosphate of lime. The original Jameses powder was 
pi'epared by exposing one part of tersulphuret of antimony and 
two parts of horn-shavings in a crucible to a red heat: the sul- 
phur being expelled in the form of sulphurous acid, and the animal 
matter of the horn being reduced to charcoal and dissipated, 
leaves only the oxide of antimony mixed with phosphate of lime. 
This is a white, inodorous, tasteless, gritty powder, formerly 
much resorted to as an alterative and diaphoretic, but now sel- 
dom used, on account of the uncertainty of its effects. Dose, 3 to 
8 grains, every three or four hours. 

ANTIMONII SULPHURETUM. U. S. Sulphuret of 
Antimony. 

This is the native black tersulphuret of antimony, called in 
commerce common or crude antimony. For medicinal purposes 
it is purified by fusion, and procured in the form of powder by 
pulverization and levigation. It is an insoluble powder, of a dull- 
black color, without odor or taste. It is not used as a medicine 
in this country, except in the preparation of the following com- 
pounds. 

Antimonii Sulphuratum. JJ. S. Precipitated Sulphuret of 
Antimony. This is prepared by boiling the black sulphuret with 
solution of potassa and adding diluted sulphuric acid to the 
strained solution as long as it produces a precipitate, washing 
this and drying it. It is a reddish-brown powder, with a slight 
styptic taste, insoluble in water. Composition, SbO^-j-SSbSj-f- 
IGHO. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It possesses the alterative and 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ARTERIAL SEDATIVES. 191 
• 
diaphoretic properties of the antimonial preparations, but is very- 
uncertain in its operation. It is principally employed as an alter- 
ative in chronic cutaneous diseases and in secondary syphilis, and 
sometimes in the treatment of chronic rheumatism — generally in 
combination with calomel and guaiacum, as in Plummer's pill. 
Dose, 1 to 3 grains. 

Antimonii Oxysulphuretum. U. S. Oxysulphuret of Anti- 
mony, Kermes Mineral. This is prepared by boiling the ter- 
sulphuret with an alkaline carbonate (usually the carbonate of 
soda) and drying the precipitate without heat. Composition, 
2SbS3+Sb03. It is a purplish-brown, tasteless powder, soft 
and velvety to the touch, insipid and inodorous. It is a more 
active preparation than the precipitated sulphuret, but may be 
used for the same purposes. Dose, -I to 3 grains. 

Antimonii Sulphuretum Aureum. Golden Sulphuret of An- 
timony is obtained by adding an acid to the solution from which 
kermes mineral has been precipitated. It is a mixture of the 
tersulphuret and oxide, with a small portion of free sulphur ; it 
is a dark, orange-colored powder, nearly tasteless and inodorous, 
insoluble in water and alcohol. It possesses properties similar 
to the officinal sulphurets, but is much weaker, and must be 
given in a larger dose. 

Pilule Antimonii Composite. U. S. Compound Fills of 
Antimony. Plummer^s Pills, formerly known as Compound Calo- 
mel Pills, consist of equal parts of calomel and sulphurated 
antimony and two parts of guaiac, made into a mass with 
molasses. Six grains of the mass contain one grain of calomel. 
This combination is well adapted to the treatment of chronic 
rheumatism, and of scaly and other eruptive diseases, especially 
when of syphilitic origin. 

POTASS^ NITRAS. U. S. Nitrate of Potassa. 

This salt, commonly known as Nitre or Saltpetre, is both a 
natural and artificial product. It is found native, effloresced on 
the surface of the soil, in the fissures of calcareous rocks, and in 
caverns and caves where large quantities of animal remains 
exist. The rationale of its production is simple : the oxygen of 



192 MATERIA 3IEDI0A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

the atmosphere combines with the nitrogen of ammonia, gene- 
rated by the decomposition of animal substances, producing 
nitric acid, which combines with the allvali of the soil, forming 
the salt. It may be artificially produced by mixing animal and 
vegetable refuse with ashes and calcareous earth. At the end 
of a certain time a gradual reaction is produced by the action 
of air and moisture, which results in the production of nitric 
acid, which, combining with the potassa existing in the vege- 
table remains, forms nitre. The crude salt is obtained by lixivi- 
ation, and purified by dissolving in boiling water 'and crystal- 
lizing. Composition, KOjNOg. 

Properties. Nitre, when pure, is a solid, colorless, semi-trans- 
• parent salt, generally in six-sided prismatic crystals, inodorous, 
with a cooling saline, slightly bitter taste. It is insoluble in 
alcohol, soluble in four parts of cold water, generating great cold, 
and in half its weight of boiling water. It contains no water of 
crystallization, but exposed to a great heat it fuses, and on cool- 
ing concretes into a white opaque mass, called sal prunelle. 
When thrown on burning coals it burns with bright scintil- 
lations. 

Iledical Properties and Uses. In moderate doses, repeated, 
it lessens the force and frequency of the pulse, diminishes pre- 
ternatural heat, and stimulates the functions of the skin and kid- 
neys. This combined action renders it very useful in febrile and 
inflammatory diseases, and in active hemorrhages. In combina- 
tion with calomel and tartar emetic (nitrous powders) it is much 
employed to promote the secretions of the liver and skin, and to 
lessen febrile excitement. Large doses have been recommended 
in acute rheumatism, on the supposition that it acts by restoring 
the saline constituents of the blood, and lessens the excess of 
fibrin In overdoses it acts as an irritant to the gastro-intestinal 
canal, producing pain, nausea, vomiting, and purging, with ex- 
cessive nervous prostration, and sometimes death. The treat- 
ment consists in the removal of the poison from the stomach, 
and in the administration of mucilaginous drinks and opiates to 
allay irritation and pain. In consequence of its irritant jjroper- 
ties, it is contraindicated in inflammatory affections of the 
stomach, kidneys, or bladder. Dose, 5 to 20 grains. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ARTERIAL SEDATIVES. 193 

ACIDUM CITRICUM. U. S. Citric Acid. 

This acid exists largely in the juice of the lemon, lime, and 
orange, and in smaller quantities in that of the grape and other 
fruits. It is obtained by saturating boiling lemon or lime juice 
with carbonate of lime, and decomposing the citrate of lime thus 
formed with dilute sulphuric acid, which forms an insoluble sul- 
phate of lime, and leaves citric acid in solution, from which it 
may readily be crystallized. 

Properties. Citric acid crystallizes in large, transparent, 
colorless, rhombic prisms, inodorous, with an agreeable, purely 
acid taste. It is very soluble in water, and in weak alcohol. 
It is permanent in dry, but deliquesces in moist air ; it fuses in 
its water of crystallization. It forms soluble salts, most of which 
are extensively used in medicine on account of their solubility. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Largely diluted, citric acid 
forms a useful and grateful refrigerant drink in fevers and in- 
flammatory affections. In some irritable conditions of the 
stomach it affords great relief, and has been used with advan- 
tage in scurvy ; but fresh lemon juice should be preferred when 
it can be obtained. 

Syrupus Acidi Citrici. TJ. S. Syrup of Citric Acid is pre- 
pared by dissolving one hundred and twenty grains of citric acid 
in two pints of syrup, and flavoring with four minims of oil of 
lemons. It is much employed as an agreeable and refrigerant 
addition to drinks, especially carbonic acid water. 

Ammonia Citras. Citrate of Ammonia, obtained by satu- 
rating twenty grains of carbonate of ammonia with twenty-six 
grains of citric acid in solution, is an excellent febrifuge and 
refrigerant, frequently remaining on the stomach when other 
medicines are rejected. 

ACIDUM ACETICtJM. U. S. Acetic Acid. 

The acetic acid of commerce is obtained by the purification of 
the crude pyroligneous acid, procured by the destructive distilla- 
tion of wood, and contains 36 per cent, of anhydrous acetic acid; 
sp. gr. 1-047. It is a colorless, volatile liquid, having a sharp 

13 



194 MATERTA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

taste and pungent odor ; it unites with water in all proportions. 
It is chiefly used for pharmaceutical purposes. The Glacial or 
Monohydrated Acetic Acid is obtained by decomposing acetate 
of soda with sulphuric acid; sp, gr. 1-063. It consists of the pure 
acid united with one equivalent of water. C^HgOgJIO. It is 
a colorless liquid, with a pungent odor and corrosive taste, and 
is converted, when cooled to nearly 32°, into colorless, prismatic 
crystals. The glacial acid is only employed externally, and acts 
as a rubefacient, vesicant, or caustic, according to the length of 
time it is applied. Acetic acid is officinal in three forms. 

AciDUM AcETicuM DiLUTUM. U. S. Dilute Acetic Acid is pre- 
pared by mixing one part of acetic acid with seven parts of dis- 
tilled water; sp. gr. 1-006. Properly diluted, it forms an excel- 
lent refrigerant drink, but is not as much used for this purpose 
as the other vegetable acids. It is sometimes used as an addi- 
tion to gargles, and, largely diluted with water, is valuable for 
sponging the surface, for the purpose of lessening morbid animal 
heat. 

AcETUM. U. S. Vinegar is impure dilute ac(?tic acid, the pro- 
duct of acetous fermentation, by which alcohol is converted into 
acetic acid through the agency of some ferment, and if this is 
not added, it is generated by the air itself. The conversion of 
alcohol into acetic acid consists in — first, the removal of two 
equivalents of hydrogen, and afterward the addition of two 
equivalents of oxygen. Vinegar may be obtained from all 
liquors which have undergone the vinous fermentation ; in 
France it is usually made from inferior wines ; in England from 
malt liquors; and in this country from cider. And though these 
all differ somewhat in strength and purity, tbey agree in medi- 
cinal action, and may be used for the same purposes as the dilute 
acid. 

AcETUM Destillatum. it. S. Distilled Vinegar is prepared 
by simply distilling common vinegar, to purify it from the color- 
ing and other foreign matters it usually contains. It is used for 
the same purposes as the above preparations. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— NERVOUS SEDATIVES 195 



ACIDUM TARTARICUM. U. S. Tartaric Acid. 

This acid is found in the juice of grapes and all acid fruits, 
and is extracted from tartar, a peculiar substance which is de- 
posited on the inside of wine casks during the fermentation of 
wine. This impure bitartrate of potassa is dissolved in water, 
and saturated with carbonate of lime, thus precipitating a tar- 
trate of lime ; this is washed and decomposed by dilute sulphuric 
acid, which precipitates sulphate of lime and leaves tartaric acid 
in solution, from which it may be crystallized. 

Properties and Uses. This acid sometimes crystallizes in ir- 
regular prisms, but it is usually found in the shops in the form 
of a fine, white powder ; it is inodorous, and has a purely acid 
taste ; it is soluble in water and alcohol. Composition, 2H0, 
CgH^O,„. It is refrigerant, but inferior to citric acid in many 
respects, being more apt to disorder the digestive organs, to pro- 
duce colic, and to purge. In large doses, it acts as an irritant 
poison. Dose, 10 to 20 grains, dissolved in water and sweet- 
ened. 

NERVOUS SEDATIVES. 

These are medicines which depress nervous force, without any 
direct influence on the brain, and thus diminish the force of the 
circulation. Most writers class them with narcotics, but as they 
differ essentially from these in their mode of action, they are 
best treated of by themselves. All of them, in overdoses, are 
most energetic poisons. Their use is indicated where there is 
excessive action of the heart and nervous irritation, more es- 
pecially in diseases which combine these two indications. Their 
effects on the system and their therapeutic application will be 
considered in connection with the several articles classed under 
this head. 

DIGITALIS. TT. S. Foxglove. 

The LEAVES of Digitalis jmrpurea or Foxglove, a beautiful 
biennial plant, growing wild in the temperate regions of Europe, 
and culti\^ated in this country as an ornamental plant and for 



196 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

medicinal purposes. It has a fibrous root, from which arises, in 
the second year, a single, erect, leafy stem, from two to five feet 
high. The leaves are large, alternate, egg-shaped, and serrated, 
of a dark-green color above, pale and downy beneath ; it bears 
large, purple, bell-shaped flowers. The leaves should be gathered 
in the second year, about the time of inflorescence, and should 
be carefully dried in the dark, and always kept protected from 
the light. 

Properties. When good, the dried leaves should have a dull- 
green color, a feeble but somewhat narcotic odor, and a bitter, 
unpleasant taste. The powder is of a fine deep-green color, and 
yields its virtues to water and alcohol. It is incompatible with 
the salts of lead and iron, and all solutions containing tannic 
acid. The virtues of digitalis reside in a peculiar bitter prin- 
ciple, digitaline. To isolate this, the alcoholic extract of the 
leaves is treated with water acidulated with acetic acid, by 
which process most of the extractive and resinous matters are 
left undissolved, while the digitaline is taken up by the acid. 
The solution, after partial decolorization, is neutralized by am- 
monia, and the digitaline precipitated by tannic acid. This pre- 
cipitate is decomposed by rubbing it with oxide of lead, which 
unites with the tannic acid, and the resulting digitaline may be 
obtained by dissolving in alcohol, filtering through animal char- 
coal, and evaporating at a gentle heat. It may be further 
purified by washing with ether to remove impurities. As thus 
obtained, it is a white, or yellowish-white, inodorous substance, 
somewhat crystalline, of an intensely bitter taste, scarcely solu- 
ble in water, but very soluble in alcohol. It possesses the 
advantage over the leaves of uniformity of strength and facility 
of administration. One part of it is equivalent to fifty parts of 
good digitalis. 

Physiological Action. Digitalis acts on the system in a differ- 
ent manner, according to the dose, mode of administration, and 
the circumstances under which it is given. In small quantities, 
often repeated, it affects the organic functions, without disorder- 
ing those of the cerebo-spinal system ; the most frequent results 
being a reduction of the force and frequency of the pulse, and an 
increased flow of urine. It seems to depress the action of the 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— NERVOUS SEDATIVES. 197 

heart and circulation by a directly debilitating power, and without 
producing the usual symptoms of nausea. When given in too 
large or long-continued doses, it causes a disordered state of the 
digestive and circulatory organs and of the cerebro-spinal system, 
manifested by slow and irregular pulse, coldness of the extremi- 
ties, a tendency to syncope, and confusion of the vision. In still 
larger quantities it acts as a narcotico-acrid poison ; and the above 
symptoms are present in an aggravated degree, accompanied 
with nausea and vomiting, stupor and delirium, and if not relieved 
are followed by hiccough, convulsions, and death. Great caution 
is necessary in its use as a medicine, for when given in small and 
long-continued doses it is apt to accumulate in the system, and 
suddenly to evince its poisonous and even fatal effects. 

Therapeutical Ui^es. From its sedative action it is a remedy 
of great value in diseases of the heart, and may be employed in 
all cases attended with overexcitement of the circulation. It is 
particularly useful in hypertrophy of the heart, — whether compli- 
cated with other diseases or not, — in increased action arising 
from functional derangement, and in a.neurism of the aorta. In 
dilatation, where the tissue of the organ is enfeebled by defective 
nutrition, and in organic diseases attended with great debility, it 
would seem to be contraindicated. In inflammations it was at 
one time recommended, but experience has shown that, although 
it exercises a depressing influence on the circulation, it is not 
sufficiently powerful as an antiphlogistic to be relied upon to the 
exclusion of more active measures. At one time it acquired a 
great reputation in the treatment of phthisis; and although it is 
now seldom used, it may sometimes act beneficially in this disease 
by depressing the excited movements of the heart. Its diuretic 
power renders it highly useful in dropsical diseases. It is espe- 
cially useful in dropsies which result from an obstruction to the 
cardiac circulation. By subduing the action of the heart, it re- 
lieves the congestion of the vascular system, which is the cause 
of the effusion of serum, and by its diuretic action relieves the 
loaded vessels, and causes a quantity of fluid to be eliminated 
from the system through the kidnej^s. It should always be 
avoided in those cases where the heart's action is habitually 
weak and there is a natural tendency to syncope. In the dropsy 



198 MATERIA MEDIO A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

following scarlet fever, the coagulability of the urine rapidly dis- 
appears under the use of digitalis ; in this case it is best com- 
bined with tonics. It has been recommended as specific in 
delirium tremens, in full doses, repeated every few hours till 
symptoms of narcotism are induced, but the practice is rather 
hazardous. Where an overdose has been taken, the stomach 
should be promptly evacuated, and the condition of the system 
combated by the administration of diffusible stimulants, as brandy 
and ammonia. 

AdminidraMon. In the employment of digitalis as a medicine, 
its effects should be carefully watched, and whenever its use is 
continued for any length of time the patient should not be allowed 
to use any active exertion ; and when nausea or intermission of 
pulse occurs, its use should be discontinued for a time. It may 
be administered in substance, in doses of from ^ a grain to I 
grain, repeated two or three times a day, or oftener if occasion 
requires, and gradually increased till some effect is produced. 
The tincture and infusion are often resorted to, and are good and 
efficient preparations. Digitaline is sometimes resorted to, but 
its use requires great caution ; the dose to begin with should not 
exceed the ^'g- part of a grain, and should not be carried beyond 
the ,u. 

Inpusum Digftalts. it. S. Infusion of Digitalis. (Prepared l)y 
macerating sixty grains of digitalis in half a pint of boiling 
water, and adding a fluidounce of tincture of cinnamon.) 

TiNCTURA Digitalis. IT. S. Tincture of Digitalis (four troy- 
ounces to two pints of diluted alcohol) is a convenient mode 
of administering the medicine, especially in mixtures. Eight 
minims, or sixteen drops, contain one grain of digitalis, 

Extractum Digitalis ALConoLicuM. U. S. Alcoholic Extract 
of Digitalis contains all the virtues, and may be used for the 
purposes, of the powdered loaves. 

TABACUM. U. S. Tobacco. 

IjEAF tobacco, the dried loaves of Nicotiana Tabacum, an 
herbaceous annual plant, native of tropical America, but culti- 
vated in most parts of the world. 

rro]_)crLies. The dried leaves, as met with in commerce, are of 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— NERVOUS SEDATIVES. 199 

various shades of color, with a peculiar, penetrating, narcotic odor, 
and a bitter, nauseous taste. The darker the hue, the stronger 
is the tobacco and its action on the system. Water and alcohol 
extract its virtues. All parts of the plant contain a volatile alkaline 
principle termed nicotia, which is separated by a complicated pro- 
cess, the most important step of which, however, is the distillation 
of tobacco juice with potassa. It is a colorless liquid, with the 
odor of tobacco, and an acrid, burning taste ; it combines with 
acids, forming crystallizable salts. It also contains a volatile oil, 
nicotianin, which is probably the odorous principle. An empy- 
reumatic oil, produced by burning from the decomposition of some 
of its constituents, and found in pipes which have been long used, 
is also an active poison. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In moderate doses, tobacco 
produces the usual effects of nervous sedatives, combined with 
those of an emetic and diuretic in a minor degree. When locally 
applied, it acts as a stimulant ; thus, when used in the form of 
snuff, it causes violent sneezing, and when chewed greatly in- 
creases the flow of saliva. In larger quantities, and even in 
small doses in those unaccustomed to its use, it induces nausea, 
vomiting, giddiness, with great prostration of the circulatory 
powers ; in overdoses it acts as a powerful narcotico-acrid poi- 
son, with these symptoms increased in intensity, followed by 
convulsions, paralysis, and coma. These symptoms occur in 
whatever way it has been taken, whether by the mouth, or in 
the form of enema, or even where the leaves have been applied 
to an abraded surface. The smoking and chewing of tobacco, 
in those unaccustomed to its use, gives rise to the same symp- 
toms; but for those habituated to its impression, its moderate 
use quiets restlessness, and produces a state of general languor 
and repose. 

On account of the great depression it produces, it is not a 
remedy adapted for internal administration ; but in the form of 
enema may be used to produce muscular relaxation, to facilitate 
the reduction of strangulated hernia, and to relieve obstructions 
in the bowels from' any cause. It has been used in severe colic 
and in tetanus, but at the present day is rarely resorted to in 
practice. It has been recommended as a physiological antidote 
to poisoning by strychnine 



.200 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Inpusum Tabaci. U. S. Infusion of Tohacco (sixty grains to 
a pint of boiling water) is used only in the form of enema in 
strangulated hernia, obstinate colic, etc. 

Oleum Tabaci. U. S. Oil of Tohacco is obtained by the de- 
structive distillation of tobacco, and is an empyreumatie oil, 
identical with that of old tobacco-pipes. It is a violent poison, 
and is sometimes employed in the form of ointment as an appli- 
cation to indolent tumors and obstinate cutaneous eruptions, but 
must be used with great caution, for fear of producing the con- 
stitutional effects. 

TJnguentum Tabaci. U. S. Tobacco Ointment is prepared by 
mixing a soft watery extract, made by concentrating the infusion, 
with lard. 

ViNUM Tabaci. TJ. S. Wine of Tohacco is prepared by mace- 
rating a troyounce of tobacco in a pint of sherry wine. Dose, 
as a diuretic, 10 to 30 minims, but seldom used. 

ACONITUM. U. S. Aconite. 

AcoNiTi Folium. U. S. Aconite Leaf, Aconiti Radix. TJ. S. 
Aconite Boot. 

The LEAVES and root of Aconitum Napellus, llonkshood or 
Wolfsbane, a perennial herb, native of the mountainous regions 
of middle Europe, and cultivated in this country. It has a taper- 
ing spindle-shaped root, about the size of the finger, from four to 
five inches long, with numerous fleshy fibres arising from it. The 
leaves are alternate, petiolate, divided almost to the base, from 
two to four inches in diameter, deep green on their upper sur- 
face, paler beneath, and more or less smooth and shining on both 
sides. Both leaves and root are used, but the root is preferred, 
as containing more of the active principle, and as being more 
uniform in strength. 

Properties. The root is of a dark color externally, white 
within, has a faint earthy odor, and a bitter, acrid taste, leaving, 
when chewed, a peculiar tingling and benumbing impression on 
the lips, tongue, and fauces. The leaves have a faint narcotic 
odor, with a taste similar to that of the root. Both owe their 
virtues to an alkaloid, aconitia, which is officinal. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— NERVOUS SEDATIVES. 201 

AcoNiTiA. U. S. Aconitia is obtained by first adding dilute 
sulphuric acid to an alcoholic extract of the root, obtained bj 
percolation, and then precipitating the alkaloid from the sulphate 
by means of ammonia, and purifying it by repeated agitation 
wiih ether. When pure it is a white, amorphous powder, inodor- 
ous, of a bitter, acrid taste, producing in the mouth a sensation 
of numbness. It is very soluble in alcohol and ether, and par- 
tially so in water. 

Iledical Properties and Uses. Aconite, in medicinal doses, 
acts as a powerful sedative to the nervous system, reducing also 
the force of the circulation. Dr. Fleming says it occasions 
warmth in the stomach, nausea, numbness and tingling on lips 
and cheeks, extending more or less over the whole body, diminu- 
tion in the force and frequency of the pulse and number of re- 
spirations, with great muscular weakness, and indisposition to 
either mental or bodily exertion. It has no direct narcotic effect, 
but predisposes to sleep by deadening the sensibility to pain. 
When given in overdoses, or if the medicinal doses be long con- 
tinued, these symptoms are increased in intensity, the senses be- 
come impaired, the pupils are dilated, slight convulsions ensue, 
and death takes place by syncope. 

This remedy is almost too powerful for internal use, but has 
been used with marked benefit in all forms of painful disease, 
but especially in neuralgia and acute rheumatism. In the latter 
disease it sometimes has a wonderful effect in reducing the pulse 
and alleviating the pains. In tic douloureux, sciatica, and other 
neuralgic affections, when all internal remedies have failed, the 
tincture, or an ointment containing the alkaloid, applied over the 
seat of pain, is a most effectual and certain palliative. In dis- 
eases of the heart — particularly in those in which the indication 
is to diminish the force of the circulation — its use is sometimes 
attended with benefit ; and in simple hypertrophy or functional 
disorder. Dr. Fleming prefers the use of aconite to that of digi- 
talis, considering that the effects are more uniform, and, at the 
same time, less dangerous. 

Administration. The alkaloid is too powerful a poison for in- 
ternal use. The dose of the powdered leaves is from 1 to 2 
grains, but it is seldom used in this form, — the tincture is gener- 
ally preferred. 



202 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

TiNCTURA AcoNiTi FoLii. U. S. Tincture of Aconite Leaf is 
prepared by percolation. (Fourtroyouncesof recently dried leaves 
to two pints of diluted alcohol.) Dose, 20 drops. 

TiNCTURA AcoNiTi Radicis. U. S. Tincture of Aconite Boot. 
(Twelve troyounces of powdered root to two pints of alcohol.) 
This tincture is much stronger than that of the leaves, and care 
must be had to avoid mistaking one for the other. The dose is 
from 5 to 10 drops to begin with, and this may be increased, 
if necessary, until its peculiar effects are experienced. Fleming^s 
tincture contains the virtues of eight ounces of the root in twelve 
fluidounces, and is a much stronger preparation. Dose, 3 to 5 
drops. 

ExTRACTUM AcoNiTi Alcoholicum. U. S. AlcoJioUc Extract 
of Aconite is prepared by exhausting the dried leaves by alcohol 
and evaporating to the proper consistence. Dose, from half a 
grain to a grain, to be gradually increased, if necessary. 

VERATRUM ALBUM. U. S. White Hellebore. 

The ROOT or rhizome of Veratrum album, an herbaceous plant, 
with a fleshy, fusiform root, beset with long, cylindrical fibres, 
native of the mountainous regions of central Europe. All parts 
of the plant are active, but only the root is used. 

Properties. The root is in cylindrical, somewhat contorted 
pieces, with the radicles attached, and of a blackish-brown color 
When fresh it has a strong, disagreeable odor, which is nearly 
lost by drying, and an acrid, bitter taste. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In moderate doses it acts as a 
sedative to the circulation, and a stimulant to the secretions. It 
is also a violent emetic and cathartic, in large doses acting as a 
powerful acro-narcotic poison. It is very uncertain in its opera- 
tion, and is now seldom or never used, as its virtues depend 
upon the veratria which it contains, and which can bo used with 
much more certainty. 

Veratria. U. S. Veratria or Sabadilla is an alkaloid found 
in the root of the Veratrum album, also in the seeds of the Vera- 
trum Sabadilla, a plant growing in Mexico, and in utlier plants. 
It is generally procured from the seeds of the V. Sabadilla (^Ccva- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— NERVOUS SEDATIVES. 203 

dilld). It is obtained by boiling an alcoholic extract of the seeds 
in water acidulated with sulphuric acid, which forms a sulphate of 
veratria in solution, from which the alkaloid may be precipitated 
by magnesia. It may afterward be purified by boiling with 
water, sulphuric acid, and animal charcoal, filtering and precipi- 
tating with ammonia. As thus obtained, it is a white or grayish- 
white powder, without odor, of an intensely acrid taste, produc- 
ing a feeling of numbness and tingling when applied to the tongue. 
It is very sparingly soluble in water, but dissolves in alcohol and 
ether. It forms uncrystallizable salts with acids. It is a power- 
ful sedative to the nervous system, and appears to act chiefly upon 
the spinal cord ; but from the violence of its action is rarely ad- 
ministered internally. The symptoms are those of active irrita- 
tion in the alimentary canal, vomiting and purging, followed by 
tetanic convulsions and death in a few hours. When applied ex- 
ternally, it produces a sense of warmth and tingling in the part, 
and, if the application be continued, the same general symptoms 
as when taken internally. It may be used as an external appli- 
cation, in the form of ointment, in neuralgia and in scrofulous 
diseases of the joints. The dose, when it is desired to give it 
internally, is from the -^\ to the ^ of a grain, in the form of pill, 
and repeated every three hours nntil the effects of the medicine 
are experienced. • 

Unguentum Veratria. U. S. Ointment of Veratria may be 
prepared by rubbing twenty grains of veratria with a troyounce 
of lard. It should be employed with great caution. 

VERATRUM YIRIDE. F. S. American Hellebore. 

The RHIZOME of Veratrum viride, commonly known as Indian 
poke or swamp hellebore, a stout, tall, leafy, perennial plant, grow- 
ing abundantly in swamps and damp meadows throughout the 
United States. The part used in medicine is the body of the 
root or rhizome, which is stout, thick, and fleshy, giving out a 
grreat number of snow-white radicles. It should be collected in 
the autumn, as it then contains a larger amount of its active prin- 
ciple, and when fresh, has an unpleasant fetid odor, which disap- 
pears on drying. The taste is bitter and unpleasant, followed 



204 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

by an acrid, pungent sensation, spreading throughout the mouth 
and fauces, and persisting for a long time. It yields its virtues to 
water and alcohol. It contains the alkaloid verafria in small 
proportion, but its peculiar effects on the system are due to a 
resin, which Dr. Wood says is a complex body, and contains 
another alkaloid distinct from veratria. 

Physiological .Effects. Yeratrum viride exercises a powerful 
sedative influence over all the vital functions, reducing the force 
and frequency of the pulse, and diminishing the number of the 
respirations, while at the same time it stimulates the secretions, 
especially those of the skin and kidneys. In large or frequently 
repeated doses, it causes a sense of faintness or vertigo, with 
nausea, vomiting, and general prostration, which may result 
fatally. It is rapidly absorbed, its effects on the pulse being very 
remarkable, causing it to fall in a few hours; and it is also rapidly 
eliminated, its effects passing away in a short time. It accom- 
plishes the same effects as blood-letting, but in a safer and more 
satisfactory manner. The mechanical effects of blood-letting are 
often but temporary, since the amount and force of the blood may 
soon become as great as before, and a repetition of the bleeding 
would be extremely hazardous. By the influence of veratrum the 
heart's action is simply held in check, the force of the circulation 
being reduced to its natural standard ; and its sedative effects are 
freed from the danger of too great a reaction, so that a quicker 
and more perfect convalescence is insured to the patient. 

Therapeutic Uses. This is comparatively a new remedy, and 
during the past ten years there is scarcely a disease for which it 
has not been proposed. Its remarkable sedative action renders it 
particularly useful, when cautiously and timely administered, in 
inflammations of a sthenic character, and in febrile affections 
where it is desirable to reduce the pulse and respiration. In 
pneumonia, and diseases of the lungs, it proves of benefit by 
diminishing the impulse and amount of blood forced into the 
lungs, thus favoring a quick resolution of the disease. It is also 
of value in controlling the heart's action, and relieving pain in acute 
rheumatism. Its depressing effects are readily controlled by 
combining it with opium ; and any ill effects may be counter- 
acted by alcohol and ammonia. It may be given in substance, 
tincture, or extract. Dose, 1 or 2 grains. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— NERVOUS SEDATIVES. 205 

TiNCTURA Veratri Viridis. U. S. Tincture of American 
Hellebore (sixteen troyounces to two pints of alcohol) may be 
given in doses of from 6 to 8 drops, to be gradually increased if 
necessary. 

ExTRAOTUM Veratri Yiridis Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract 
of American Hellebore is a strong preparation. Dose, 4 to 5 
drops. 

ACIDUM HYDROCYANICrM DILUTUM. U. S. Dilute 

Hydrocyanic Acid. 

Prussia acid, Gyanohydric acid, is found in many vegetables, 
as the bitter almond, the kernels and leaves of the peach, and is 
produced in others by the mutual reaction of some of their con- 
stituents. The anhydrous acid, consisting of one equivalent of 
cyanogen and one of hydi'ogen (HjNCj), is never used. The 
medicinal acid consists of the pure acid dissolved in water, and 
constituting 2 per cent, of the solution. It is obtained by dis- 
tilling a mixture of sulphuric acid and water with ferrocyanide of 
potassium. It may be prepared extemporaneously by decompos- 
ing cyanide of silver by dilute muriatic acid. 

Properties. It is a colorless, volatile liquid, with a peculiar 
penetrating odor, and a bitter taste, leaving a warm sensation on 
the tongue and palate. Exposed to air and light, it undergoes 
decomposition ; hence it should be kept in well-stoppered bottles 
in a dark place. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Hydrocyanic acid is one of the 
most active poisons known, but properly and judiciously admin- 
istered it is a safe and valuable medicine. In medicinal doses it 
is a powerful and direct sedative, reducing the force and fre- 
quency of the pulse, lowering the sensibility of the nervous sys- 
tem, allaying vascular excitement, relieving spasm, and inducing 
a general tranquillity of the system. It has been used with bene- 
fit in spasmodic and painful affections of the stomach, unaccom- 
panied by active inflammation, as gastrodynia, pyrosis, etc. It 
has also been found very serviceable in allaying irritative and spas- 
modic coughs in various pulmonary affections, as in simple hoop- 
ing cough, in pure, spasmodic asthma, in the advanced stages of 



206 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

phthisis, and in the spasmodic cough of nervous and hysterical 
females. It may be given as an anodyne in neuralgia and other 
painful affections. Externally, in the form of lotion, it sometimes 
proves serviceable in allaying the violent itching which attends 
many forms of skin diseases. In poisonous doses, it proves 
rapidly fatal. When death does not take place immediately, the 
usual symptoms are convulsions, difficult and spasmodic breath- 
ing, and insensibility. The antidotes and remedies most to be 
relied upon, are chlorine, ammonia, cold affusion, and artificial 
respiration. Dose of the medicinal acid, from I to 4 drops, dis- 
solved in water, or mixed with gum or syrup. Scheele^s acid is 
about twice as strong as the officinal acid, containing 4 per cent, 
of the anhydrous acid. 

Oleum Amygdala Amar^. U. S. Oil of Bitter Almond 
is obtained by distilling with water the kernels of the fruit of 
Amygdalus communis, variety amara, after the fixed oil has been 
expressed from them. It does not pre-exist in the almond, but 
results from the reaction of water upon the amygdalin contained 
in it, through the intervention of another constituent, emulsine. 
It is a volatile, oleaginous product, of a yellowish color, with an 
acrid, burning taste, and the odor of the kernels. It is heavier 
than water, soluble in alcohol and ether, and slightly soluble in 
water. Its eifects upon the system are closely analogous to those 
of hydrocyanic acid. Dose, from ;j of a drop to I drop, cautiously 
increased till some effect upon the system is observed. 

Aqua Amygdala Amar^. U. S. Bitter Almond Water is 
prepared by dissolving sixteen minims of oil of bitter almonds in 
two pints of water by the intervention of carbonate of magnesia. 
This preparation has the effects of hydrocyanic acid on the system, 
and may be used as a vehicle of other medicines in various 
spasmodic affections. The dose should not exceed ^ a fluid- 
ounce. 

Cherry-laurel Water (Aqua Lauro-cerasi, Br), obtained 
by distillation from the leaves of Lauro-cerasus, the common 
European cherry-laurel, is a dangerous remedy on account of its 
uncertain strength. 

PoTASsii Cyanidum. U. S. Cyanide of Pot asaium is ol)taiued 
by igniting together ferrocyanide of potassium and carbonate of 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— NERVOUS SEDATIVES. 20T 

potash. It occurs in white, opaque, amorphous masses, with a 
sharp, somewhat alkaline and bitter almond taste. It is deliques- 
cent in moist air, readily soluble in water, and sparingly so in 
alcohol. It acts precisely like hydrocyanic acid as a medicine 
and as a poison. Dose, g^ of a grain, dissolved in water ; it is 
not much used, however, as a remedy. 

Gelsemium. U. S. Secondary. The root of Gelsemium semper- 
virens, known as Yellow or Carolina Jasmine and Woodbine, a 
beautiful, smooth, climbing vine, growing in rich, moist soils 
throughout the Southern States. The root is seldom seen in the 
shops, but may sometimes be found sliced in pieces about an 
inch in length, very light and fibrous, of a dirty-yellowish color, 
a feeble narcotic odor, and a bitter, unpleasant taste. Its virtues 
depend upon a peculiar alkaloid, gelseminia, which is a light, 
drab-colored powder, with a pleasant odor, and an agreeable aro- 
matic taste. Gelsemium has recently been introduced as a 
remedy, and appears to act as an arterial and nervous sedative, 
without producing either nausea, vomiting, or purging. Its 
physiological efi'ects are dimness of vision, double-sightedness, 
inability to open the eyelids, general muscular debility, and 
complete prostration of the whole system. It may be used for 
the same purposes as the other remedies of this class, and is 
generally administered in the form of a saturated tincture. 

Calabar Bean. The Ordeal Bean of Calabar, so called because 
it is used by the natives of Western Africa to test the guilt or 
"innocence of an accused person, is the seed of Physostigma ve- 
nenosicni, a large perennial climbing plant of Old Calabar, on the 
western coast of Africa. The seed is kidney-shaped, about the 
size of a large horse-bean, with a firm, hard, bitter, grayish-brown 
integument, inclosing a white and easily pulverizable kernel, with- 
out bitterness or acrimony. The kernel is the active portion, and 
yields its virtues to rectified spirit, but not to water or acetic acid. 
It has been found to contain a peculiar principle, which has been 
termed physostigmin. The Calabar bean is an energetic poison. 
Administered internally it appears to exert a sedative influence 
on the spinal cord, producing paralysis of the lower extremities, 
and death by asphyxia ; or, if given in large doses, death by 



208 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

paralysis of the heart. Its physiological action indicates that it 
may prove useful in all hyperssthetic conditions of the spinal cord. 
In tetanus and in poisoning by strychnia, the excited condition 
of the cord may be allayed. Its most interesting effect, and the one 
for which it is principally used in medicine, is its power of contract- 
ing the pupil and the ciliary muscle, when immediately applied to 
the eye. In this way it counteracts mydriasis, from whatever 
cause produced, whether dependent on the overaction of bella- 
donna, or as a symptom of amaurosis, and proves useful ia 
restoring the power of accommodation. Dose of the kernel, 2 
or 3 grains. Its effect on the pupil is most conveniently obtained 
by introducing a drop of the watery solution of the alcoholic 
extract into the eye. Paper impregnated with its active principle, 
by repeated inimersings in a concentrated tincture, is also used: 
a small piece of this being introduced under the lower lid. 



ALTERATIVES. 

This term is applied to those medicines which produce changes 
in the system or functions, restoring them to their normal or 
healthy state, without either elevating or depressing vital action, 
and independent of any eliminating properties. Though the 
surest and most potent of all our remedies in the treatment of 
disease, their modus operandi is involved in greater doubt and 
obscurity than any other class, and their action is almost imper- 
ceptible, and known only by the result of their use in various 
diseased conditions. They are peculiarly applicable to chronic 
diseases^ and those of a passive character, and when adminis- 
tered with a view to their alterative effect, should be given in 
small doses, and persevered in for a long period. 

HYDRARGYRUM. U. S. Mercury. 

Mercury or Quicksilver has been known from remote antiq- 
uity. It is found in various parts of the world, in its metallic 
state, as native or virgin mercury, and in combination with 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 209 

chlorine {native calomel) and sulpliur {native cinnaba,r). For 
commercial purposes it is generally procured from the latter, 
which is its most abundant ore, by distillation with lime in iron 
retorts. 

Mercury, when pure, is fluid at ordinary temperatures, and 
easily divisible into spherical globules; it has a silver-white 
color, with much brilliancy ; is inodorous and tasteless ; sp. gr. 
13-5. It freezes at 39° or 40° below zero, and boils at 662°, 
volatilizing without any residue. Occasionally it contains other 
metals, as tin, lead, zinc, etc., which give it a dull appearance, 
and lessen its fluidity and mobility. It may be purified from 
these by digestion in dilute muriatic acid, which unites with the 
contaminating metals, but does not act on the mercury. 

In its liquid metallic state it is inert. It was formerly used to 
remove mechanical obstructions in the intestines by its weight ; 
and quantities have been taken without producing any dele- 
terious efl"ects. The injurious effects of the mercurial vapors, 
when inhaled or otherwise applied to the body, have long been 
known, and are frequently observed in those employed in quicksil- 
ver-mines, and in those whose trade exposes them to its vapors. 
The most common symptoms are derangement of the nervous 
system, manifested by shaking palsy, loss of memory, and other 
cerebral disorders, which oftentimes terminate fatally. In com- 
bination, or in a state of minute division, it exerts a powerful 
influence on the system. 

Effects of the Preparations. In small and repeated doses the 
mercurials promote gently the secretions, particularly those of 
the mucous system, without producing any apparent disturbance 
of the system. In larger doses they act manifestly upon the 
secretions, particularly that of the liver, causing copious bilious 
evacuations from the bowels. When the small doses are long 
continued, they produce what are termed the constitutional effects 
of mercury, manifested by its action on the salivary glands, called 
salivation, or ptyalisvfi. The first symptoms of this are a slight 
swelling or tenderness of the gums, with a -metallic taste, as of 
copper, in the mouth, attended with an increased flow of saliva. 
If these symptoms are not checked, or if more mercury is ad- 
ministered, the soreness increases, the tongue, gums, and cheeks 

14 



210 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

swell, the throat sometimes ulcerates, the breath acquires a pecu- 
liar fetid odor, and a very copious flow of saliva is induced. This 
local irritation is oftentimes accompanied by a slow fever, with 
rapid emaciation and great prostration of the whole system. In 
some peculiar constitutions these effects may be produced by 
almost the minutest dose of any preparation; while there are 
others which appear to be totally insensible to the operation of the 
medicine. Sometimes, instead of producing these ordinary effects, 
they cause much disturbance of the vital organs, and give rise to a 
peculiar condition of the system, known as erythismus ynercuriale. 
This is characterized by great depression of the vital powers, 
with a pale and contracted countenance, a sense of anxiety about 
the precordia, great nervous agitation, with irregular action of 
the heart. This affection does not depend on the quantity of 
mercury taken, or on the presence of salivation. The use of the 
mercurials is also occasionally attended with an eruption, called* 
eczema, or erythema mercuriale, which is ushered in by heat 
and itching, gradually spreading over the whole body, in the 
progress of which the hair and nails sometimes fall off. Each 
individual preparation of mercury is characterized by some 
peculiarity in its operation, which will be noticed in its appro- 
priate place. 

llode of Action. Of the modus operandi of mercury we know 
very little, except that it is absorbed and passes into the circula- 
tion, and that it possesses a peculiar alterative power over the 
vital functions, which enables it, in many cases, to cure or alle- 
viate disease. Yarious theories have been advanced, at different 
times, to account for its beneficial action. The most reasonable 
explanation of its action, and the one now generally adopted, is 
that it affects the character of the blood itsetf : its solid constitu- 
ents, the fibrin, albumen, and red globules, are diminished in 
amount ; it contains more water, and is more prone to decom- 
position. The medicine seems, then, to exercise its therapeutic 
influence by depreciating and deteriorating the character of the 
circulating fluid, and, like all agents which impoverish the blood, 
it increases the action of the absorbents and counteracts effusion. 

Circumstances modifying their Effects. From peculiar idio- 
syncrasy, some persons are unable to take even the smallest dose 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 211 

of moi'cuiy without its exciting- ptyalism and producing serious, 
and even fatal, consequences; while, on the other hand, some 
are quite insusceptible to its influence. Age, sex, temperament, 
and general health greatly modify its action. Children are 
salivated with difficulty; indeed, they bear larger proportionate 
doses than adults, owing, probably, to the intestines at this 
early age being lined with mucus, which prevents the absorp- 
tion of the mercury. Aged persons are also extremely difficult to 
bring under its influence. As a general rule, females are more 
readily affected than males; and nervous and irritable habits are 
more susceptible, and bear badly the operation of this metal. 

Contraindications. Mercury cannot be used with advantage, 
nor even with safety, in all states of the system. It is injurious 
in all forms of tuberculous disease, as scrofula, phthisis, etc., 
and in persons of a strongly marked scrofulous diathesis. Its 
use should also be avoided in cases where the blood is greatly 
depraved, as in granular disease of the kidneys, and in all 
anemic states, from whatever cause arising, or where there is a 
disposition to passive hemorrhage or gangrene. In these cases, 
where circumstances demand its use, it should be conjoined with 
tonics and nutritious diet. 

The7-apeutic Application. Mercurials are given in disease to 
meet various indications, — to stimulate the secretions, to promote 
absorption, and to change the condition of the blood, constituting 
its alterative effect. As has already been mentioned, its influence 
is chiefly exerted on the function of the liver, and it is very often 
resorted to with this view; but, as Dr. Wood says, "there are so 
many affections which either have their roots in disorder of this 
function, or are greatly aggravated by it, that the curative effects 
of the remedy are greatly diversified." Besides, when the liver 
itself is not in fault, the increase of its function may operate 
beneficiall}'', by depleting the portal circulation, and thereby re- 
lieving congestion and irritation of all the abdominal viscera, 
which are embraced in this circulation. In many febrile diseases 
most of the secretions are deficient, indicated by dry skin, scanty 
urine, and constipation, and, no matter what may be the special 
disease, a gentle mercurial influence seems to be indicated, and 
often proves serviceable. In malarial fevers, either intermittent 



212 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

or remittent, there is almost always a congested condition of the 
abdominal viscera and a deficiency of the secretions, which re- 
quire the exhibition of mercurials before the antiperiodic treat- 
ment can be successfully resorted to. In typhoid fever its use 
requires great caution. It may sometimes be used to promote 
secretion from the intestinal glands, by its direct local action on 
the intestines, and to promote resolution of the inflamed patches, 
but should be u-sed early in the disease. 

As an antiphlogistic in inflammatory diseases, both acute and 
chronic, it is very much employed. It is peculiarly adapted to 
those forms of inflammation which result in the formation of 
coagulable lymph or serum, and exerts its beneficial influence by 
restraining the morbid action of the blood-vessels and aiding in 
the reparation of parts, by removing the substances foreign to 
them. In acute inflammations, when active symptoms continue 
after depletion has been carried as far as admissible, it exercises 
a wonderful influence in arresting the progress of inflammatory 
action. But in low asthenic inflammations, and in those of a 
scrofulous and erythematous type, it is, as a general rule, posi- 
tively injurious. 

As a deobstruent it acts in the removal of glandular swellings, 
morbid deposits, and other organic alterations of structure, and 
proves useful even when all signs of inflammation have disap- 
peared, and often when there is no proof that inflammation has 
ever existed. In enlargement of the liver, a mild and contin- 
uous course of mercury proves more effectual than any other 
plan of treatment. In apoplexy, mercury can be of no use ex- 
cept as a safe and efficient cathartic; but it may be used with 
great advantage in cases of paralysis. In these cases it is not 
unusual to find the first signs of improvement concurring pre- 
cisely with the first symptoms of mercurialism. 

In dropsy the mercurials have been much used to promote the 
absorption of the eff'used fluids, and prove very useful where the 
efl"usion is dependent upon chronic inflammation or some de- 
rangement of the hepatic functions ; but where it is dependent 
upon an impoverished condition of the blood, or is the result of 
disease of the kidneys, it should be avoided. Also in drops^y 
occurring as a symptom of organic disease it will only do harm, 
by exhausting the strength of the patient. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 213 

Mei'cury has been used for a long period in the treatment of 
' syphilis in all its forms ; and at one time this disease was 
thought incurable without its use. It is now, however, satis- 
factorily established that many cases may be cured without it, 
and that in some forms of the disease it is not only useless, but 
positively injurious. When judiciously employed, in those cases 
in which it is admissible, so as to produce moderate ptyalism, it 
has been found to cure the disease more rapidly, and to afford 
greater security against constitutional symptoms, than any other 
form of treatment. In addition to the circumstances already 
mentioned as contraindicating the use of the mercurials, it should 
not be given in syphilis when there is much inflammation in the 
neighborhood of the primary sore. In secondary or constitu- 
tional syphilis it has been found highly serviceable by promot- 
ing the absorption of the lowly organized albuminous material 
which is effused into the tissues, and by its alterative properties. 
Treatment of the Effects of Mercury. When the patient is 
under the mercurial influence, he should immediately discontinue 
the medicine, avoid exposure to cold, take light but nutritious 
diet, and keep the bowels moderately open. For the sore-mouth, 
astringent washes, iodine in solution, or creasote may be used; 
but there is nothing more effectual for moderating the excessive 
flow of saliva, and for correcting the offensive odor, than chlorate 
of potassa combined with some astringent infusion or decoction; 
and, if the symptoms are aggravated, it may be also given in- 
ternally. To relieve restlessness and pain, opium, and, if de- 
bility is present, tonics, may be administered. For the nervous 
disorders resulting from the inhalation of the vapor, and in all 
other forms of chronic poisoning, an attempt should be made to 
eliminate the poison from the system by means of iodide of po- 
tassium, by saline laxatives, and by diaphoretics. The exhaus- 
tion must be combated by stimulants, tonics, and a nutritious 
diet. For the affection of the skin (eczema mercuriale) demul- 
cent lotions and emollient baths prove most beneficial. 

Modes of Administration. The preparations of this metal are 
generally administered by the stomach. The preparation to be 
employed, and the dose, must be regulated by the severity or 
character of the disease to be treated. In acute diseases, where 



214 MATERIA MEDIO A AND TnERAPEUTICS. 

its antiphlogistic powers are required, calomel in small closes is 
preferred, and its tendency to irritate the bowels or to produce 
purging may be obviated by combining with it a small quantity 
of opium. In mild or chronic cases the less active preparations 
may be used. It may also be used by inunction : this is the most 
ancient mode of administering mercury, and was almost exclu- 
sively resorted to in the treatment of syphilis. It may be resorted 
to when the medicine cannot be given by the mouth, and may 
also be advantageously combined with its internal use, when it is 
desired to bring the system speedily under the mercurial influence. 
Fumigation is also sometimes i^esorted to, and is highly recom- 
mended by many writers of the present day, as one of the best 
methods of bringing the system under its influence in cases of con- 
stitutional syphilis. Where it is desirable to employ this means, 
the patient may be placed in a box, with an opening in the top for 
the head, and the preparation to be used (cinnabar or the black 
oxide) thrown on ,a hot iron or burning coals in the bottom of 
the box. The vapors thus produced surround the whole body, 
and thus, by direct application, produce its effects. 

All the officinal preparations — excepting perhaps the sulphuret, 
which is inert — are capable of producing the peculiar effects of the 
metal as described. They vary, however, in the degree, rapidity, 
and certainty of their action. Some writers, among them Mialhe, 
contend that they all operate by conversion into the bichloride; 
while others say that it is only by conversion into an oxide that 
mercury can produce its peculiar effects upon the system. The 
difference in their effects, and their special applications, will be 
mentioned under the head of the different preparations. 

PILULiE HYDRARGYRI. U. S. 

Blue Pill, formerly called Mass. Hydrargyri, or Blue Mass, 
is prepared by rubbing one part of mercury with one and a half 
parts of confection of roses, until globules cease to be visible, 
and then beating the mixture with one half part of powdered 
liquorice root into a pilular mass. Three grains of the mass con- 
tain one grain of mercury. Care must be taken to use confection 
of roses free from sulphuric acid, as this would form some sulphate 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 215 

of mercury. It is now generally prepared by steam-power, 
which is an advantage, as the efficacy of the preparation depends 
upon the extent to which the extinction of the mercury is carried. 
Properties and Uses. This is a mass of a dark-blue or olive 
color, of a convenient consistence for making into pills. The pre- 
cise condition of the metal in this preparation is somewhat uncer- 
tain. It is probable that a small proportion is converted into an 
oxide during the process of trituration ; but by far the greater 
portion is in a state of minute mechanical division. When intro- 
duced into the stomach it undergoes certain chemical changes, 
and produces all the characteristic effects of the preparations of 
mercury. It is one of the mildest and most useful of the mercu- 
rials, producing all their effects with certainty and with little irri- 
tation upon the system. In full doses, from 5 to 15 grains, it 
acts as a laxative ; from 1 to 2 grains, repeated, as an alterative. 
It is usually given in the form of pill ; but, when desirable, it may 
be administered in the form of powder, or suspended in mucilage. 

HYDRARGYRI CUM CRETA. U. S. Mercury with Chalk. 

This is prepared by rubbing together three parts of mercury 
and five parts of prepared chalk till the metal is extinguished. 
In this, as in the other, the mercury is in a state of minute me- 
chanical division, as the globules can be seen by the aid of a 
magnif}nng glass, and the chalk may be dissolved out by acetic 
acid. Eight grains contain three grains of mercury. 

Properties and Uses. It is a heavy, grayish powder, tasteless 
and insoluble. It resembles blue mass in its general operation, 
but is much milder. In doses of from 20 to 30 grains it acts as 
a gentle laxative, but is principally used as an alterative. The 
antacid properties of the chalk render it well adapted to the 
cases of children requiring a gentle mercurial action. Dose, I to 3 
grains. The late Dublin Pharmacopoeia directed a similar prepa- 
ration, made with magnesia instead of chalk, which may be used 
when a laxative effect is desired. 



216 3IATERTA MEDIGA AND THERAPEUTiaS. 

UNGUENTUM HYDRARGYRI. TJ. S. Mercurial Ointment 

Blue Ointment is prepared by rubbing two parts of mercury 
with one part each of lard and suet, until globules cease to be 
visible. The extinction of the metal may be promoted by the 
admixture of some old ointment, and the trituration should be con- 
tinued until a portion of it rubbed upon paper exhibits no metallic 
mercury. 

Properties and Uses. It is an unctuous, fatty substance, of a 
bluish-gray color, becoming darker by age ; and contains half its 
weight of mercury. Rubbed on the surface of the skin, or applied 
to a blistered surface, it is absorbed, and produces all the consti- 
tutional effects of the metal. It is resorted to when circumstances 
prevent the internal use of the remedy, and may also be employed 
as a resolvent in tumors and chronic glandular swellings, upon 
which it may be made to operate directly by being applied in the 
course of the absorbents passing through the glands. It is also 
used to destroy parasites on the skin, and has been successfully 
employed to prevent the maturation of the smallpox pustules, 
and the consequent pitting. When the object is to excite the 
constitutional effects, it should be applied night and morning by 
means of friction to the inner surface of the thighs, legs, and arms, 
where the cuticle is thinnest, 

EMPLASTRUM HYDRARGYRI. U. S. Plaster of Mercury. 

Mercurial Plaster, is prepared by first melting together two 
troyounces, each, of olive oil and resin, and when cool rubbing the 
mixture with six troyounces of mercury till globules disappear, 
and then adding twelve troyounces of melted lead plaster. It is 
sometimes used to produce the local effects of mercury in glandu- 
lar enlargements and swellings, especially when dependent upon 
a syphilitic taint. It is sometimes applied over the region of the 
liver in hepatic enlargements. 

Emplastrum Ammoniaci cum Hydrargyro. it. S. Plaster 
of Ammoniac with Mercury \s prepared by incorporating mer- 
cury, olive oil, and ammoniac together, with a minute proportion 
of sublimed sulphur. It is more stimulating than the above, and 
is used for the same purposes. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 211 

HYDRARGYRI OXIDUM RUBRUM. U. S. Red Oxide of 

Mercury, 

The Deutoxide, commonly called Red Precipitate, is obtained 
by dissolving mercury in diluted nitric acid, evaporating the so- 
lution to dryness, and exposing the resulting mass to heat until 
red vapors cease to rise. In this process the mercury is oxidized 
at the expense of a portion of the nitric acid, the remainder of 
which unites with the oxide to form a nitrate of the deutoxide of 
mercury ; this on exposure to heat is decomposed, giving out red 
nitrous fumes, and leaving behind the deutoxide of the metal. 
HgO,. 

Properties and Uses. It is of a bright-red color, of a shining, 
scaly appearance, with an acrid metallic taste, insoluble in water, 
alcohol, and ether ; it is entirely decomposed by a red heat. 
It is never employed internally, on account of its irritant and 
poisonous properties, but is extensively used externally as a 
stimulant and caustic to indolent ulcerations, either in the form 
of powder or ointment. 

TJnguentum Hydrargyri Oxidi Rubri. U. S. Ointment of 
Bed Oxide of Mercury is prepai'ed by adding one part of oxide 
to eight parts of simple ointment previously softened by a gentle 
heat. Owing to the conversion of the red oxide into the black 
when kept, it should be prepared only when wanted. This oint- 
ment is a valuable stimulant application to ulcers when we wish 
to increase the quantity and quality of the discharge. 

Yelloav Wash. Aqua Phagedsenica. Phagedenic Lotion is 
made by adding corrosive sublimate to lime-water, in the pro- 
portion of two grains to a fluidounce. By mutual decomposition, 
the red oxide of mercury is precipitated and chloride of calcium 
remains in solution. It was formerly much employed as a wash 
in ulcers and cutaneous eruptions. 

Hydrargyri Oxidum Nigrum. Black Oxide of Mercury, 
known by the common names of black, gray, or ash-colored 
oxide, is obtained by decomposing calomel by means of an alkali. 
It is a dark-colored powder, without odor or taste, and insoluble 
in water. It is never used internally, but is used as a fumigating 
agent. In the form of black wash (lotio nigra), it is much used as 



218 MATERIA ME Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

a milcland unirritating application to chancres and syphilitic sores 
of all kinds. This is prepared by adding one drachm of calomel 
to a pint of lime-water. 

HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM MITE. U. S. Mild Chloride 

of Mercury. 

Calomelas. Calomel is sometimes, though rarely, found na- 
tive, as horn-quicksilver ; but all the drug of commerce is artifi- 
cially prepared. It is a protochloride (HgCI), and is made by 
subliming a mixture of protosulphate of mercury and chloride 
of sodium, when calomel is sublimed over and sulphate of soda 
remains behind. The protosulphate is obtained by first boiling 
metallic mercury in sulphuric acid until a dry mass is left, — con- 
stituting a bisulphate of the deutoxide (2S03,HgOJ, — and then 
triturating this with metallic mercury until globules are no longer 
visible, — thus forming the protosulphate, 2(S03,HgO). As thus 
obtained, calomel is liable to contain a little corrosive sublimate, 
from which it may be purified by washing it with boiling water 
until ammonia produces no precipitate with the washings. A 
variety known as Jewell's or Howard's calomel is more perfectly 
brought into a state of minute division by subliming it in contact 
with steam in a large receiver, whereby it is condensed into 
an impalpable powder and freed from corrosive sublimate at the 
same time. 

Properties. Calomel, when made by sublimation, is a fibrous 
substance, crystallizing in four-sided prisms ; but as usually 
found in the shops it is a tasteless, inodorous powder, of a dull- 
white color, becoming dark on exposure 'to light. It is insoluble 
in water, alcohol, and ether. It becomes black on the addition 
of the alkalies and alkaline earths, in consequence of the formation 
of the protoxide. When pure, it is entirely volatilized by heat, 
by which means any fixed impurities, as the salts of lime, baryta, 
etc., may be detected. It is incompatible with the alkalies and 
their carbonates, acids, salts of iron and lead, the chlorides and 
hydrosulphurets. 

Medical Uses. Calomel is one of the mildest of the prei)ara- 
tions of mercury, and the one most generally used. It is em- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 219 

ployed as an alterative in chronic skin diseases, in glandular 
affections, and in disordered affections of the digestive organs, 
more particularly those connected with hepatic derangement. In 
the treatment of febrile and inflammatory affections it is usually 
combined with small doses of opium, to prevent its acting on the 
bowels. It is very commonly employed as a purgative, but 
generally in combination with other drastic cathartics, particularly 
in bilious fevers and all disorders attended with congestion of 
the portal system, and where we wish to relieve other organs on 
the principle of counter-irritation. It is also frequently added 
to other medicines to promote their peculiar effects : thus, it 
increases the diuretic action of squill, and the diaphoretic tend- 
ency of the antimonials. ' In large doses, from 20 to 40 grains, 
it has been supposed to act as a sedative, and has often been 
administered with this view in yellow fever, in malignant bilious 
fevers, in cholera and dysentery. Externally it forms a useful 
desiccative dressing to soft chancres, and in the form of ointment 
is one of our most useful applications in several forms of chronic 
skin diseases. Dose as an alterative, ^ to 1 grain, or even less ; 
to produce ptyalism, 2 to 5 grains, three times a day ; as a pur-* 
gative, 5 to 10 grains. 

HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM CORROSIYTJM. U. S. 

Corrosive Chloride of Mercury. 

Corrosive Sublimate is obtained by exposing a mixture of 
the bisulphate of mercury (obtained by boiling sulphuric acid 
with mercury to dryness) and chloride of sodium to a subliming 
heat, when decomposition takes place ; the chlorine of the salt 
unites with the mercury and sublimes as bichloride, while the 
sodium, oxygen, and sulphuric acid unite to form sulphate of soda, 
which remains behind. Composition, Hg,Cl2. 

Properties. As thus obtained, it is in the form of colorless 
crystals, or in white, semi-transparent crystalline masses, sp. gr. 
5-2, permanent in the air, with a very acrid, styptic, metallic 
taste. It dissolves in sixteen parts of water, and is soluble in 
alcohol and ether. With albumen it forms a white precipitate, 
which is soluble in water ; with caustic potash a yellow, and 
with ammonia a white, precipitate. It is incompatible with the 



220 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

alkalies and their carbonates, all sulpliurets, all vegetable astrin- 
gent infusions, albumen, and all albuminous solutions. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small or therapeutic doses, 
yig to ^ of a grain, it acts as an alterative. It produces all the 
beneficial effects of the mercurials in augmenting the secretions, 
producing the absorption of morbid growths, altering the state 
of the skin in many cutaneous diseases, and changing the char- 
acter of morbid actions generally, with less tendency to salivate 
and less obvious disturbance of the vital functions than any 
other preparation of the metal. In large doses, or in long-con- 
tinued small doses, it causes griping and purging, accompanied 
by all the constitutional effects before described. In large 
quantities it acts as a powerful corrosive poison, by virtue of its 
affinity for the albumen and the other constituents of the tissues, 
causing violent irritation and • inflammation of the stomach and 
alimentary canal; and sometimes it occasions inflammation of the 
lungs and irritation of the urinary organs. It should not be ad- 
ministered to those predisposed to pulmonary disease or suffering 
from irritation of the kidneys or urinary organs. 

Corrosive sublimate is much employed as an alterative in 
chronic cutaneous diseases, chronic rheumatism, and in various 
other chronic diseases requiring the use of the mercurials. It 
is much employed as a remedy in secondary or constitutional 
syphilis. Those who recommend its use contend that it removes 
the venereal symptoms in a very short space of time, without 
causing any of the unpleasant effects attending a long-continued 
course of medicine. In these cases it may be advantageously 
combined with a vegetable diaphoretic or tonic. Externally, it 
acts as a stimulant and escharotic, and maybe employed dissolved 
in water as a wash in lepra, psoriasis, and other scaly eruptions. 
In cases of poisoning with corrosive sublimate, albumen, as 
white of eggs, is the best antidote ; in its absence, wheaten flour, 
milk, or iron filings may be used. Dose, j'g to ^ of a grain, given 
in the form of pill or in solution. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 221 

HYDRARGYRI lODIDIJM YIRIDE. F. S. Green Iodide of 

Mercury. 

This salt, called the Protiodide or Iodide of Mercury, is 
obtained by triturating together mercury and iodine with a 
little alcohol. This is a case of simple combination, the alcohol 
facilitating the union by dissolving the iodine. Composition, 
Hgl. 

Properties. It is a heavy, yellowish-green powder, becoming 
dark on exposure to light, without odor or taste, insoluble iu 
water and alcohol, and entirely volatilized at a high temperature. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This preparation is alterative 
and resolvent, possessing the properties of both the mercury and 
the iodine. It is used in syphilis, occurring in strumous habits, 
and in various obstinate skin diseases. In long-continued doses 
it occasionally produces salivation, and in large quantities proves 
an irritant poison. Dose, |- to 1 grain, gradually increased. 

HYDRARGYRI lODIDUM RIJBRUM. TJ. S. Ped Iodide of 

Mercury. 

This preparation, the Biniodide of 3Iercury (HglJ, is ob- 
tained by double decomposition between corrosive sublimate 
and iodide of potassium. It is a scarlet-red powder, inodorous, 
with a slight metallic taste, insoluble in water, sparingly soluble 
in alcohol, and very soluble in ether. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is alterative and deobstruent, 
possessing properties similar to the green iodide, but more irritant 
in its action. It should be given with great caution, and should 
be discontinued, if it cause much irritation. It resembles corro- 
sive sublimate in its poisonous effects. By many it is considered 
the best form of mercury which can be used in secondary and 
constitutional syphilis. The dose is j\ of a grain, gradually in- 
creased. The best mode of administering it is in a solution of 
iodide of potassium. It is sometimes used in the form of oint- 
ment, as a topical application to chronic cutaneous diseases and 
glandular enlargements of strumous origin. 



222 31 ATE RI A 31 E Die A AND THERAFEUTICS. 

HYDRARGYRUM AMMONIATUM. U. S. Ammoniated 
Mercury. 

White Precipitate, sometimes called Ammonio- Chloride of 
Mercury, is obtained by precipitating a solution of corrosive 
sublimate by ammonia. This precipitate is a peculiar compound, 
composed of amidogen or amide, the radical of ammonia ,with bi- 
chloride of mercury, designated by the formula HgCl2+2HgNH2. 
The reactions which take place are very complex : a portion of 
the ammonia (NH3) parts with one equivalent of its hydrogen, 
becoming amidogen (NH^), which unites with a portion of the 
mercury of the bichloride, forming a biamide of mercury (2Hg, 
NH^), while the hydrogen of the ammonia and the chlorine of 
the bichloride, thus liberated, unite to form hydrochloric acid. 
This biamide of mercury, thus formed, unites with the remaining 
bichloride to form a chloro-amide of mercury. 

Properties and Uses. Ammoniated mercury is a bulky, milk- 
white, amorphous powder, sometimes in irregular masses, with a 
styptic metallic taste, insoluble in water and alcohol. It is a 
powerful preparation, but used only as an external application 
in the form of ointment. 

Unguentum Hydrargyri Ammoniati. U. S. Ointment of 
Ammoniated Mercury is prepared by mixing one part of white 
precipitate with twelve of simple ointment. It is used in 
chronic cutaneous diseases and to destroy pediculi. 

rNGUEXTUM HYDRARGYRI NITRATIS. U. S. Oint- 
ment of Nitrate of Mercury. 

Citrine Ointment is made by dissolving one and a half troy- 
ounces of mercury in three and a half troy ounces of nitric 
acid, adding the solution to a mixture of twelve troyounces 
of neat's-foot oil and four and a half troyounces of lard, heated 
together, and stirring until effervescence ceases and the oint- 
ment thickens. The precise chemical changes which take place 
in this process are not satisfactorily understood ; but it is sup- 
posed to be a mixture of the nitrate of the peroxide of mercury 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 223 

with the fatty acids and elaidin, which is produced by the ac- 
tion of the nitrous acid on the oleic acid of the oil. 

Properties and Uses. When recently prepared, it is of a 
golden-yellow color; but when kept for some time, it acquires a 
dirty-gi'eenish color, and becomes hard, so as to be unfit for use. 
It is much employed as an alterative and stimulant application 
to indolent ulcers, in chronic cutaneous diseases, as herpes, por- 
rigo, impetigo, certain forms of eczema, and to the eyelids when 
affected with chronic ophthalmia. It may be diluted with lard 
when necessary. 

HYDRARGYRI SULPHAS FLAYA. U. S. Yellow Sul- 
loliate of Mercury. 

TuRPETH Mineral is obtained by boiling mercury in sulphuric 
acid until a dry, white mass remains, and then throwing this into 
boiling water, when the bisulphate of the deutoxide of mercury 
is decomposed, and an insoluble salt is precipitated, which is the 
yellow sulphate. SHgO^.SOg. 

ProjDerties and Uses. It is a lemon-yellow powder, with an 
acrid taste. It is an alterative, emetic, and irritant poison, too 
violent for internal use. It is sometimes used as an errhine, 
diluted with snuff or powdered liquorice root. 

HYDRARGYRI SULPHURETIJM RUBRUM. TJ. S. Bed 

Sulphuret of Mercury. 

The Bisulphuret of Mercury, commonly called Cinnabar, is 
found native, being the ore from which mercury is extracted, and 
is also prepared artificially by heating together mercury and sul- 
phur. HgS^. 

Properties and Uses. It is in the form of heavy, brilliant, 
crystalline masses, of a dark-red color and fibrous texture, with- 
out odor or taste, and insoluble in water and alcohol. It fur- 
Bishes a brilliant, rich-red powder, commonly called vervxilion. 
It is entirely volatilized by heat. It is never used internally, but 
is the preparation generally employed for mercurial fumigation. 



224 3IATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

HYDRARGYRI SULPHURETIJM NIGRUM. U. S. Black 
Sulphuret of Mercury. 

Ethiops Mineral is prepared by rubbing equal parts of mer- 
cury and sulphur together till all the globules disappear and a 
powder is formed. It is a heavy, inodorous, tasteless, black 
powder, insoluble, and entirely dissipated by heat. It possesses 
the alterative properties of the mercurial preparations, and was 
at one time used in glandular affections and in cutaneous diseases, 
but at present is very little used as medicine. 

HYDRARGYRI CYANIDUM. U. S. Cyanide of Mercury. 

This salt is prepared by the reaction between the red oxide of 
mercury and hydrocyanic acid generated by the action of sul- 
phuric acid on ferrocyanide of potassium. Composition, HgCy^. 

Properties and Uses. It is in heavy, white or colorless, pris- 
matic crystals, inodorous, with a strong styptic taste, wholly 
soluble in water, and very little if at all so in alcohol; it is 
entirely decomposed by heat. It is a potent poison, producing 
effects similar to those of corrosive sublimate, excepting that it 
does not produce the epigastric pain which that salt occasions, 
and on this account has been employed in the treatment of 
syphilis. Dose, Jg of a grain, gradually increased. 

lODINIUM. U. S. Iodine. 

Iodine is a non-metallic element, discovered in 1812 by Cour- 
tois, a saltpetre manufacturer at Paris. It exists in both king- 
doms of nature ; it is found in many mineral waters, in certain 
marine vegetables, in sponge and some molluscous animals, and 
occasionally in combination with silver, zinc, and lead. For com- 
mercial purposes it is obtained from the ashes of the fuci, or com- 
mon sea-weeds, which are its most abundant natural source. 
These ashes, commonly called kelp, are lixiviated with water, to 
which they yield about half their weight of salts. The mother- 
liquor is poured off from these salts, which are deposited by evapo- 
ration and crystallization; it is then treated with sulphuric acid, 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 225 

and, as soon as effervescence has ceased, is distilled with deutoxide 
of maug-anese, when the iodine passes over and is condensed in 
proper receivers. In this process the iodide of sodium is decom- 
posed and the iodine evolved ; while the sulphuric acid, deutoxide 
of manganese, and sodium unite to form sulphate of protoxide of 
manganese and sulphate of soda. 

Properties. Iodine is a soft, friable, opaque, crystalline solid, 
of a bluish-black color and metallic lustre, usually met with in 
^micaceous scales. It has a strong, peculiar odor, somewhat like 
that of chlorine, and a hot, acrid taste. It is very volatile, and 
volatilizes rapidly on the application of heat, giving a rich violet 
vapor, from which it derives its name. Applied to the skin, it 
produces a yellow color, which soon dis'appears. It is soluble in 
alcohol and ether, but requires seven thousand times its weight of 
water to dissolve it. In its free state it may be distinguished 
from most other substances by its characteristic vapor, and by 
the deep-blue color it gives with starch. This color is destroyed 
by heat, and hence in testing for iodine the substance must be 
cold and the iodine be free. Where it is present in combination 
with bases, some deoxidizing substance must be added : nitric 
acid is generally used. Iodine is sometimes adulterated with 
mineral coal, plumbago, and black oxide of manganese, which may 
be readily detected by their fixed nature, while the pure iodine 
is entirely volatilized by heat. Its entire solubility in ether is 
another mode of detecting impurities. 

Physiological Action. * Its effects vary according to the dose, 
degree of concentration, and state of combination. In small and 
repeated doses it is absorbed and acts as an alterative, exciting 
the vital actions, especially of the glandular and absorbent system 
It also acts as a tonic, improving the appetite and promoting 
digestion. When these small doses are continued for a long time, 
it palliates and even aids in the removal of disease, without any 
perceptible effect upon the functions of the body, thus acting as an 
alterative in the true sense of the word. If given in large or too 
long-continued doses, it has the effect of impoverishing the blood, 
and produces a peculiar disordered state of the system, which has 
been named iodism. This is characterized by fever and restless- 
ness, accompanied with nausea, headache, loss of appetite, and 

15 



226 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

great depression, followed by an emaciation of the whole frame. 
These soon disappear upon the discontinuance of the medicine. 
In overdoses it acts as an irritant poison. When the vapor is in- 
haled, it excites cough and irritation of the air-passages. Exter- 
nally applied, either in the form of tincture or ointment, it pro- 
duces intense local action, causing itching, redness, and desqua- 
mation. 

Its modus operandi as a curative agent is not well understood : 
by some its therapeutic action is ascribed to its tonic effects in 
establishing a healthy tone of the system ; by some, to a liquefac- 
tion of the blood ; by others, to a direct stimulation of the absorb- 
ent system ; while some contend that it is one of the constituents, 
favorable, if not essential, to perfect health. 

TJierapeutical Application. Iodine was introduced as a medi- 
cine in 1819, by Dr. Coindet, Sr., of Geneva, for the cure of goitre 
or bronchocele ; and it has since been employed in the treatment 
of many chronic diseases, but especially those of the absorbent 
and glandular systems. In glandular enlargements and morbid 
growths unattended by acute inflammation, it displays extraordi- 
nary powers over the function of nutrition. In bronchocele, 
when the hypertrophy is the result of chronic irritation or sub- 
acute inflammation, its steady employment proves beneficial ; but 
when the normal tissue has been displaced by diseased growth, no 
benefit can be expected. In all cases of simple enlai'gement of 
the various glandular organs it exerts a salutary influence. In 
scrofula, in all its various forms, it possfesses greater virtues than 
any other article of the Materia Medica ; it is particularly bene- 
ficial in tumors, abscesses, ulcers, ophthalmia, and affections of the 
bones and joints occurring in scrofulous subjects. At one time 
it was much lauded as a remedy, both internally and in the form 
of inhalation, in phthisis ; but at the present day most writers 
agree that but little benefit is derived from its employment in this 
disease, and that it seems to have no effect in promoting the ab- 
sorption of tuberculous matter. The inhalation of the vapor 
sometimes proves useful in chronic bronchitis. In dropsy it also 
proves beneficial, by removing the lesions which so often lead to 
and tend to keep up the effusion, as in hydrocephalus, and in 
ascites depending upon enlargement of the liver. Topically it is 



GENERAL REMEDIES.—ALTERATIVES. 227 

employed in the form of tincture or ointment to obtain its altera- 
tive influence, or. simply as a local stimulant, in many forms of 
chronic cutaneous diseases, to enlarged glands and chronic swell- 
ings. In erysipelas, the tincture painted over the inflamed parts 
often alleviates the symptoms. As an injection in hydrocele, into 
cysts, cavities, or abscesses, it provokes adhesive but not suppu- 
rative inflammation. 

In poisoning by iodine, the stomach must be evacuated by 
emetics, and afterward amylaceous and demulcent drinks freely 
administered. The dose is ^ grain, gradually increased ; but it 
is now never given in substance ; the most eligible form of giv- 
ing it is in solution with the iodide of potassium. 

TiNCTURA loDiNi. U. S. Tincture of Iodine is prepared by dis- 
solving one troyounce of iodine in a pint of alcohol ; sixteen min- 
ims, equivalent to thirtj^-five drops, contain one grain of iodine. 
It is of a deep-brown color, and undergoes a gradual change when 
kept, owing to the reaction between the iodine and the alcohol. 
The dose is from 10 to 20 drops, but it is now seldom employed 
internally, as water precipitates the iodine and renders it apt to 
irritate the stomach. It is almost exclusively employed exter- 
nally when it is desired to obtain the local effects of the remedy. 
When used for injection into serous cavities, it should be diluted 
with an equal bulk or twice its bulk of water. 

Unguentum Iodini. U. S. Ointment of Iodine is made by in- 
corporating twenty grains of iodine and four of iodide of potas- 
sium, rubbed together with six drops of water, with a troyounce 
of lard. The use of the iodide is simply to facilitate the incor- 
poration. It is employed as a local application to glandular 
tumors, etc. 

POTASSII lODIDITM. U. S. Iodide of Potassa. 

This salt, sometimes incorrectly called Hydriodate of Potassa, 
may be prepared by different processes. The pharmacopoeia 
directs that an aqueous solution of potassa be treated with iodine 
in excess, and the solution evaporated, by which means we ob- 
tain a mixture of iodide of potassium and iodate of potassa. By 
mixing this with charcoal and exposing the^ mixture to a dull- 



228 3IATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

red heat, the oxygen is driven off, and the iodate converted into 
the iodide, which may be dissolved out of the mass and obtained 
pure by crystallization. Composition, KI. 

Properties. Iodide of potassium is in white or colorless 
opaque cubic crystals, inodorous, with a pungent, saline taste, 
soluble in two-thirds its weight of water, somewhat less so in 
alcohol. Exposed to a red heat, it decrepitates and fuses with- 
out undergoing decomposition. It is incompatible with acids 
and the salts of most earths and metals. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The physiological and thera- 
peutical effects of this salt are closely analogous to those of 
iodine, only less energetic and less irritant. It is absorbed and 
rapidly eliminated from the system, and may be readily detected 
unaltered in the secretions. It is the preparation most commonly 
used when the effects of iodine on the system are desired. In 
secondary syphihtic affections it is extensively employed, and 
with great benefit ; it is particularly adapted for those cases in 
which mercury has been administered in large quantities during 
the primary stage, and for scrofulous subjects. It is of most 
service in that form of the disease characterized by vague pains 
in the limbs, with or without periosteal tumors or nodes, and in 
the tubercular form of syphilitic eruptions. It is also employed 
with much benefit in chronic rheumatism, in rheumatic gout, and 
in chronic diseases accompanied with induration and enlargement 
of various organs. In that form of rheumatism affecting the 
fibrous tissue after the acute symptoms have subsided, and where 
the periosteum is affected, it gives speedy relief, oftentimes re- 
moving the pain and swelling in a few days. In paralysis, where 
the paralytic condition depends upon pressure upon the brain, or 
upon a nervous trunk, by an effusion or thickening, it sometimes 
proves useful by producing absorption of the cause. In poison- 
ing from lead or mercury, particularly the former, it is said to 
prove useful by forming a soluble salt of the metal lodged in the 
tissues, which is readily eliminated from the system. It is some- 
times used externally in the form of lotion, ointment, or bath, 
and in this way is capable of producing the effects of iodine on 
the system. The dose is from 5 to 20 grains in solution three 
times a day. Occasionally it produces nausea, and an affection 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 229 

like catarrh, and sometimes ptyalism. In this case the dose 
must be diminished until these symptoms disappear, when the 
ordinary dose may be resumed. 

TiNCTURA loDiNi CoMPOSiTA. U. S. Compound Tincture of 
Iodine is prepared by dissolving half a troyouuce of iodine and 
a troyounce of iodide of potassium in a pint of alcohol. This 
tincture may be diluted with water without decomposition, and 
is preferable to the simple tincture for internal administration. 
Dose, 15 to 30 drops, to be gradually increased if necessary. 

Unguentum Iodini Compositum. TJ. S. Compound Ointment 
of Iodine is made by incorporating thirty grains of iodide of 
potassium and fifteen grains of iodine, previously rubbed together 
with a little water, with a troyounce of lard. It is used for the 
same purposes as the simple ointment, from which it differs 
chiefly in being stronger with iodine. 

Liquor Iodini Compositus. U. S. Compound Solution of 
Iodine is a concentrated solution of iodine with iodide of potas- 
sium, and is prepared by dissolving three hundred and sixty 
grains of iodine and a troyounce and a half of iodide of potas- 
sium in a pint of water. The dose is 6 drops, containing about 
a quarter of a grain of iodine, and it is a very convenient form 
for the internal exhibition of the remedy. It may also be used 
for inhalation, by means of the atomizer. 

ACIDUM HYDRIODICUM DILUTUM. TJ. S. Diluted 

Hydriodic Acid. 

This acid is prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen gas 
through water in which iodine has been suspended. In this pro- 
cess one equivalent of the hydrogen unites with one of iodine to 
form hydriodic acid, while the sulphur with which it was united 
is isolated, and may be separated by filtration. 

Properties and Uses. It is a colorless liquid, having a sour 
taste, and an odor somewhat resembling that of hydrochloric 
acid. It darkens on exposure to the air, in consequence of the 
separation of the iodine. Each fluidrachm contains ten grains 
of iodine. It is capable of producing all the medicinal effects of 
iodine upon the system, and is said to be absorbed and enter the 



230 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

circulation with great facility, while it is less unpleasant to the 
taste, and less apt to offend the stomach. Dose, 5ss three times 
a day, diluted with water. 

Ammonii loDiDUM. Iodide of Ammonium is obtained by the 
action of iodine' on a solution of the hydrosulphuret of ammonia, 
and evaporating to crystallization. It is a crystalline, white 
powder, deliquescent, soluble in water, with a taste like that of 
iodide of potassium, but a little more pungent. It is a tonic 
alterative, and has been recommended as a substitute for the 
iodide of potassium as a remedy in skin diseases and syphilitic 
affections. Dose, 1 to 3 grains, or more. 

SoDii loDiDUM. Iodide of Sodium is prepared by double de- 
composition between carbonate of soda and freshly prepared 
solution of iodide of iron, and evaporating at a gentle heat to 
crystallization. It is a white, crystalline, very deliquescent salt, 
soluble in water. It possesses properties similar to the iodide 
of potassium, but has a much less disagreeable taste, and is bet- 
ter adapted to weak and delicate stomachs, and has sometimes 
succeeded in constitutional syphilis where the potassium salt has 
failed. Dose, 5 to 20 grains. 

Amyli Iodidum. Iodide of Starch is prepared by rubbing 
twenty-four grains of iodine, previously moistened with a few 
drops of spirit, with an ounce of starch until the powder assumes 
a uniform blue color, and drying it at a moderate heat so as not 
to drive off the iodine. It was introduced into notice as the 
best means of administering iodine in large quantities without 
the occurrence of gastric irritation and the other unpleasant 
symptoms which sometimes attend its use. The dose is a tea- 
spoonful, gradually increased. 

ARSENICUM. U. S. Arsenic. 

Arsenic is sometimes found native, but most commonly in 
combination with other metals, as cobalt and iron, or with sul- 
phur, as orpiment or realgar. 

Properties. When pure, it is a brittle, crystalline metal, of a 
brilliant steel-gray color, becoming dull or blackish on exposure, 
with a granular texture ; sp. gr, 5'8. When heated, it sublimes 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 231 

without fusion, giving rise to white vapors having a garlicky 
smell. It is inert in its metallic state, but when swallowed it 
is oxidized and becomes capable of producing poisonous effects. 
It forms two compounds with oxygen, arsenious and arsenic 
acid; the first is the only one used in medicine. 

ACIDUM ARSENIOSUM. U. S. ArseMous Acid. 

This preparation, known in the shops as Arsenic, White Ar- 
senic, Oxide, of Arsenic, is obtained chiefly from Bohemia and 
Saxony, where it is procured on a large scale as h collateral 
product in the smelting of cobalt ores (arseniurets of cobalt), 
and purified by a second sublimation. Composition, AsOj. 

Properties. It occurs in comiBerce in glassy, transparent 
masses, with a vitreous fracture, and of a milk-white color. As 
found in the shops, it is generally in the form of a fine white 
powder, inodorous and tasteless. It is slightly soluble in water, 
but more readily soluble in alcohol and the fixed oils. It is entirely 
volatilized by heat without undergoing any change ; but if car- 
bonaceous matter be present, it is reduced and the metal sublimed 
and its peculiar alliaceous odor made manifest. Any fixed 
adulteration may be detected by subjecting it to heat sufficient to 
volatilize the arsenic, when the impurities will be left behind. 

Physiological Action. Arsenic is absorbed into the system, 
and has been detected in the tissues and secretions of the body. 
In small doses (g'g to y'^ of a grain), it is an alterative, and, if 
persevered in, tonic, increasing the appetite and improving the 
quantity and quality of the secretions. In large doses (ylj to ^ 
of a grain), it is a powerful antiperiodic. In larger doses, it acts 
as an irritant poison. When given, in slight excess, or even in 
long-continued small doses, it oftentimes produces serious, and 
even fatal, results. The first symptoms of its cumulative effect are 
cedema of the face and redness of the conjunctiva, which soon 
subside if the medicine be discontinued. If, however, its use be 
persevered in, it occasions a great depression of the digestive and 
nervous systems, characterized by a quick, small pulse, hurried 
respiration, and swelling of the face and extremities. We can 
give no explanation of its action : it possesses an action peculiar 
to itself, acting on the system without any visible effect, except 



232 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

in the alleviation of the disease for which it may be administered. 
Headland refers its action in periodic and cutaneous diseases to 
its power of decomposing the poisons in the system upon which 
they depend, and causing them to be eliminated. All the com- 
pounds of arsenic exert an antiseptic influence on dead animal 
tissues, pi'eventing decomposition ; and Liebig supposes that they 
may be able to arrest contagious and other disorders in the sys- 
tem in the same way that they control putrefaction out of the 
body. Externally, it acts as a powerful caustic, quickly and 
entirely destroying the vitality of the part acted upon. 

Poisonous Effects. The symptoms produced by excessive or 
poisonous doses are extremely diversified. Sometimes they indi- 
cate inflammation of the gastro-intestinal membrane ; at others 
there is very little irritation of the alimentary canal, the poison 
affecting chiefly the nervous system, producing great depression. 
Mr. Hunt says that arsenic proves fatal in one of three ways, 
according to the form and dose in which it is administered, and 
its solution in the stomach, each characterized by distinct symp- 
toms. In very large doses, it sometimes though rarely proves 
fatal in a few hours, from failure (paralysis) of the heart's action, 
the symptoms being excessive prostration of strength, with fre- 
quent fainting. Where death occurs in two or three days, it is 
from excessive inflammation of one or more of the abdominal 
viscera, accompanied by intense pain, violent and incessant 
vomiting of a brown, turbid matter mixed with mucus and 
sometimes, streaked with blood, followed by purging, with tenes- 
mus and severe cramp or spasm of the muscles of the extremities. 
In cases where the doses have been small and repeated for a long 
time, it produces great disturbance of the nervous system, with 
local palsy as if from lead-poisoning, and epilepsy. Sometimes 
exfoliaiiun of the hair and cuticle, and ptyalism occur. 

The post-mortem appearances are generally confined to the 
stomach and intestines, and are well marked in proportion to the 
size of the dose and the length of time the individual has sur- 
vived after taking the poison. They are generally those of 
active inflammation, sometimes accompanied with ulceration, 
softening, effusion of lymph, and even gangrene in the intestinal 
canal. The blood is said to be sometimes fluid and dark. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 233 

Treatment of Poisoning. The first object is to expel the 
poison from the stomach, by administering emetics and promot- 
ing vomiting by the use of diluents. The next object is to decom- 
pose the poison and render it inert, by freely administering 
hydrated sesquioxide of iron in the form of pulp or magma. 
This acts by producing (by a transfer of oxygen from the oxide 
to the acid) an insoluble, and consequently inert, arseniate of the 
protoxide of iron. Magnesia and charcoal have also been recom- 
mended as antidotes. The gastro-enteric inflammation and the 
nervous prostration must be combated by the usual means. 

Tests. As arsenic is so frequently employed for criminal pur- 
poses, it is of importance to detect its presence. The most simple 
and characteristic test for it in its solid state, either pure or com- 
bined with inorganic substances, is its reduction to the metallic 
state and its subsequent oxidation. In solution it may be de- 
tected in one of four ways : by what are called liquid tests ; by 
subliming the metal from the precipitate produced by one of these 
by heating it with potash or soda flux ; by Marsh's method, 
which is the most delicate, and which consists in disengaging it 
in the form of arseniuretted hydrogen gas, and decomposing the 
gas by combustion, so as to obtain the metallic arsenic; or by 
Reinsch's test, which consists in boiling the suspected solution 
with muriatic acid and then immersing In it a slip of copper foil, 
when the latter acquires a steel-gray coating of metallic arsenic, 
which may be further tested by the reduction test. The most 
characteristic liquid tests are hydrosulphuric acid, which gives 
a golden-yellow precipitate of sulphuret of arsenic ; ammoniacal 
nitrate of silver, which produces the rich-yellow arsenite of silver ; 
and ammoniacal sulphate of copper, which affords the green 
arsenite of copper. 

Therapeutic Uses. In intermittent and periodic diseases, 
arsenic has long been highly esteemed. In the treatment of 
these it ranks next to quinine, and often succeeds in curing obsti- 
nate cases which have resisted the quinine treatment. Headland 
says it appears to act by antagonizing a morbid action, which is 
either the cause or the result of the blood disease. It is also 
useful in other intermittent disorders besides ague, as neuralgia, 
especially that form which attacks the brow. In cutaneous 



234 MATHRIA MEDICA AND THERAPETJTICS. 

diseases, particularly those of a scaly character, it displays its 
alterative powers in a most marked degree. In that class of skin 
diseases in which the eruption is the chief or the only symptom 
of the existence in the blood of certain poisons or peculiar morbid 
conditions, arsenic proves most efficacious. Mr. Hunt considers 
it a specific for all skin diseases that are not syphilitic in their 
origin. In the treatment of chorea it appears to exercise a 
powerful influence, and is highly recommended by Dr. Pareira. 
It has also been used in other nervous affections, in epilepsy, in 
chronic rheumatism, and in various other affections which call 
for an alterative treatment. It is contraindicated in all acute 
diseases, and where the stomach or intestinal canal is irritated, 
in inflammatory pulmonary affections, and should be used with 
great caution in infancy and childhood. 

Administration. The dose of arsenious acid is from J^ to y'g of 
a grain, three times a day, given in the form of pill with crumb 
of bread. It is best given directly after meals, and any tendency 
to nausea or vomiting may be corrected by combining it with 
opium. During its employment the patient should be carefully 
watched, and if the eyelids or conjunctiva become inflamed, or if 
cough or other symptoms of bronchial irritation arise, it should 
be suspended for a short period, and then resumed. In conse- 
quence of the great difficulty of accurately dividing so small a 
quantity into pills, the following preparation is generally preferred. 

LIQUOR POTASSiE ARSENITIS. U. S. Solution of 
Arsenite of Potassa. 

Fowler's Solution, sometimes called "tasteless ague-drops,^^ 
is prepared by boiling sixty-four grains each of arsenious acid 
and bicarbonate of potassa in twelve ounces of water, adding half 
an ounce of compound spirits of lavender, and then water sufficient 
to make a pint. 

Projyerties and Uses. It is a transparent liquid, having the 
color, odor, and taste of the lavender. Composition, KO, AsOj, in 
water. Each fluidrachm contains one-half grain of arsenious 
acid. Its action is similar to that of arsenious acid, and it is the 
preparation usually resorted to when the medicine is given inter- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 235 

Dally. Dose, 5 to 10 drops, two or three times a day. It is 
incompatible in prescription with acids, lime-water, alum, and 
most of the sulphates, aud the preparations of bark. 

Liquor Sod^e Arsenitis. Pearsoti'ii Solution is a solution of 
arsenite of soda (four grains to f5 of water), and possesses prop- 
erties similar to the above. It is much used in Europe for the 
same purposes. 

Liquor Ammonia Arsenitis. Biette^s Ai^senical Solution is 
a solution of arsenite of ammonia (one grain to si of water). 
Dose, 20 to GO minims. 

ARSENICI lODIDUM. r. S. Iodide of Arsenic. 

This compound is made by the direct combination of its con- 
stituents (sixty grains of arsenic and three hundred of iodine) 
with the aid of a gentle heat. Composition, Asl. 

Properties and Uses. It is an orange-red, crystalline solid, 
entirely soluble in water, and wholly volatilized by heat. In small 
doses (Jg of a grain, gradually increased to ^) it is a powerful ' 
alterative, highly recommended by some as a constitutional rem- 
edy in obstinate skin diseases. Its use requires great caution, and 
it is but little used except in the preparation of Donovan's solution. 

LIQUOR HYDRARGYRI ET ARSENICI lODIDL U. S. 

Solution of Iodide of Mercury and Arsenic. 

This solution, commonly known as Donova.n's solution, is pre- 
pared by dissolving thirty-five grains of iodide of arsenic and red 
iodide of mercury, each, in half a pint of water. 

Properties and Uses. It is of a pale-yellow color, with a 
slightly styptic taste. Occasionally the color is orange-yellow, 
owing to the presence of free iodine. It is supposed to combine 
the medicinal virtues of its three constituents, and has been found 
decidedly useful in various skin diseases, particularly those of 
syphilitic origin. Dose, 5 to 20 drops, three times a day, prop- 
erly diluted with water. It is incompatible with laudanum 
and the salts of morphia. Sometimes it disorders the stomach 
and causes headache and other unpleasant symptoms, in which 
case it must be stopped for a time, and afterward resumed, but 
in a smaller dose. 



236 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

BROMINIUM. U. S. Bromine. 

Bromine is a non-metallic element, discovered in 1826, analo- 
gous in many respects to iodine and chlorine. It exists in sea- 
water and numerous mineral springs, in certain marine animals 
and vegetables, and occasionally in combination with metals. It is 
obtained for use from the bittern of salt springs (the mother-liquor 
left after the crystallization of the common salt), in which it exists 
as bromides of sodium and magnesium, by distilling it with sul- 
phuric acid and deutoxide of manganese. 

Properties and Uses. Bromine is a very volatile, dark-red 
liquid, sp. gr. 2'966, with a stifling odor like that of chlorine, and 
a very acrid taste. At 4° below zero it becomes a hard, brittle, 
crystalline solid, and at 117° boils, forming a reddish vapor, re- 
sembling that of nitrous acid. It is soluble in thirty-four parts 
of water, to which it communicates an orange color; more soluble 
in alcohol and ether. It acts like iodine in stimulating the lym- 
phatic system and promoting absorption, and has been employed 
in the same affections. Internally it is used in solution (one 
part bromine to forty parts water), in doses of 6 drops several 
times a day. Externally, in its pure state, it is caustic and irri- 
tant. Recently it has been used as an antiseptic in purifying 
the atmosphere of hospitals where contagious diseases exist, 
and also, properly diluted, as a local application in hospital gan- 
grene and other diseases. 

POTASSII BROMIDUM. U.S. Bromide of Potassium. 

This salt is obtained by decomposing a solution of bromide of 
iron (formed by heating together iron filings and bromine) by car- 
bonate of soda, when the carbonate of iron is precipitated, and 
the bromide left in solution, from which it may be crystallized. 

Properties. It is a permanent white salt, crystallizing in 
cubes or prisms, with a pungent, saline taste, very soluble in 
water, but sparingly soluble in alcohol. When heated it decrep- 
itates, and at a red heat fuses without decomposition. It is in- 
compatible with acids and the salts of most metals and earths. 

TJierapeutic Action and Uses. The bromide of potassium 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 23T 

possesses alterative and resolvent properties similar to, but 
milder than, the iodide of potassium. In large doses it acts as a 
sedative on the nervous system, diminishing in a remarkable de- 
gree the sexual function. All sorts of theories have been pro- 
posed to account for the action of this medicine ; most writers 
now agree that it acts as a soothing sedative to the nervous 
centres, lessening their reflex excitability when morbidly in- 
creased, and producing a quiet, refreshing sleep. Where the want 
of sleep arises from mental rather than from physical pain, or 
from trifling causes, exciting a morbidly sensitive nervous system, 
it is a remedy of great power, and almost always induces sleep. 
Against abnormal irritability of the genital system it acts with 
undoubted efficacy ; and, as a remedy for spasm and increased 
reflex action of the nervous centres, it proves most useful in 
such diseases as hooping-cough, infantile convulsions, chorea, 
etc. In full and frequent doses, and sufficiently long continued, 
it is of great value in epilepsy, uncomplicated with any organic 
derangement. It may also be used to relieve the various symp- 
toms attending uterine or ovarian diseases, such as insomnia, 
hysteria, etc., and other forms of mental and nervous derange- 
ment, as delirium tremens, mania, etc. Dose, from 5 to 30 grains, 
dissolved in water. 

Ammonii Bromidum. Bromide of Ammonium is prepared by 
dissolving bromine in water of ammonia. NH^Br. It is a white, 
crystallizable salt, soluble in water. It possesses properties 
similar to the bromide of potassium, as an absorbent in glandu- 
lar and other enlargements. It also appears to exercise a bene- 
ficial effect over certain functional nervous diseases, as hooping- 
cough, epilepsy, etc., and has a marked control over the mucous 
membranes of the entire body. In the treatment of hooping- 
cough, especially, it is highly recommended, and appears to di- 
minish the frequency and severity of the spasm, and to deaden 
the sensibility of the fauces and palate. Dose, 2 to 5 grains. 

CHLORINFM. Chlorine. 

Chlorine is an elementary gaseous fluid, of a greenish-yellow 
color and characteristic pungent odor and taste. It is found in 



238 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

combination in both kingdoms of nature, and is obtained by the 
action of diluted muriatic acid on the black oxide of manganese. 
When inhaled, it acts as a powerful irritant of the bronchial 
mucous membrane, causing a sense of suffocation, cough, and 
spasm of the glottis. Properly diluted with atmospheric air, 
chlorine inhalations have been found useful in acute and chronic 
bronchitis, and in aphonia following an ordinary cold, without 
organic lesion. 

It is of great value as a fumigating and disinfecting agent, 
possessing the property of destroying or neutralizing fetid exha- 
lations and correcting offensive odors. Its disinfecting property 
is .Supposed to depend on its affinity for hydrogen, which it ab- 
stracts from the water or aqueous vapor, setting free nascent 
oxygen, which acts as the effective agent by oxidizing the or- 
ganic matter ; or it may act merely by abstracting hydrogen 
from the miasmata. It is also used as an antidote to poisoning 
by hydrocyanic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen, decomposing 
them, by abstracting their hydrogen. 

The chlorine compounds resemble, in their general action, 
those of bromine and iodine, and have the power, when taken 
in sufficient quantity, of diminishing the fibrin of the blood. 
They are useful in diseases attended with a depraved condition 
of the blood and a low state of the vital powers. The gastric 
juice abounds in alkaline chlorides, especially the chloride of 
sodium : and the bad consequences which follow the omission of 
this substance from the food show that it has a beneficial action 
on the blood and is essential to health. 

Aqua Chlorini. U. S. Chlorine Water. Solution of Chlorine 
is an aqueous solution containing twice its volume of gas, and 
is prepared by simply passing chlorine gas through water. 

Properties and Uses. It is a pale, yellowish-green liquid, with 
an astringent taste, and the peculiar odor of the gas. It is de- 
composed by light, with the production of muriatic acid and the 
evolution of oxygen, and hence must be kept in a dark place. 
The concentrated solution is an irritant poison ; propcirly diluted, 
it acts as a stimulant and antiseptic, and has been used in dis- 
eases of a n)alignant character, as scarlatina, typhus fever, ery- 
sipelas, etc. Externally it is used as a gargle in malignant sore- 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 209 

throat, as a wash in ill-conditioned ulcers, and as a local bath in 
diseases of the liver. It furnishes a good means of liberating 
the gas for inhalation. Dose, f5i to f 5ij, largely diluted. 

CALX CHLORINATA. U. S. Chlorinated Lime. 

This substance, known as chloride of lime, or bleaching pow- 
der, is made by saturating hydrated or slacked lime with chlo- 
rine gas, and is a mixture of hypochlorite of lime and chloride 
of calcium. CaO,C10 + CaCl. 

Properties and Uses. It is a loose, grayish-white powder, 
with the odor of chlorine, and a strong, bitter, astringent taste, 
readily soluble in water. On exposure to the air it deliquesces, 
and absorbs both moisture and carbonic acid, and gives out 
chlorine and hypochlorous acid gas. It is stimulant and anti- 
septic, but for intei'nal use the solution of chlorinated soda is 
preferred. Locally its action is that of an irritant and caustic, 
and in solution it has been used as an application to ill-condi- 
tioned ulcers, cutaneous eruptions, and as a wash for the mouth 
in ulcerations of the gums. In consequence of the facility with 
which it parts with its chlorine, it is much used as an antiseptic 
and disinfectant, and is particularly useful in hospitals, jails, sick- 
chambers, and all other places the air of which requires purifi- 
cation. 

LIQUOR SODJE CHLORINATE. U. S. Solution of 
Chlorinated Soda. 

Laharraqueh Disinfecting Liquid is made by decomposing a 
solution of carbonate of soda by one of chlorinated lime, when 
carbonate of lime is precipitated and chlorinated soda remains 
in solution. In the original process of Labarraque the chlorine 
gas is passed into a solution of carbonate of soda. 

Properties and Uses. It is a transpai*ent or greenish-yellow 
solution, with a faint odor of chlorine, a sharp, saline taste, and 
an alkaline reaction. It is stimulant and antiseptic, and has 
been employed beneficially in malignant or putrid diseases, and 
in the advanced stages of all fevers and exanthematous diseases, 
when they assume the typhoid type. As a local remedy it is 



240 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

useful in all affections attended with fetor, in scarlatina and 
aphthous ulcerations of the mouth, and as an addition to gargles 
in ulcerated sore-throat. One of its principal uses is to purify 
the air in sick-rooms, in which case it acts by decomposing sul- 
phuretted hydrogen. The dose is f 5ss, diluted with water. For 
gargles, from f ^ss to f^i may be used, in half a pint of water. 

CALCII CHLORIDUjM. IJ. S. Chloride of Lime. 

Chloride op Lime is prepared by dissolving chalk or marble' 
in muriatic acid and evaporating to dryness, after which it may 
be fused. The anhydrous is a white, translucent solid, of a crys- 
talline texture, with an acrid, bitter, saline taste^ very soluble in 
water and alcohol. On account of its great affinity for water, it 
is used for drying gases, and for depriving various liquid sub- 
stances of water. Medicinally it is used only in solution, which 
is officinal. 

Liquor Calcii Chloridi. U. S. Solution of Chloride of Cal- 
cium is a solution of one part of chloride in two and a half parts 
of water. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small doses it increases the 
action of the secretory organs, and if long continued appears to 
act upon the lymphatic system, causing the reduction and ab- 
sorption of glandular and other tumors. It has also proved ser- 
viceable in scrofula and chronic cutaneous diseases. Dose, 30 
drops to f5i, given in milk or sweetened' water, and repeated 
three times a day. 

BARII CHLORIDTJM. TJ. S. Chloride of Barium. 

This salt is prepared by dissolving carbonate of baryta in 
dilute muriatic acid, with a gentle heat, evaporating and crys- 
tallizing. It is a white, permanent salt, crystallizing in flat, 
four-sided tables, with a bitter, acrid taste, freely soluble in 
water. It is chiefly used in medicine in the form of the officinal 
solution. 

Liquor Barii Chloridii. U. S. Solution of Chloride of 
Barium is made by dissolving one part of chloride in three parts 
of water, and filtering the solution if necessary. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 241 

Medical TJs^es. In small closes (5 drops two or three times 
a day) it is tonic, alterative, and resolvent, and has been pro- 
posed as a remedy for scrofula, and in scrofulous diseases of the 
joints. In overdoses it is a power/ul irritant poison, causing vio- 
lent vomiting-, purging, and other dangerous symptoms. The 
best antidote is the sulphate of magnesia, which acts by convert- 
ing the poison into the insoluble and inert sulphate of baryta. 

The Iodide of Barium, prepared by dissolving carbonate of 
baryta in hydriodic acid, has been proposed as a remedy in scrofu- 
lous disease, in the dose of -^^ of a grain, twice daily. Exter- 
nally, it may be used in the form of ointment, containing twenty 
or thirty grains to the ounce of simple ointment. 

AMMONIA MFRIAS. TJ. S. Muriate of Ammonia. 

This salt, sometimes called hydrochlorate of ammonia, Hal 
ammoniac, or chloride of ammonium, is obtained by subliming a 
mixture of sulphate of ammonia and chloride of soda, when 
muriate of ammonia is sublimed, and sulphate of soda remains 
behind. NH^Cl. The sulphate is procured chiefly from the impure 
ammonia contained in gas liquor, in bone spirit, and in other 
secondary empyreumatie products, by treating them with sul- 
phuric acid. 

Properties. It is generally found in white, translucent cakes, 
convex on one side and concave on the other ; it has no odor, but 
has a pungent, saline taste. For medicinal use it is reduced by 
dissolving, evaporating, and granulating at a moderate heat. It 
is very soluble in water, producing great cold during the solution. 

Medical Uses. This salt is extensively employed by German 
practitioners as an alterative and resolvent. It is by some sup- 
posed to resemble mercury in its action on the system, and is 
recommended in cases w^iere that medicine is inadmissible. It 
is much used as a stimulating alterative in catarrhs, in mucous 
fevers, as soon as the acute inflammatory symptoms have sub- 
sided, in chronic rheumatism, and in passive dropsies. It has 
also been used in eruptive fevers, especially in measles when the 
eruption is imperfect. Externally, it is used in solution as a 
refrigerant lotion in contusions, as an ingredient in discutient 

16 



242 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

lotions, and as a wash in some skin diseases attended with a 
troublesome itching. Dose, 5 to 30 grains, given in sweetened 
water or mucilage. 



POTASS^ CHLORAS. U.S. Chlorate of Potassa. 

This salt may be obtained by the reaction between solutions 
of chloride of potassium and hypochlorite of lime by the aid of 
heat. It may also be procured by saturating with chlorine a 
mixture of equal parts of carbonate of potassa and hydrate of 
lime in solution, when the carbonic acid unites with the lime, 
leaving the chloride of potassium and chlorate of potassa in solu- 
tion. The chlorate crystallizes when the solution cools, leaving 
the chloride of potassium in solution. Composition, KOjClO^. 

Properties. It is a white, anhydrous salt, crystallizing in 
rhomboidal plates, inodorous, and of a cooling, saline taste. It is 
soluble in sixteen parts of cold water, and in two and a half of boil- 
ing water. It is permanent in the air ; but exposed to a red heat 
it gives out oxygen, and is converted into chloride of potassium. 

Iledical Uses. Chlorate of potassa was introduced into medi- 
cine on the supposition that it might prove useful in affording 
oxygen to the system in certain putrid and malignant diseases, 
and of late years has been used in the treatment of a great variety 
of diseases. In scarlet fever, in the advanced stages of typhus, 
and in all diseases in which there is a depraved condition of the 
blood, it proves useful. In scarlet fever particulai'ly, 5i dissolved 
in a pint of water, as a daily drink, appears to exercise a favor- 
able influence overtbe general character of the disease. In diph- 
theria, in conjunction with the tincture of chloride of iron, it often 
proves successful. In all forms of sore-mouth, and in mercurial 
salivation in particular, it is a remedy of undoubted efficacy, both 
as a wash and an internal remedy. Dose, 5 to 30 grains. When 
used as a wash, from 5i to ^ss may be dissolved in a pint of 
water. 



GENERAL REMEDIES.— ALTERATIVES. 243 

SODiE SULPIIIS. U. S. Sulphite of Soda. 

This salt may be obtained by passing a stream of sulphurous 
acid gas into a solution of carbonate of soda and evaporating out 
of contact with the air. The sulj)hurous acid unites with the soda, 
setting free carbonic acid. Composition, NaOjSO^+SHO. 

Properties. It is in the form of white, prismatic crystals, 
soluble in four parts of cold and in less than one of boiling water. 
It has a bitterish, sulphurous taste, and a feeble alkaline reaction. 

Medical Uses. The sulphites have recently been introduced 
into medicine in consequence of their powers in destroying those 
microscopic fungi which sometimes infect the system and are the 
cause of troublesome, if not serious, disease. Their efficacy is no 
doubt due to the ease with which they part with their sulphurous 
acid, which is known to be very destructive to the lower forms of 
organic life, and capable of arresting fermentation. The sulphite 
of soda has been used with benefit in cases of dyspepsia with 
vomiting of a yeasty fluid containing sarcina ventriculi. In 
pygemia, and all cases of fever which depend upon purulent ab- 
sorption, such as hospital fever, etc., it proves useful. In zymotic 
or catalytic diseases, depending upon the presence of an organic 
poison circulating in the system and acting as a ferment, it 
seems to possess the property of neutralizing this action and 
arresting the process of fermentation. In miasmatic fevers, after 
the administration of quinine, it may be given to prevent their 
return, and it has been recommended as a prophylactic in mala- 
rious districts. In scarlet fever it is a remedy of much power in 
controlling the symptoms of the developed disease by destroying 
and eliminating the poison, and also as a prophylactic. As a 
remedy in secondary syphilis, and as a wash in syphilitic ulcera- 
tions of the tongue and throat, it has been used with success. 
In all suppurations, sloughings, and ulcerations the solution is 
useful in soothing pain, removing fetid odors, and exciting healthy 
action. Dose, 30 to 60 grains, three times a day. 

SoD^ Hyposulphis, Hyposulphite of Soda, though not offi- 
cinal, may be substituted for the sulphite. It is obtained by 
boiling a solution of the sulphite with sulphur, by which another 
equivalent of this element is taken up, so as to form the hyposul- 



244 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

phite ; the solution is then evaporated to crystallization. NaO 
SjO^+SHO. It is in the form of large, colorless, rhombic prisms, 
of a mild, saline, sulphurous taste, soluble in water, but insoluble 
in alcohol. It possesses the same properties and may be used 
for the same purposes as the sulphite, and in the same doses. 

The Sulphite of Magnesia and the Sulphite of Lime are some- 
times used, and produce analogous effects. 

POTASSJS PERMANGANAS. U. S. Permanganate of 

Fotassa. 

This salt may be made by mixing equal parts of finely-powdered 
deutoxide of manganese and chlorate of potassa with rather more 
than an equal weight of caustic potassa dissolved in water, evapo- 
rating to dryness, and exposing to a temperature just short of 
redness. In this process chlorate of potassa yields oxygen to the 
binoxide of manganese, converting it into permanganic acid, 
which unites with the potassa to form the salt. KO.Mn^O^. 

Properties. It is in the form of slender, prismatic crystals, of 
a dark-purple color, inodorous, and with a sweetish, astringent 
taste. It is soluble in water ; and a very minute portion of the 
salt gives the solution a beautiful lilac color. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This salt was introduced to the 
notice of the profession in 1S5Y, as a disinfectant. In conse- 
quence of the facility with which it parts with oxygen, it is one of 
the most powerful oxidizing agents known, and hence has 
gained a great reputation in the treatment of fetid and gangren- 
ous ulcers, and wounds of all kinds. It is also used in fetid 
discharges from the mucous membranes, in ozsena, otorrhoea, and 
similar affections. In this country it has been largely employed 
in hospital gangrene, and as a gargle in diphtheria. More recently 
it has been suggested as an internal remedy, in doses of from ^ 
to 1 grain, repeated two or three times a day, in cases of poisoned 
blood, as p3^8emia, scarlatina, diphtheria, etc., and is supposed to 
act by yielding nascent oxygen to the blood. As an application 
to mucous surfaces, from two to four grains may be dissolved in an 
ounce of water ; as an external wash, half an ounce may be used 
to a pint of water. 



LOCAL REMEDIES. 



LOCAL REMEDIES AFFECTING FUNCTIONS. 

These are remedies which affect the functions of the organs 
and indirectly impress the entire system. They are also called 
EvACUANTS, or EccRiTics, as they stimulate particular organs 
and tend in a direct manner to increase secretion or evacuation. 
Headland calls them Eliminatives, and defines them as "medi- 
cines which act by passing out of the blood through the glands, 
which they excite to the performance of their functions." 

EMETICS. 

Emetics are agents which excite vomiting, independently of 
the stimulus of quantity or of any nauseou^ odor, but by some 
peculiar or specific operation. They may be divided into direct, 
or irritant, emetics, which produce vomiting by an immediate im- 
pression on the stomach, exciting a reflex nervous action ; and 
indirect, or specific, emetics, which enter the circulation and affect 
the organs concerned through the medium of the nervous 
system. 

The act of vofniting is a very complex operation, and different 
opinions have been held as to the parts concerned in effecting it. 
Those most commonly received are that the stomach, the dia- 
phragm, and the abdominal muscles act conjointly with the ner- 
vous arrangement controlling them. The mechanism of vomiting 
may be thus explained : the stomach contracts, closing the py- 
loric orifice and relaxing the cardiac orifice, so that it tends to 
expel its contents in the wrong direction. A large set of distant 
muscles are thrown into sudden action by means of nervous 

(245) 



246 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

communication, a quick, deep breath fills the lungs with air, and 
the glottis being spasmodically closed prevents expiration, so that 
the diaphragm cannot be pushed upward. Then the abdominal 
muscles contract, and, being unable to act on the diaphrag^n, press 
on the stomach, emptying it forcibly of its contents. These 
muscular movements are the mere mechanical agency by which 
vomiting is produced : it is dependent upon the nervous system. 
That the influence of the nervous system is indispensably neces- 
sary for producing vomiting is evident from the fact that in cases 
where the energy of the brain is suspended, as in profound 
intoxication, or coma from narcotic poisoning, it is impossible to 
produce emesis till this is restored. Again, when the brain is 
only partially influenced, as by incipient intoxication, by the mo- 
tions of swinging, or by slight blows on the head, vomiting is 
excited *by the slightest causes. Besides, if the par vagum on 
both sides be divided, the stomach will not act. 

A short time after an emetic is taken, an uneasy sensation, 
termed nausea, is experienced, which gradually increases till 
vomiting ensues. At first, while the nausea is present, the pulse 
becomes small and feeble, the face and lips grow cold, and a dis- 
tressing sensation of faintness and coldness of the whole system 
is experienced. As soon as vomiting ensues, these phenomena 
are altered ; the face becomes flushed, the pulse quicker and 
stronger, ana the temperature of the body increases. As soon 
as the vomiting ceases, the system is left in a state of languor, 
accompanied with moisture on the surface and a disposition to 
sleep. The intensity and duration of these stages have no 
relation with each other, but vary with the article used. 

Emetics differ in their action, some acting with great rapidity, 
others more slowly ; some producing great nausea, followed by 
depression, others scarcely any : hence the remedy should be 
selected according to the indication to be fulfilled. Their habit- 
ual use is highly injurious, rendering the stomach so irritable 
that ordinary diet cannot be retained. 

From this brief analysis it is evident that emetics are remedies 
of great importance. In their primary action they impress the 
stomach; during the act of vomiting they agitate and convulse 
the whole system ; while by their remote operation they affect 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— EMETICS. 24t 

almost every organ and tissue in the body. Tliey may be em- 
ployed to remove from the stomach crude indigestible matters or 
poisonous substances ; to aiTect the liver and other abdominal 
viscera by mechanical pressure ; to excite nausea, and thus de- 
press the vascular and nervous systems ; to promote absorption, 
and to produce muscular relaxation. When the object is simply 
to evacuate the stomach, we should choose those which act 
promptly and quickly, without any nauseating tendency ; but, 
on the other hand, when We wish to influence other organs 
through their secondary effects, those of an opposite tendency 
may be resorted to. One of the most important uses of emetics 
is to aid expectoration, when the air-passages are gorged with 
mucus, and the breathing and pulmonary circulation are much 
oppressed. In these cases they often afford speedy and complete 
relief. They are contraindicated when general plethora exists, 
or there is a tendency to cerebral disease ; in diseases of the 
heart and large vessels ; in inflammation of the stomach or 
neighboring viscera ; in great debility ; in hernia ; and in the 
advanced stages of pregnancy. Age, also, greatly modifies the 
effects of emetics. In children the mechanical act is easily per- 
formed, and is unattended with danger ; while in advanced age 
it often produces great and even dangerous prostration. Emet- 
ics are generally administered by the stomach ; though some- 
times they can be made to operate through the skin. Injection 
into the veins is only justifiable in the most extreme circum- 
stances, as when a patient is choking from food in the oesophagus. 
When administered internally, their operation may be promoted 
by the free use of diluents, or by titillation of the fauces. 
Emetics are frequently combined, either to increase their effi- 
ciency by securing the effects of different agents, or to modify the 
effects of one remedy by the other. Thus, the powerful action 
of antimony is modified by the prompt and certain effects of ipe- 
cacuanha, while its depressing effects are moderated by squill. 
Emetics are divided into those of mineral and those of vegetable 
origin. 

The mineral substances chiefly employed as emetics are tar- 
tar emetic, and the sulphates of zinc and copper, which have 
been fully described as possessing other properties. The tartar 



248 MATERIA MEDIC4 AND THERAPEUTICS. 

emetic is slow in operating, producing ranch nausea, and makes 
a strong impression on the general system, occasioning great re- 
laxation and prostration. It is chiefly used as an emetic for its 
secondary effects. The sulphates of zinc and copper excite 
speedy vomiting, without occasioning much nausea or depression, 
and are adapted to those cases where the object is simply to 
evacuate the stomach without producing any constitutional 
effect, as in narcotic poisoning. Many other mineral substances 
possess emetic properties, but are never used for this purpose 
expressly. 

IPECACUANHA. U. S. Ipecacuanha. 

The ROOT of Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, a small, shrubby plant, 
with perennial root, native of Brazil. 

Properties. The roots are of a grayish or light-brown color, 
variously contorted, about the thickness of a quill, with numer- 
ous annular rugse separated by nearly parallel grooves, giving the 
whole a knotted appearance. Hence the term annulated applied 
to the genuine root. The cortical portion, constituting about 
one-fifth of the root, is horny and brittle, breaking with a resin- 
ous fracture, and is the active part : the woody fibre is inert. 
The powder is of a light-yellowish color, has a peculiar, nauseous 
odor, and a slightly bitter, somewhat acrid taste, and yields its 
virtues to water and alcohol. There are three varieties of ipe- 
cacuanha root, distinguished by the color of the epidermis into 
brown, red, and gray, but all derived from the same plant, 
and essentially the same in composition and properties, the varie- 
ties of color being owing to difference in the age of the root, the 
nature of the soil, and the mode of preparing it. Its active 
principle is eraetia, besides which it contains a variable propor- 
tion of starch, fatty matter, gum, and traces of gallic acid. 
Emetia is a whitish, inodorous, slightly bitter principle, sparingly 
soluble in water and ether, soluble in alcohol, and forms crystal- 
lizable salts with acids. 

lledtcal Properties and Uses. In large doses, ipecacuanha is a 
mild, safe, and certain emetic ; in smaller doses, diaphoretic and 
expectorant ; in still smaller doses, alterative and tonic. As an 



LOCAL REirEDIES.— EMETICS. 249 

emetic, it may be resorted to whenever it is desirable not merely 
to evacuate the stomach, but to make an impression on and pro- 
mote secretion from the mucous tissue without producing any 
great prostration or relaxation, and is to be preferred when 
vomiting is requisite in delicate persons and in children. In 
diseases of the lungs and bronchial tubes it may be used with 
benefit in such doses as will keep up a slight degree of nausea 
and promote secretion from the inflamed membrane, while in the 
advanced stages it proves advantageous by expelling the secre- 
tion which is oppressing the lungs and interfering with the func- 
tion of respiration. In some forms of dyspepsia, where the 
liver appears torpid and inactive, in small and long-continued 
doses it may be advantageously combined with the tonic treat- 
ment. In dysentery, ipecacuanha in large doses was formerly 
much used, and has recently been again resorted to with success; 
and in many other diseases it appears to exert a powerful in- 
fluence. 

Administi^ation. Dose as an emetic, 20 grains or more, re- 
peated every twenty minutes if necessary ; as an expectorant or 
diaphoretic, ^ to 2 grains, repeated ; and as an alterative tonic, ^ 
grain. The dose of emetia is about ;j of a grain ; but it must 
be used with caution, as in overdoses it causes dangerous and 
even fatal consequences. Some persons, from idiosyncrasy, can- 
not take it, and in some the mere odor produces distressing 
symptoms. 

ExTRACTUM Ipecacuanha Fluidum. U. S. The Fluid Ex- 
tract of Ipecacuanha is prepared with acetic acid, alcohol, and 
water, and may be used with expectorant or diaphoretic mix- 
tures. A fluidounce represents an ounce of the root. 

Syrupus Ipecacuanha. U. S. Syrup of Ipecacuanha is pre- 
pared by mixing one ounce of the fluid extract with fifteen 
ounces of syrup. One ounce contains the virtues of thirty 
grains of the root. It is chiefly applicable to the cases of chil- 
dren. Dose as an emetic, half a drachm to a drachm ; as an ex- 
pectorant, 5 to 10 drops ; for adults, more. 

ViNUM Ipecacuanha. U. S. Wine of Ipecacuanha is made 
by macerating a troyounce of ipecacuanha in a pint of sherry 
wine. It possesses all the properties of the root, and may be 



250 3IATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

substituted for it, when it is desirable to give the medicine in the 
liquid form. Dose as an emetic, §ss ; as an expectorant or 
diaphoretic, 10 to 30 drops. 

Troohisci Ipecacuanha. IT. S. Prepared by rubbing ipecacu- 
anha in fine powder, arrow-root, and sugar, with mucilage of 
tragacanth. Each lozenge contains about one-quarter of a grain 
of ipecacuanha. They are useful expectorants in catarrhal com- 
plaints. 

Besides the genuine root, there are two non-officinal ipecac- 
uanhas found in the market, — the striated or Mack ipecacuanha, 
the product of Fsychotria emetica, a small shrub growing in 
Peru and other parts of South America, and the undulated ipe- 
cacuanha, obtained from Richardsonia scabi^a, a native of the 
Brazils. These roots are distinguished from the genuine by 
being destitute of rings, and containing a much larger proportion 
of woody fibre, and less of the active principle emetia. 

SANGUINARIA. U. S. Bloodroot. 

The RHIZOME of Sanguinaria Canadensis, Bloodroot or Puc- 
coon, a small herbaceous perennial plant, growing abundantly 
throughout the United States. 

Properties. The fresh root is truncated, two or three inches 
in length and half an inch in diameter, fleshy and succulent, and 
abounding in a red, viscid juice, from which it has derived the 
name of bloodroot. When dried, it is in flattened, wrinkled 
pieces, with radical fibres attached, externally of a reddish-brown 
color, breaking with a short fracture, and presenting an orange- 
red color within. It has a peculiar feebly narcotic odor, a bit- 
terish, acrid taste, and yields its color and virtues to water and 
alcohol. It contains a peculiar principle, sanguinarina, a pearly- 
white substance, of an acrid taste, sparingly soluble in water, 
soluble in alcohol and ether, and forming soluble salts with acids. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Bloodroot is an acrid emetic, 
and in large doses anacro-narcotic poison. In moderate doses it 
is a stimulating expectorant, and may be employed in asthenic 
pulmonary affections. Locally it acts as an irritant, and to fun- 
gous surfaces as an escharotic. The powder is sometimes used 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— E3IETICS. 251 

as an errhine. Dose as an emetic, 5 to 15 grains ; as an expecto- 
rant, 1 to 2 grains. 

TiNCTURA Sanquinari^. U. S. Tincture of Sanguinaria is 
prepared by adding four troyounces of sanguinaria to two pints 
of diluted alcohol. Dose as an emetic, f5i to fjij- It is much 
more used as an addition to stimulating cough mixtures, in doses 
of from 30 to 60 drops. 

AcETUM SANGUiNARiiE. TJ. S. Vinegar of Bloodroot, prepared 
by macerating four troyounces of sanguinaria in two pints of 
diluted acetic acid, is an efficient preparation, and may be used fo; 
the same purposes as the powdered root. Dose, same as the 
tincture. As a local application it has been used in obstinate 
skin diseases, and as a gargle in the sore-throat of scarlatina. 

LOBELIA. U. S. Lobelia. 

The HERB of Lobelia inflata, commonly known as Indian 
tobacco, or emetic weed, an annual herbaceous plant, very common 
throughout the United States. 

Properties. The plant should be gathered in August, when 
the capsules are full and the leaves are just beginning to fade. 
All parts of it are active, but the leaves and capsules are to be 
preferred. These have an unpleasant odor, and an acrid, nauseous 
taste, at first faint, but soon becoming excessive. It yields its 
virtues to water and alcohol ; but heat destroys its active qualities. 
The powder is of a greenish color. It contains a volatile oil, a 
peculiar acid, lobelic acid, and a peculiar principle, lobelina, 
analogous to nicotina, upon which its active properties are sup- 
posed to depend. 

3Iedical Properties and Uses. In small doses it acts as a 
nauseating expectorant and sedative diaphoretic ; in large doses, 
as an emetic, producing great prostration, like tobacco ; while in 
larger doses its effects are those of an active acro-narcotic poison. 
As an emetic it is too violent and dangerous, and is seldom re- 
sorted to except in extreme cases. Its principal employment is 
as an antispasmodic in asthma, hay fever, and other spasmodic 
diseases of the pulmonary organs. Dose as an emetic, from 5 to 
20 grains ; as an antispasmodic or expectorant, 1 to 3 grains. 



252 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

TiNCTURA LoBELiiE. IT. S. Tmcture of Lobelia (prepared by- 
adding four troyounces of lobelia to two pints of diluted alcohol) 
possesses the emetic and other properties of the medicine. It is 
the best form of administering it in asthmatic attacks. The dose 
as an emetic is about f §ss ; as a nauseating sedative, f 5i, repeated 
until its effects are experienced. 

AcETUM Lobelia U S. Vinegar of Lobelia (prepared by 
macerating four troyounces of lobelia in two pints of diluted ace- 
tic acid) is used for the same purposes and may be given in the 
same doses as the tincture. 

GILLENIA. U. S. Gillenia. 

The ROOT of Gillenia trifoliata and G. stipulacea, known as 
Indian physic, indigenous, perennial plants, the former growing 
east, the latter west, of the Alleghany Mountains. 

Properties. The root, as found in the shops, is of a reddish- 
brown color, much wrinkled, with occasional transverse fissures, 
and composed of an easily separable, cortical portion and an 
internal ligneous cord. It has a feeble odor, and a bitter, nau- 
seous taste. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Gillenia is a mild and efficient 
emetic, but less powerful than ipecacuanha in its action, and in 
small doses thought to be tonic. Dose of the powdered root, 30 
grains, repeated at intervals of twenty minutes till it vomits ; as 
a tonic, 2 or 3 grains. 

Euphorbia Ipecacuanha. U. S. Secondary. The root of 
Euphorbia Ipecacuanha, the Ipecacuanha spurge, or American 
ipecacuanha, a plant growing in many parts of the United States. 
The dried root is light and brittle, of a grayish color externally, 
white within, inodorous, and of a somewhat sweet, not unpleas- 
ant taste. In doses of from 10 to 15 grains the powdered root is 
emetic, but is apt to operate on the bowels ; and in overdoses it 
proves extremely irritant. 

Euphorbia Corollata. U. S. Secondary. This plant, called 
Large-flowering Spurge, and sometimes milk-weed, is also indi- 
genous. The root possesses properties similar to the above, but 
is more active. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— CATHARTICS. 253 

OATHAETIOS. 

Cathartics, or Purgatives, are medicines which increase the 
number or quantit}^ of the evacuations from the intestines, or 
which, when given in a certain close, cause purging. 

They produce their effects in various ways : either by acting 
on the muscular coat of the intestines, increasing their peristaltic 
action ; by increasing the secretion from the mucous membrane, 
and the exhalation of serous liquid; or by occasioning an in- 
creased flow of bile or pancreatic secretion. Some act in one of 
these ways, and some combine two or more modes of action. 

The different agents belonging to this class act on different 
portions of the alimentary canal, some affecting the upper portion 
more particularly, some the lower, and others operating on all 
parts equally. This difference may be partly ascribed to the 
different degree of solubility of the medicine, but is chiefly owing 
to the peculiar susceptibilities of different portions of the bowels. 

The character of the evacuation varies according to the ca- 
thartic used, as regards quantity, consistence, and composition. 
Those acting on the large intestines produce consistent fecal 
evacuations ; those acting on the whole extent of the canal occa- 
sion liquid, but still feculent, stools ; those which act by increas- 
ing serous exhalation produce thin, watery discharges ; while 
those acting on the liver cause bilious stools. 

Cathartics differ greatly in power, and are divided into Laxa- 
tives, which act mildly, merely producing looseness without 
causing irritation or affecting the general system ; Purgatives, 
which act with greater energy, but not violent in their local 
action, and devoid of any stimulant action on the system ; and 
Drastics, characterized by the property of irritating the mucous 
membrane, and in overdoses causing serious consequences. The 
term Hydragogue has been applied to those which produce 
copious watery stools. 

They are employed in disease to fulfill various indications. 
1. To simply unload the intestinal canal and to remove indigest- 
ible matters and unhealthy secretions. 2. To promote the secre- 
tion of the liver, and thus relieve congestion of this organ, and of 
the portal system generally. 3. To keep up a determination of 



254 MATERTA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

fluids to the intestines, and thus relieve other parts of the system 
on the principle of revulsion or counter-irritation. They prove 
peculiarly useful in this way in diseases of the brain and remote 
organs. 4. To directly deplete the blood-vessels by increasing 
the action of the intestinal exhalants. Hence their use in almost 
all inflammations and congestions, in plethora, and in febrile 
complaints. 5. To promote absorption by diminishing the quan- 
tity of the circulating fluid, thus proving useful in dropsy. 6. 
To act on contiguous viscera in the pelvis by the stimulating in- 
fluence which they exert on the pelvic vessels. 

The more active cathartics are contraindicated in inflammatory 
conditions of the intestinal canal, in peritonitis, in pregnancy, in 
passive dropsies, particularly in old persons, and in general de- 
bility. 

Their action may be modified by combination. By mixing 
several drastics together, they become milder and less irritating, 
without losing any of their purgative power. Their tendency 
to gripe, and their nauseating effects, are lessened by combin- 
ing them with aromatics; while the bitter tonics promote their 
operation. 

They operate most favorably when administered on an empty 
stomach, and their action is diminished during sleep, and in- 
creased by exercise : hence, when a prompt and powerful effect 
is required, they should be given in the morning before breakfast; 
but when a mild and slow action is necessary, the medicine 
should be given at bedtime. They may often be advanta- 
geously administered in the form of enema, and form a valuable 
resource either where the patient is unable to swallow or where 
it is of importance speedily to unload the lower intestines. 

Hypercatharsis may be checked by from five to fifteen drops 
of laudanum, or by an equivalent quantity of some other prepa- 
ration of opium, given by the mouth, or administered by the 
rectum. 

Several articles of diet are useful as laxatives in cases of ha- 
bitual constipation, as bran, corn-meal, molasses, and saccharine 
and acidulous fruits. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— VEGETABLE CATHARTICS. 255 

VEGETABLE CATHARTICS. 

TAMARINDFS. U. S. Tamarind. 

The preserved fruit of the Tamarindus Indica, a large tree, 
native of the East and West Indies. The pulp of the fittit eon- 
tains citric, malic, and tartaric acids, with bitartrate of potash. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Laxative and refrigerant. In- 
fused in water, forms a grateful beverage in febrile diseases, and 
sometimes used in connection with other mild cathartics. 

MANNA. TJ. S. Manna. 

The CONCRETE JUICE of Fraxinus Ornus and of Fraxinus 
rotundifolia, 3Ianna ash, small trees, growing in the south of 
Italy, and in Sicily. The manna is obtained by incisions, and 
differs according to the season in which collected. There are 
three varieties in commerce. 

1. Flake manna, the purest, collected during the hot and dry 
season, is in pieces of irregular size and shape, of a white or yel- 
lowish-white color, porous and friable, with a slight peculiar 
odor, somewhat like that of honey, and a sweet taste, followed 
by acridity. 

2. Common manna, or manna in sorts, collected later in the 
season, is in smaller pieces, softer, more viscid, and darker than 
the flake manna. 

3. Fat manna, an inferior variety, is in soft, viscid fragments, 
of a yellowish-brown color, and full of impurities. 

Manna is soluble in water and alcohol. It contains mannife, 
a white, inodorous, crystalline principle, bearing considerable re- 
semblance to sugar, from which it differs in not undergoing the 
vinous fermentation. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is a gentle laxative, well 
adapted for children and delicate persons. It is generally used 
in conjunction with senna to cover its nauseous taste. Dose for 
an adult, 1 or 2 ounces ; for children, 1 to 4 drachms, according 
to the aa:e. Given in solution. 



256 3IATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

CASSIA FISTULA. TJ. S. Purging Cassia. 

The FRUIT of Cassia Fistula, a large tree, native of Egypt 
and India, but extensively diffused through all tropical countries. 

Characters. The fruit is a dark-brown, cylindrical, woody 
pod, a foot or more in length, straight or slightly curved, divided 
by transverse partitions into cells, each containing an oval, 
shining seed, imbedded in a soft, black pulp. This pulp is the 
part used, and has a slight nauseous odor, with a sweet, muci- 
laginous taste. 

Medical Properties and Uses. A mild, agreeable laxative. 
Dose, 5i to ^i. 

OLEUM OLIYJG. U. S. Olive Oil. 

A fixed oil, obtained by expression from the fruit of Olea Eu- 
ropsea, or olive-tree, a small tree flourishing in all the countries 
bordering on the Mediterranean. 

Properties. An unctuous liquid, of a pale-yellowish or green- 
ish color, with scarcely any smell, and a bland, sweetish taste, 
becoming rancid on exposure. Much liable to adulteration with 
the cheaper fixed oils. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is nutritious, and mildly lax- 
ative. Extensively used in pharmacy as a, constituent of lini- 
ments, cerates, and plasters. 

OLEUM RICINI. U. S. Castor Oil. 

The fixed oil obtained from the seeds of Ricinus comrminis, 
or palma Christi, an annual plant, native of India, but exten- 
sively cultivated in all parts of the world. The seeds are oval, 
about the size of a bean, of a pale-gray color, marked with yel- 
lowish-brown spots and stripes. They contain, besides the oil, 
an acrid resinous principle. The oil is obtained either by ex- 
pression, by decoction, or through the agency of alcohol, and 
varies in properties according to the mode of preparation. The 
expressed, called cold drawn, is the best, and generally used in 
this country. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— VEGETABLE CATHARTICS. 25T 

Properties. Castor oil is a thick, viscid fluid, with a mild, 
somewhat nauseous taste, colorless when pure, but generally of 
a light-straw color, becoming thick and rancid on exposure. It 
is soluble in alcohol and ether. It is often adulterated with more 
common oils, which may be detected by its solubility in alcohol. 

Medical Properties and Uses. A mild and efficient laxative, 
operating without griping, and well adapted to all cases where 
the object is to evacuate the bowels without causing any irrita- 
tion. Also well suited for children. Dose for adults,, f^ss to 
f^i; for children, f5i to f^ss. 

The seeds are acrid-cathartic, and, in large doses, an acro- 
narcotic poison. 

RHEUM. U. S. Phubarb. 

The ROOT of Rheum palmatum and of other species of Pheum, 
perennial herbaceous plants, natives of the interior of Asia, and 
cultivated to a limited extent in Europe. Great difficulty has 
been experienced in ascertaining the true source of Asiatic rhu- 
barb; but most writers attribute it to the P. palmatum. The 
root is dug up in the spring, deprived of its cortical portion, 
cut into pieces, and hung up and dried in the sun or by the aid of 
artificial heat. There are three principal varieties in commerce, 
— the Chinese, Turkey or Russian, and European. 

Chinese or East India rhubarb, the most common variety, is 
brought from Canton, and is in cylindrical or roundish pieces, of 
a dirty bi'ownish-yellow color, a close and compact texture, a 
ragged fracture, presenting a variegated appearance and perfo- 
rated with small holes. It has a peculiar, aromatic odor, and a 
bitter, astringent taste. When chewed, it feels gritty and stains 
the saliva yellow. It affords a yellowish or reddish-brown 
powder. 

Pussia or Turkey rhubarb, the best, comes from Tartary, 
and is exported through St. Petersburg. It is in irregular and 
somewhat angular pieces, having a cleaner and fresher appear- 
ance than the Chinese, less compact and heavy, of a more lively 
color, and perforated with holes made for the purposes of in- 
spection. The powder is of a bright-yellow color. 

11 



258 MATERIA MEDIGA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

European rhubarb, the inferior variety, is in larger pieces, 
more woody in texture, of a reddish or brownish-yellow color, 
and distinguished from the preceding varieties by its more dis- 
agreeable odor, its astringent and mucilaginous taste, and its 
want of grittiness. 

Rhubarb contains rhabarbaric acid, a peculiar crystalline 
principle, several resins, a bitter principle, astringent matter, 
and oxalate of lime. It impaVts all its activity to water and 
alcohol. 

lledical Properties and Uses. In small doses, laxative, with 
astringent tonic properties, its operation being confined wholly 
to the digestive organs. In larger doses, a slow and mild purga- 
tive, increasing the peristaltic motion of the intestines. Admi- 
rably adapted to the constipation of dyspepsia and to the diar- 
rhoeas of children. Dose, as a stomachic and laxative, from 5 to 
10 grains; as a purgative, from 20 to 30 grains. 

Infusum Rhei. U. S. Infusio7i of Ehubarb. (5ij to half a pint 
of boiling water.) Dose, fsi to f|ij. 

TiNCTURA Rhei. U. S. Tincture of Rhubarb. (§iij to a pint 
of diluted alcohol with ^ss of cardamom.) Useful where a con- 
joint stimulant and laxative effect is wanted. Dose, f3i to f^ss. 

TiNCTURA Rhei et Senn^. U. S. Tincture of Ehubarb and 
Senna. Warner^s Gout Cordial contains, in addition to rhubarb 
and senna, other ingredients, to give it color, improve its flavor, 
and render it more acceptable to the stomach. Useful as a pur- 
gative in persons of a gouty habit and accustomed to the use of 
alcoholic drinks. Dose, f ^ss. 

YiNUM Rhei. U. S. Wine of Ehubarb is prepared by digest- 
ing rhubarb and canella in sherry wine. A warm cordial laxa- 
tive. Dose, f 5i to f ^ss. 

Syrupus Rhei. U. S. Syrup of Rhubarb. (One and a half 
parts fluid extract rhubarb to fourteen and a half parts syrup.) 
Dose, 5i for children. 

Syrupus Rhei Aromaticus. U. S, Sjnced Syrup of Ehubarb 
differs from the above in containing, besides the rhubarb, "cloves, 
cinnamon, and nutmeg. It is a warm stomachic laxative and 
cordial, well adapted for the bowel complaints of infants, so com- 
mon in the summer season. Dose, 5i ^ov an infant. 



LOCAL REMEDIES— VEGETABLE CATUARTICS. 259 

ExTRACTUM RiiEi Alcoholtcum. U. S. AlcolioUc Extract of 
Rhubarb. (Prepared by evaporating a strong tincture.) Dose, 
5 to 30 grains. 

ExTRACTUM Rhei Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of Rhubarb. 
(Made with alcohol, and containing sugar.) A fluidrachm con- 
tains the virtues of a drachm of the root. 

Pilule Rhei. U. S. Pills of Rhubarb. (Prepared by mix- 
iog three parts of rhubarb and one of soap.) Each pill contains 
three grains of the root. 

Pilule Rhei Composite. U. S. Compound Pills of Rhubarb 
contain rhubarb, aloes, and myrrh, with a little oil of pepper- 
mint, and form a warm tonic laxative, useful in costiveness with 
debility of the stomach. Dose, from 10 to 20 grains of the mass. 

PuLVis Rhei Compositus. U. S. Compound Powder of Rhu- 
barb. Composed of rhubarb, magnesia, and ginger. A good 
antacid laxative. Dose, 5i to 5ij- 

SENNA. U. S. Senna. 

The leaflets of Cassia acutifolia, of Cassia obovata, and of 
Cassia elongata, small trees or shrubs growing in Arabia, Upper 
Egypt, and various parts of Africa. There are four varieties in 
commerce, — the Alexandria, Tripoli, India, and Mecca senna. 

Alexandria senna is gathered in the interior of Egypt and 
shipped from Alexandria, and consists of the leaflets of C. acuti- 
folia, sometimes mixed with those of C. obovata. They are 
less than an inch in length, ovate, and pointed at the end, well 
marked with lateral nerves and veins, very brittle, and of a gray- 
ish-green color. They are often adulterated with the leaves of 
Cynanchum olesefolium, commonly called argel, distinguished by 
their greater length, by the absence of lateral nerves, and their 
lighter color. 

Tripoli senna, brought from Tripoli, consists of leaflets 
shorter, less acute, generally broken up, and is usually less 
esteemed than the Alexandrian. 

India senna, afforded by the C. elongata, and brought from 
India, is distinguished by the greater length and oblong shape 
of the leaflets. An elegant variety of India senna, known as 



260 MATERIA 31 E Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Tinnevelly senna, is exported from Madras, and consists of un- 
broken leaflets, from one to two inches in length, half an inch in 
breadth, and of a fine green color. 

Ifecca senna, lately introduced, consists of the leaflets, pods, 
stems, and petioles of a single variety of senna, imported from 
Arabia, and is characterized by the large size of the leaflets. 

Senna has a faint and sickly odor, with a slightly bitter and 
nauseous taste, and affords a greenish powder. Water and 
alcohol extract its virtues. It contains a peculiar uncrystal- 
lizable principle, called caihartin, coloring matter, extractive, etc. 

Bledical Properties and Uses. It is a sure and safe purgative, 
acting chiefly on the small intestines, increasing their mucous 
secretion as well as their peristaltic action, and holding a middle 
place between the mild laxatives and drastic cathartics. It is 
seldom used alone, on account of its nauseating and griping tend- 
ency, which may be obviated by combining it with aromatics and 
saline purgatives. It is well adapted to cases requiring a prompt 
and copious evacuation of the bowels with a moderate stimulus 
to the abdominal and pelvic viscera. Dose, in powder, from 5ss 
to 5ij. hut seldom prescribed. 

Infusum Senn^. U. S. Infusion of Senna. (A troyounce of 
senna in a pint of boiling water, with 60 grains of coriander.) 
Generally used in combination with one of the saline cathartics. 

Confectio Senn^. U. S. Confection of Senna. Lenitive 
Electuary, an excellent laxative, without unpleasant flavor, 
operating mildly, and well adapted to the costiveness of preg- 
nant women. 

ExTRACTUM Senn^ Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of Senna. 
(Prepared by evaporating a tincture of senna and adding sugar.) 
Dose, f5i to f^ss. 

CASSIA MARILANDICA. U. S. American Senna. 

The LEAVES of Cassia Marilandica, a tall, showy, herbaceous, 
perennial plant, common to the Southern and Western States, 

Proiierties. The leaves are smooth, of a pale-green color, 
from one to two inches long, a quarter of an inch broad, having 
the odor and taste of the forei^rn senna. 



i 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— VEGETABLE CATHARTICS. 2G1 

Medical Properties and Uses. Its action is similar to that of 
senna, but more feeble ; and it may be employed instead of it, 
in somewhat larger doses. 

JUGLANS. XJ. S. Butternut 

The INNER BARK of the root of Juglans cinerea, an American 
forest tree, commonly known as butternut, oilnut, and white-wal- 
nut tree. 

Properties. The dried bark is of a deep-brown color, has a 
fibrous texture, with a feeble odor, and a peculiar, somewhat 
acrid taste. 

Medical Properties and Uses. A mild cathartic, operating 
very much like rhubarb; used in decoction or extract. 

ExTRACTUM JuGLANDis. U. S. Extract of Butternut (pre- 
pared by evaporating a decoction of the root) is of a black color, 
sweetish odor, and a bitter, astringent taste. In doses of from 
10 to 30 grains it acts as a mild cathartic. 

ALOE. U. S. Aloes. 

The INSPISSATED JUICE of the leaves of Aloe Socotrina, Aloe 
spicata, Aloe vulgaris, and other species, perennial, herbaceous 
plants, growing in tropical countries. The aloes is obtained 
from the leaves by exudation, by expression, or by boiling. 
There are three principal varieties in commerce, — the Socotrine, 
Cape, and Barbadoes aloes, each derived from a peculiar source 
and characterized by peculiar properties. 

Aloe Socotrina. Socotrine Aloes, from A. Socotrina, pro- 
duced in the island of Socotra, is the best variety, when genuine. 
It is of a reddish-brown color, becoming dark on exposure ; it 
has a smooth, shining fracture with translucent edges, a bitter 
taste, and a strong, fragrant odor. It yields a beautiful golden- 
yellow powdei". 

Aloe Capensis. Cape Aloes, also called Shining Aloes, from 
A. spicata and other species, imported from the Cape of Good 
Hope. Characterized by its deep brown-red color, shining resin- 
ous appearance, and glossy, resinous fracture. It yields a bright 
greenish-yellow powder. 



262 3IATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Aloes Barbadensis. Barbadoes Aloes, from A. vulgaris, is 
imported in large gourds from the West Indies. It is in dark- 
brown or liver-colored opaque masses, with a dull fracture, a 
disagreeable odor, and a bitter, nauseous taste. It yields a dull 
olive-yellow powder. 

Under the name of caballine or horse aloes, a very inferior 
kind is met with, of an opaque, almost black color, and a fetid, 
offensive odor, and mixed with impurities. 

All these varieties have an intensely bitter and tenacious taste, 
and yield their virtues to water and alcohol. Aloes contains a 
neutral crystalline principle, aloin (inodorous and intensely 
bitter, readily soluble in water, but nearly insoluble in alcohol 
and ether), a resinous matter, and an acid, by some thought to be 
gallic. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small doses, tonic to the 
alimentary canal, pi'omoting the secretions, especially of the 
liver. In large doses, a warm, stimulating purgative, acting 
particularly on the rectum and lower intestines, operating very 
slowly, and producing copious feculent stools. An excellent 
remedy in habitual constipation attended with torpor of the liver 
and digestive organs ; and as a purgative, particularly useful in 
chlorosis, amenorrhcea, and atonic states of the uterine system. 
Contraindicated in hemorrhoids and in inflammatory diseases 
Dose, from 5 to 20 grains, generally administered in combination 

Aloe Purificata. U. S. (Socotrine aloes purified by strain- 
ing and evaporating the alcoholic solution.) Thus prepared, it 
is in angular, brittle fragments, possessing all the properties of 
the drug. 

TiNCTURA Aloes. U. S. Tincture of Aloes. (A troyounce 
of aloes and three troyounces of extract of liquorice, in half a pint 
of alcohol and a pint and a half of water.) Dose, f^ss to f5iss. 

TiNCTURA Aloes et Myrrhs. XJ. S. Tincture of Aloes and 
3Iyrrh (three troyounces each of aloes and myrrh, and a troy- 
ounce of saffron, in two pints of alcohol), known as Elixir Pro- 
prietatis. An excellent purgative, tonic, and emmenagogue. 
Dose, f5i to f5ij. 

YiNUM Aloes. U. S. Wine of Aloes. (A troyounce of aloes 
with sixty grains each of cardamom and ginger in a pint of 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— VEGETABLE CATHARTICS. 2G3 

sherry wine.) A warm laxative and cathartic in doses of from 
f3ss to f3ij. 

PiLULJS Aloes. U. S. Pills of Aloes. (Aloes and soap com- 
bined in equal parts.) Each pill contains two grains of aloes. 

Pilule Aloes et AssAFCExiDiE. U. S. Pills of Aloes and 
Assafetida. (By combining- equal parts of aloes, assafetida, and 
soap.) Well adapted to costiveness with debility of stomach 
and a tendency to flatulence. Dose, 10 to 20 grains. 

Pilule Aloes et Mastiches. U. S. Pills of Aloes and Elastic. 
(Three parts of aloes to one each of mastic and red rose, in fine 
powder.) A gentle laxative and stomachic. Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 

PiLULiB Aloes et Myrrh^e. U. S. Pills of Aloes and Myrrh. 
Bufus^s Pills. (Four parts of aloes, two of myrrh, and one of 
saffron, with syrup.) Dose, 10 to 20 grains. 

PuLVis Aloes et Canell.^;. U. S. Hiei^a Picra. (Four parts 
of aloes with one of canella.) A popular remedy for amen- 
orrhcea and constipation, in doses of from 10 to 20 grains. 

JALAPA. U. S. Jalap. 

The ROOT of Exogonium Purga, formerly Ipomsea Jalapa, a 
climbing plant of Mexico, growing abundantly in the neighbor- 
hood of Jalapa, whence it derives its name. 

Properties. The dried tubers are imported either entire or 
cut into slices. When entire, they are roundish or pear-shaped, 
varying from the size of a nut to that of an orange, much wrin- 
kled, heavy, compact, hard, and brittle, with a resinous fracture. 
In this state they are liable to be attacked b}^ worms. The pow- 
der is of a pale yellowish-gray color, with a heavy, peculiar odor 
and a sweetish, somewhat pungent taste, becoming impaired by 
age. It yields its virtues to water and alcohol. It contains a 
resinoid substance, jalapin, starch, gum, etc. 

lledical Properties and Uses. A safe and efficacious purga- 
tive, operating with rapidity and certainty, causing little irrita- 
tion, and producing copious watery stools, leaving but little 
subsequent constipation. Especially useful in dropsy, and gener- 
ally given with other medicines which assist or qualify its oper- 
ation. Dose of the powder, from 10 to 20 grains. 



264 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

E.ESINA Jalaps. TJ. S. Besin of Jalap (prepared bj pre- 
cipitation from the concentrated tincture with water) is in dark- 
brown, brittle fragments, readily reduced to a pale-brown pow- 
der, insoluble in water and ether, but readily soluble in alcohol. 
Dose, 4 to 8 grains. • 

ExTRACTUM Jalaps. U. S. Extract of Jalap (prepared 
by exhausting powdered jalap in a percolator by means of 
alcohol and water) is of a dark-brown color, and tenacious when 
not perfectly dry. Dose, 10 to 20 grains. 

TiNCTURA JALAPiE. U. S. Tincture of Jalap. (Six troy- 
ounces of jalap in two pints of diluted alcohol.) Dose, f 5i to f 5ij. 

PuLVis Jalaps Comp. U. S. Compound Powder of Jalap. 
(Prepared by rubbing together one part of jalap and two parts of 
bitartrate of potash.) An excellent cathartic in dropsy. Dose, 
30 to 60 grains. 

PODOPHYLLUM. U. S. May- Apple. 

The RHizojNLi of Podophyllum peltatum, may-apple or man- 
drake, an indigenous, perennial, herbaceous plant. 

Properties. The dried root is in wrinkled, yellowish or red- 
dish-brown pieces, of variable lengths, about two lines in thick- 
ness, with a short and irregular fracture, nearly inodorous, with a 
bitter, subacrid, and nauseous taste. The powder is light yel- 
lowish-gray, resembling that of jalap. It contains two resinous 
principles, — one soluble in ether and alcohol, the other only in 
alcohol, — both possessing cathartic properties and improperly 
called podojDhyllin. 

Medical Properties and Uses. An active hydragogue cathar- 
tic, acting upon the liver and the upper portion of the alimentary 
canal, causing copious liquid discharges, and resembling jalap 
in its operation. Dose, 20 grains. 

Resina Podophylli. U. S. Resin of Podophyllum (prepared 
by precipitating a concentrated tincture of the root by water) 
has a light-brown color, and an acrid, bitter taste, with the odor of 
the root. It is a powerful cathartic, producing some nausea and 
griping, which may be obviated by combination. Much employed 
in torpor of the liver, and with other cathartics to give them 
increased energy. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— VEGETABLE CATHARTICS. 2G5 

ExTRACTUM PoDOPHYLLi. U. S. Extract of Podophyllum 
(prepared in the same way as the extract of jalap) possesses the 
purgative properties of the root in doses of from 5 to 15 grains. 

SCAMMONIUM. U. S. Scammony. 

The CONCRETE JUICE of the root of Convolvulus Scammonia, 
a climbing perennial plant of Syria and the adjoining countries, 
obtained by making an incision in the living root. 

Properties. The genuine, called Virgin Scammony, occurs in 
irregular pieces, of a dark-greenish color, sometimes covered 
with a whitish powder, friable, with a dark and brilliant fracture. 
Moistened with water, it forms a milky liquid. It has a strong, 
cheesy odor, with a feeble subaerid taste. It affords a pale ash- 
gray powder. The inferior varieties, consisting of the juice of 
the stalks and leaves, with that of the root, mixed with foreign 
substances, occur in large flat or circular masses, of a lighter color, 
not so friable, and with a dull fracture. It is a gum-resin, con- 
taining, when pure, about 80 per cent, of resin, partly soluble in 
water, and forming with it a milky emulsion. 

Factitious Scammony, known as Montpellier Scammony, the 
juice of Cynanchum Monspeliacum, mixed with other purgative 
resins, is sometimes imported into this country. It is blacker 
than the genuine, has a feeble balsamic odor and a nauseous 
taste. 

Medical Properties and Uses. A drastic hydragogue cathartic, 
resembling jalap in its action, but more active and more liable to 
produce nausea. Usually given in combination in cases of tor- 
pid bowels where a powerful impression is desired. Dose, 5 to 
20 grains, administered in pill or emulsion, 

Resina Scammonii. U. S. Resin of Scammony. (An alcoholic 
extract, free from the impurities of the original drug.) Dose, 5 
to 12 grains. 

COLOCYNTHIS. U. S. Colocynth. 

The FRUIT (deprived of its rind) of Citrullus Colocynthis, or 
bitter cucumber, an annual plant, with trailing stems, a native 



266 MATERIA 31 E Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

of Asia Minor and various parts of Africa. The fruit is collected 
when ripe, in the autumn, peeled, and dried. The prepared fruit 
is globose, about the size of a small orange, of a white or pale- 
brownish color. The pulp, which is the part used, is nearly 
white, light and porous, and contains numerous seeds arranged 
in double rows around its circumfereijce. It is inodorous, with 
an intensely bitter taste, and yields its virtues to water and alco- 
hol. It contains a peculiar bitter principle, colocynthin (a reddish- 
brown, brittle, extremely bitter, soluble substance), resin, and 
extractive. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is a powerful drastic ca- 
thartic, increasing the peristaltic action of the intestines and 
promoting the intestinal secretions. In large doses it acts as 
an irritant poison, producing inflammation. From its extreme 
acridity, seldom given uncombined. Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 

EXTRACTUM COLOCYNTHIDIS AlCOHOLICUM. IJ. S. AlcoJloUo 

Extract of Colocynth (prepared by evaporating the concentrated 
tincture) is used in making the 

EXTRACTUM COLOCYNTHIDIS COMPOSITUM. U. S. CompOUnd 

Extract of Colocynth (prepared by mixing the extract of colo- 
cynth with aloes, scammony, cardamom, and soap) is an energetic 
and safe cathartic, ;f)0ssessing the action of all the purgative 
ingredients, without their drastic effects. It is much used in 
constipation with a torpid state of the bowels, inaction of the 
liver, or dyspeptic condition of the stomach, and is often com- 
bined with mercurials. Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 

GAMBOGIA. U. S. Gamboge. 

The CONCRETE JUICE of an undetermined tree, imported from 
Siam and Cochin China. Probably the gum-resin of a species 
of Garcinia. It is procured by breaking the leaves or young 
branches and allowing the juice to harden, or collecting it in the 
joints of the bamboo. 

Properties. It occurs in hollow cylindrical rolls, from one to 
two inches in diameter, called p/pe gamboge, or in irregular 
masses, mixed with woody fibre and other imi)urities, called 
cake or lump gamboge. When pure, it is an opaque, brittle 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— VEGETABLE CATHARTICS. 26t 

substance, of a uniform orange color, with a smooth, shining, 
couchoidal fracture, odorless, with little taste, yielding a bright- 
3'ellow powder, soluble in alcohol, and forming with water a 
bright-yellow emulsion. It contains 75 per cent, of a brittle, 
orange-colored resin, called gambogic acid, forming salts with 
the alkalies, and a soluble gum. 

Medical Properties and Uses. A powerful drastic hydra- 
gogue cathartic, in full doses causing vomiting and purging, 
which may be modified by combination with milder cathartics. 
It may be used Avhenever an energetic purgative effect is desired 
and there is no irritability of stomach present. Dose, 2 to 4 
grains. 

Pilule CATHARTiCiE Composite. U. S. Compound Cathar- 
tic Pills. (Prepared by mixing compound extract of colocynth, 
extract of jalap, calomel, and gamboge, then forming them into 
a mass with water and dividing into pills.) Three pills, the 
usual dose, contain 4 grains of colocynth, 3 of extract of jalap, 
3 of calomel, and f grain of gamboge. 

ELATERIIJM. U. S. Elaterium. 

A substance deposited by the juice of the fruit of 3Iomordica 
Elaterium, the wild or squirting cucumber, a trailing, herbaceous, 
perennial plant, growing native in the south of Europe, and 
cultivated in England. The fruit is oval, resembling that of the 
common cucumber, and when ripe separates from the stalk and 
scatters its seeds and juice to a considerable distance. 

Properties. Pure elaterium, called Clutterbuck^s, is the sub- 
stance deposited when the juice is allowed to exude sponta- 
neously or is obtained by incision. This, when carefully dried, 
is in thin, slightly-curved cakes or fragments, very light and pul- 
verulent, of a yellowish or greenish-gray color, a feeble odor, 
and an acrid, bitter taste. Commercial elaterium is obtained 
from the expressed juice of the fruit, and is darker-colored, much 
curled, hard, and breaks with a resinous fracture. It is a much in- 
ferior variety. Good elaterium contains from 20 to 30 per cent, 
of an active crystalline principle, elaterin, inodorous, with a bitter, 
acrid taste, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether. 



268 MATERIA MEDIO A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Medical Properties and Uses. An energetic hydragogue 
cathartic, in large doses occasioning severe griping, vomiting, 
and hypercatharsis. Only suited for dropsical and cerebral affec- 
tions where a powerful revulsive action is desired. Dose, ^ to 
^ of a grain ; of elaterin, y'g to j'^ of a grain. 

OLEUM TIGLII. U. S. Croton Oil. 

The OIL obtained by expression or decoction from the seeds 
of Croton Tiglium, a small tree or shrub growing in different 
parts of the East Indies. The seeds are oval, about the size of 
the castor-oil seeds, with a dark-brown testa, containing a thin, 
pale, internal seed-coat, and a yellowish, oily albumen. 

Properties. It is a viscid oil, of a pale-yellow or reddish- 
brown color, with a faint, peculiar odor, and a hot, acrid taste, 
soluble in ether and in the fixed and volatile oils, and partly so in 
alcohol. It is a fixed oil, containing a principle termed crotonic 
acid and resin. 

Medical Properties and Uses. An active hydragogue cathartic, 
operating with great rapidity, without nausea and griping, and 
producing copious watery evacuations. Adapted to obstinate 
constipation, to apoplexy, coma, and other cerebral affections 
requiring a rapid and powerful purgative. In large doses, a 
powerful irritant poison. Rubbed on the skin, it causes rube- 
faction and vesication, and is useful in phthisis and chronic dis- 
eases of the joints, as a counter-irritant. Dose for an adult, ^ 
to 2 drops, most conveniently administered in pill with bread- 
crumbs. For external use it may be diluted with the fixed oils. 

HELLEBORTJS NIGER. U. S. Black Hellebore. 

The ROOT of Helleborus niger, a low, herbaceous plant, native 
of the mountainous regions of Southern Europe, where it is 
cultivated for the beauty of its flowers, which bloom in winter, 
— hence called Christmas rose. 

Properties. The rhizome is irregular in shape, half an inch 
or less thick, with numerous cylindrical dark-brown radicles from 
four to twelve inches in length. It has a feeble odor and a bit- 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— VEGETABLE CATHARTICS. 269 

terish, acrid, and nauseous taste. Water and alcohol extract its 
virtues. It contains a volatile oil, and a peculiar principle, called 
helleborin, which is white, crystallizable, bitter to the taste, with 
a slight tingling effect on the tongue, and neuter in its relations 
to acids and alkalies. 

Medical Properties and Uses. A drastic hydragogue, pos- 
sessed of emmenagogue properties. In large doses, a powerful 
acro-narcotic poison. Useful only in torpid, phlegmatic habits 
and where the pelvic circulation is languid. Dose of powdered 
root, 10 grains. 

ExTRACTUM Hellebori Alcoholicum. F. S. Alcoholic Ex- 
tract of Hellebore. (By evaporating the alcoholic tincture with- 
out heat.) Dose as a drastic purge, 5 to 10 grains. 

TiNCTURA Hellebori. U. S. Tincture of Hellebore (four troy- 
ounces of hellebore to two pints of alcohol), formerly called Tinc- 
tura 3Ielampodii. Sometimes used in amenorrhoea. Dose, 30 
to 60 minims. • 

LEPTANDRA. U.S. 

The ROOT of Leptandra Virginica, Culverts physic, an indi- 
genous, perennial, herbaceous plant. 

Properties. The root consists of a branched rhizome, several 
inches in length, with numerous long and slender radicles. It 
contains a peculiar crystalline principle, called leptandrin, solu- 
ble in water, alcohol, and ether. 

Medical Properties anid Uses. An active cathartic, exciting 
the liver and promoting the secretion of bile without producing 
irritation of the bowels. Dose, 20 to 60 grains. A resinous 
matter obtained by precipitating the tincture with water, and 
improperly called leptandrin, is much used in combination, in 
doses of from 2 to 4 grains. 



210 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

MINERAL CATHARTICS. 

SULPHUR. 

Brimstone, an elementary body, is found native or in combi- 
nation with metals, and is almost always present in animal and 
vegetable matter. The officinal forms are the sublimed, the 
washed, and the precipitated sulphur, differing only in their 
various degrees of purity. 

Sulphur Sublimatum. U. S. Sublimed Sulphur. Flowers 
of Sulphur. Crude sulphur purified by distillation. It usually 
contains a little sulphuric acid, formed by the oxygen of the air 
contained in the subliming-chambers, from which it may be freed 
by washing with hot water. 

Sulphur Lotum. U. S. Washed Sulphur. Sublimed sulphur 
thoroughly washed with water. It is in the form of a gritty, 
crystalline powder, of a fine greenish-yellow color, tasteless, and 
without odor unless heated, burning with a blue flame and the 
evolution of sulphurous acid. 

Sulphur Pr^cipitatum. U. S. Lao Sulphuris. Precipitated 
Sulphur, Milk of Sulphur, is prepared by boiling together sub- 
limed sulphur, slaked lime, and water, and then precipitating 
the sulphur by muriatic acid. It is in a state of minute division, 
of a white or grayish-yellow color, free from grittiness, without 
odor, and tasteless. Sulphur is insoluble in water and alcohol, 
but soluble in the volatile and fixed oils. It is fusible and com- 
bustible, volatilizing at 180° and meltin*g at 225°. 

Iledical Properties and Uses. In small doses it is absorbed, 
and acts as a gentle stimulant to the secreting vessels, especially 
to the skin and the bronchial membrane. In larger doses it is 
laxative, operating slowly, and mainly on the lower bowels, pro- 
ducing soft, consistent, and unirritating passages. Employed as 
a laxative and diaphoretic in chronic skin diseases and rheuma- 
tism. Externally applied in the form of ointment or the sulphur 
vapor-bath. Dose, 1 to 3 drachms, administered in milk or with 
syrup or molasses. 

Unguentum Sulphuris. U. S. Suljohur Ointment. (By mix- 
ing one part sulphur and two parts lard.) A certain remedy for 
scabies. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— MINERAL CAT-HARTICS. 2U 

SuLPHURis loDiDUM. U. S. Iodide of Sulphur. (Prepared 
by heating together four parts of iodine and one part of sublimed 
sulphur.) It is of a grayish-black color and radiated crystalline 
appearance, with an odor like that of iodine. Insoluble in water 
and alcohol, but soluble in glycerin. 

Iledical Properties and Uses. Admirably adapted, in the 
form of ointment, as a local remedy in obstinate cutaneous erup- 
tions unattended with inflammation. Also used internally, in 
small doses, as a resolvent and alterative. 

Unguentum Sulphuris Iodidi. U. S. (30 grains to one troy- 
ounce of lard.) 

MAGNESIA. U. S. Magnesia. 

Prepared by exposing to a red heat carbonate of magnesia 
until all the carbonic acid is expelled, which is shown by the 
powder not effervescing with dilute sulphuric acid: hence im- 
properly called Magnesia Usta, or Calcined Magnesia. 

Properties. A light, white, inodorous powder, of a feeble 
alkaline taste, insoluble in water, but readily dissolved by acids, 
without effervescence. There is in the market a heavy magnesia, 
prepared by precipitation from the sulphate, which is less bulky, 
softer, and more readily miscible with water. Magnesia is the 
protoxide of magnesium, a white, very brilliant metal, resembling 
silver, malleable, fusible at a low temperature, and easily oxidized 
by. the action of air and moisture. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Antacid, and, by combining 
with acid in the stomach, becoming laxative. Useful in all cases 
requiring a laxative antacid, as cardialgia, sympathetic vomiting, 
and irritated states of the stomach. Dose as an antacid, 10 to 
20 grains ; as a laxative, one drachm. 

MAGNESIA CARBONAS. IT. S. Carbonate of Magnesia. 

This salt is sometimes, though rarely, found native. It is 
prepared by decomposing sulphate of magnesia by an alkaline 
carbonate, usually the carbonate of soda. 

Properties. A light, fine, perfectly white powder, inodorous 
and nearly insipid, insoluble in water, and decomposed by all the 
acids. 



2T2 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Antacid and laxative, though 
inferior to magnesia. Dose, 5i to 5ij ; for a child a year or two 
old, from 5 to 20 grains, — best given suspended in water or 
milk. 

Liquor MAONESi-aa Citratis. U. S. Solution of Citrate of 
Magnesia. An aqueous solution of citrate of magnesia, con- 
taining an excess of citric acid, impregnated with carbonic acid 
and sweetened with syrup. When properly prepared, it is a 
clear liquid, having an agreeable taste like that of lemonade, 
and forms a mild, cooling cathartic. Dose, ^ij to §viij. 

MAGNESIiE SULPHAS. U. S. Sulphate of Magnesia. 

This salt is a constituent of sea-water and of many mineral 
waters. It was originally procured by evaporating the waters of 
the saline springs at Epsom, in England: hence the common name 
of Epsom salts. It is also found native in this country, and is 
manufactured on a large scale by the action of sulphuric acid on 
magnesite, a siliceous hydrate of magnesia, a mineral abounding 
in Maryland and Pennsylvania. 

Properties. It occurs in minute, colorless, transparent rhom- 
bic prisms, efflorescing slowly on exposure ; is inodorous and 
of a bitter, nauseous, and saline taste, and is readily soluble in 
water. Composition, MgO,S03-f-7HO. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In moderate doses, a mild and 
certain purgative, promoting the secretions as well as the peri- 
staltic motion of the alimentary canal, producing copious watery 
dejections. Its freedom from nausea and griping, and its re- 
frigerant qualities, render it an appropriate purgative in febrile 
affections. Dose, ^ss to ^i, generally given in combination with 
other medicines, especially senna, the griping effect of which it 
tends to obviate. 

SOD^ SULPHAS. U. S. Sulphate of Soda. 

This preparation, known as Glauber'' s salt, from the name of the 
chemist by whom its nature was discovered, is extensively diffused 
throughout nature. It exists in various mineral waters, in the 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— MINERAL CATHARTICS. 273 

ashes of certain marine plants, and is found as an efflorescence 
upon the surface of certain rocks. It is artificially obtained by 
the action of sulphuric acid upon common salt in the process for 
procuring muriatic acid. 

Properties. It is a colorless salt, crystallizing with great 
facility in six-sided, striated prisms, efflorescing on exposure, in- 
odorous, of a cooling, saline, and very disagreeable taste. It is 
very soluble in water. Composition, NaOjSOg+lOHO. 

Iledical Properties and Uses. An active saline cathartic, 
employed in the same cases as the sulphate of magnesia; but its 
bitter and nauseous taste renders it more repulsive, and it is 
therefore but little used. Dose, ^ss to ^i. 

SODiE PHOSPHAS. U. S. Phosphate of Soda. 

Prepared by decomposing the phosphate of lime (obtained by 
digesting bone-ash in dilute sulphuric acid) with carbonate of 



Properties. It is in large, colorless, oblique rhombic prisms, 
efflorescing on exposure, inodorous, with a saline taste, and 
readily soluble in water. Composition, 2NaO,HO,P05-f 24HO. 
When gently heated, it loses its water of crystallization ; and at 
a red heat its basic water is driven off and the salt is converted 
mio pyrophosphate of soda. 2NaO,P05. 

Medical Properties and Uses. A mild and efficient saline 
purgative, well adapted to persons of delicate stomachs, on ac- 
count of the absence of unpleasant taste. Dose, ^i. 

POTASS^ SULPHAS. U. S. Sulphate of Potash. 

This salt, called Vitriolated Tartar, is usually the secondary 
product in various chemical processes. Most of the salt of com- 
merce is obtained in the process for making nitric acid, by the 
action of sulphuric acid on the nitrate of potash. 

Properties. In white, very hard, six-sided prisms, without 
odor, of a bitter, saline taste, permanent in air, and only slightly 
soluble in water. Composition, K0,S03. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In doses of from 30 grains to 

18 



2U MATERIA MEDIO A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

5ij, a safe and efficient aperient, but seldom used in this country. 
In pharmacy, it is used in preparing Dover's powder. 



POTASSiG BITARTRAS. U. S. Bitartr ate of Potash. 

Cream of Tartar, Acid Tartrate of Potash, exists in solution 
in grape-juice, and in other acidulous vegetable juices. During 
vinous fermentation it is deposited upon the sides or bottom of 
the vessel containing the liquor, and in this state is known as 
crude Tartar, or argol. This is purified by treating the hot 
solution with charcoal and crystallizing. 

Properties. It is sometimes found in white, crystalline masses, 
but usually in the form of a white, gritty powder, without odor, 
with a pleasant, acid taste. It is sparingly soluble in water, and 
insoluble in alcohol. Composition, KO,HO,(CgH^Oj„). One 
eq. of potash, one eq. of tartaric acid, and one eq. of basic 
w^ter. 

Medical Properties and Uses. A refrigerant laxative and 
diuretic. Dissolved in water and flavored, it forms a good re- 
frigerant drink in fevers. It allays thirst, diminishes preter- 
natural heat, and reduces vascular action. Dose, 5ij to ^ss. 

POTASS^ TARTRAS. U. S. Tartrate of Potash. 

This preparation, formerly called Soluble Tartar, is procured 
by saturating the excess of acid in the bitartrate of potash with 
carbonate of potash, the acid being extricated with effervescence, 
and a neutral tartrate formed. 

Properties. It occurs in white, six-sided prisms, with dihedral 
summits, slightly deliquescent, of a bitter and disagreeable taste. 
It is soluble in water and decomposed by acids. As found in 
the shops, it is generally in the form of a white poVder, Com- 
position, 2K0,(CgH^0j„). 

Medical Properties and Uses. A mild, cooling purgative, 
operating like most of the neutral salts, and used as an adjunct 
to more active purgatives, as the infusion of senna. Dose, 5i 
to oh according to the effect desired. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DIURETICS. 275 

POTASSiE ET SOD^ TARTRAS. U. S. Tartrate of 

I'olassa and Soda. 

JRochelle salt is obtained by adding bitartrate of potash to a 
solution of carbonate of soda. In this process the excess of acid 
in the bitartrate saturates the soda and liberates the carbonic 
acid, forming the double salt, consisting of tartrate of potash 
combined with tartrate of soda. Composition, KO,NaO,(08-H4 
0,o) + 8HO. 

Properties. It is in the form of colorless, transparent, pris- 
matic crystals, with a saline-and bitter taste, and readily soluble 
in water. 

Medical Properties and Uses. A mild, laxative, and cooling 
salt, very analogous in its effects to the tartrate of potash. When 
given in small quantities in solution, it becomes absorbed, and 
renders the urine alkaline. Dose, §i, largely diluted with 
water. 

PuLVERES Eppervescentes Aperientes. U. S. Aperient 
Effervescing Powders, called Seidlitz Powders, consist of two 
powders, one containing two drachms of Rochelle salt and two 
scruples of bicarbonate of soda, the other thirty grains of tar- 
taric acid. These are dissolved separately, mixed, and taken 
in the state of effervescence. The tartaric acid unites with the 
soda of the bicarbonate, of which the carbonic acid escapes, pro- 
ducing the effervescence ; and the medicine, as taken, is a mixture 
of the tartrate of potash and soda, and tartrate of soda. It forms 
an excellent refrigerant laxative, well adapted to cases in which 
the stomach is delicate or irritable. 

DIURETICS. 

Diuretics are medicines which occasion increased action of 
the kidneys and promote the secretion of urine. 

The quantity of urine secreted in the healthy state varies con- 
siderably, being modified by climate, time of day, quantity of 
fluid taken, and state of health. If the ordinary excretions from 
the skin or lungs be checked from any cause, the kidneys at- 
tempt to make up the deficiency ; and if these be increased, the 



2T6 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

secretion of urine is diminished. Augmenting the quantity of 
fluid taken, or removing any of the causes which tend to check 
the urinary secretion, would indirectly have a diuretic effect. 
Thus, purgatives and antimony by diminishing febrile action, 
digitalis by weakening the force of the heart, and mercurials by 
removing portal obstruction, act as indirect diaretics. Others, 
again, act on the stomach and primae vise, or the skin, and sym- 
pathetically affect the kidneys. 

Diuretics properly so called operate by being absorbed into 
the circulation, and, acting as direct stimulants to the kidneys, 
promote their secretory functions. Or they may be decomposed 
in transitu, and act on these organs by one or more of their 
constituents. 

Therapeutically they are resorted to: 1. To promote the 
healthy action of the kidnej^s, and restore the natural amount of 
urine, when diminished from any cause. 2. To act as depletives 
and revulsives, and thus prove useful in inflammatory and febrile 
diseases. 3. To promote absorption of effused fluids by dimin- 
ishing the quantity of liquid in the circulation : hence useful in 
dropsies. 4. To soothe and diminish irritation or inflamma- 
tion of the urino-genital organs, by increasing the amount of 
fluid secreted, and thus enabling it to hold in solution its solid 
constituents. 5. To alter and modify the nature of the urin- 
ary secretion, and thereby prevent the formation of urinary de- 
posits, and also to promote the elimination of poisonous matters 
from the system. 

Their action may be promoted by drinking plentifully of dilu- 
ents, and may also be modified by the state of the skin and the 
condition of the bov/els. Hence the surface of the body should 
be kept cool, and, as a general rule, active cathartics should be 
avoided, during their administration. 

A large number of medicines described under other heads, 
as diaphoretics, cathartics, sedatives, etc., are employed also as 
diuretics. 



LOCAL REMEDFES.— DIURETICS. 217 

COLCHICUM. U. S. 

The CORMUS (bulb) and seeds of Colchicum autumnale, meadow- 
saffron, a small, perennial, bulbous plant, growing native in the 
temperate regions of Europe. The bulb should be gathered in 
July or August. If gathered at any other season, its g'trength 
of course varies : early in the spring it is too young to have fully 
developed its peculiar properties ; and late in the fall it has be- 
come exhausted by the nourishment afforded the plant. 

Properties. The mature cormus is ovoid, about the size of a 
walnut, of a firm, amylaceous texture, not composed of laminas 
or scales. When dried, it is of a brownish color, compressed on 
one side, convex on the other, with a deep groove running through 
it, having no odor, but an acrid, bitter taste. As found in the 
shops, it is usually in transverse slices, of a grayish-white color 
and starchy appearance. The seeds, when ripe, are small, hard, 
and of a dark-brown color. Both the cormus and seeds contain 
colchicia, a peculiar crystalline substance, without odor, but with 
a bitter taste, and a large quantity of starch. They yield their 
virtues to alcohol, wine, and water. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small and repeated doses it 
is sedative to the circulation, and promotes the secretions gener- 
ally; in large doses it produces nausea, vomiting, and purging; 
and in excessive doses it acts as a powerful poison. The prin- 
cipal diseases in which it is employed are gout and rheumatism, 
and in these it proves signally beneficial, giving relief in many 
cases of the former when all other remedies have failed. Its mo- 
dus medendi is not well understood : some refer its effects to its 
operation on the nervous system ; others, to the union of a cathar- 
tic with a sedative effect; while most writers attribute to it the 
pawer of exciting the kidneys to a more active elimination of 
lithic acid and other nitrogenized elements from the blood. It 
must be used with caution, and the dose be very gradually in- 
creased till its beneficial effects are experienced. Dose in sub- 
stance, 1 to 3 grains, made into pill. 

AcETUM CoLCHici. U. S. Vinegar of Colchicum. (Two troy- 
ounces of colchicum root to two pints of diluted acetic acid.) 
Dose, 30 drops to f5i. 



278 MATERIA 31EDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

ViNUM CoLCHici Radicis. TJ. S. Wine of Colchicum Root. 
(Twelve troyounces of colchicum root to two pints of sherry 
wine.) Dose, 10 drops to f5i. 

YiNUM CoLCHici Seminis. U. S. Wine of Colchicum Seeds. 
(Four troyounces of colchicum seeds to two pints of sherry wine.) 
This preparation is the one generally used. The seeds are less 
liable to injury than the bulb, and the wine is therefore of more 
uniform strength. Dose, 10 drops to f5i. 

TiNCTURA CoLCHici. U. S. Tincture of Colchicum. (Four 
troyounces of seeds to two pints of alcohol). Dose, f5i to fjij- 
Not much used. 

ExTRACTUM CoLCHici AcETicuM. U. S. Acctic Extract of 
Colchicum. (By evaporating the acetous infusion of the root.) 
It is an excellent preparation, containing all the virtues of the 
root, and is much used when it is desired to exhibit the remedy 
in the form of pill. 

ExTRACTUM CoLCHici Radicis Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract 
of Colchicum Boot. 

ExTRACTUM CoLCHici Seminis Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Ex- 
tract of Colchicum Seeds. Both of these preparations are con- 
centrated tinctures, each fluidounce representing a troyounce. 
Dose, 5 to 10 drops. 

BUCHU. U. S. Buchu. 

The DRIED LEAVES of Barosvia crenata, and other species of 
Barosma, small shrubs growing at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Properties. The leaves are of various shapes, less than an 
inch in length, from three to five lines broad, notched at the 
edges, smooth and. of a green color on the upper surface, dotted 
and paler beneath, of a strong aromatic odor, and a warm, bit- 
teri.sh, mint-like taste. Water and alcohol extract their virtues, 
which depend on a volatile oil and a bitter extractive. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Gently stimulant and diuretic, 
with a peculiar soothing effect on the genito-urinary organs. It 
is well adapted to catarrh of the bladder, morbid irritation of the 
renal organs, and incontinence of urine from loss of tone in the 
parts concerned in its evacuation. Dose of the powder, 20 to 30 
yrains. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DIURETICS. 279 

Infusum Buciiu. U. S. Infusion of Buchu. (A troyounce to 
a pint of boiling water.) Dose, f^i to f^ij. 

ExTRACTUM Buchu Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of Buchu. 
(A concentrated tincture of the leaves.) It possesses in a high 
degree all the properties of the drug, and may be given in doses 
of from 30 drops to fji. 

PAREIRA. U. S. Pareira Brava. 

The ROOT of Cissamioelos Pareira, a climbing plant, native of 
the West Indies and Brazil. 

Properties. The root is imported in cylindrical pieces, from 
half an inch to three or four inches in diameter, and of various 
lengths. It is marked externally with longitudinal and angular 
wrinkles, and is of a dark-brown color ; internally, the wood is 
porous and of a yellowish color. It is inodorous, has a bitter, 
nauseous taste, and imparts its virtues readily to water. It con- 
tains resin, starch, and a bitter principle called cissamjpelina. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is diuretic and mildly tonic, 
exercising a mild sedative and astringent effect on the mucous 
membrane of the urinary organs. It is chiefly useful in affections 
of the genito-urinary organs, particularly in the advanced stages 
of acute and in chronic inflammation of the bladder. 

Infusum Pareira. U. S. Infusion of Pareira. (A troy- 
ounce to a pint of boiling water.) Dose, f^i to f^ij. 

JUNIPERUS. TJ. S. Juniper. 

The FRUIT of Juniperus communis, an evergreen European 
bushy shrub, naturalized in the United States. 

Properties. The berries are globular, more or less shriveled, 
about the size of a pea, of a purplish-black color, with an agree- 
able aromatic odor, and a warm, sweetish, terebinthinate taste. 
They owe their virtues to a volatile oil, and impart their proper- 
ties to water and alcohol. 

Medical Properties and Uses. They are a powerful stimulant 
diuretic, contraindicated in inflammatory conditions of the kidneys 
and urinary organs and in active disease of the pelvic viscera, 



280 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

and are chiefly employed as adjuvants to more powerful diuretics 
in dropsical diseases. Given in infusion. 

Inpusum Juniperi. U. S, Infusion of Juniper. (A troy- 
ounce to a pint.) 

Oleum Juniperi. U.S. Oil of Juniper. (Obtained by dis- 
tillation with water.) It is a limpid, transparent oil, lighter than 
water, having the odor and taste of the fruit. Dose, 5 to 15 
drops. 

Spiritus Juniperi Compositus. IT. S. Comp. Spirits of 
Juniper, (f 5ss of oil of juniper with ten drops each of oil of cara- 
way and oil of fennel in half a pint of diluted alcohol.) This 
spirit is a cordial and stimulating diuretic, a useful addition to 
diuretic infusions. 

TARAXACUM. U. S. Dandelion. 

The ROOT of Taraxacum Dens-leonis, a small, herbaceous plant, 
growing spontaneously in all parts of the world. The whole of 
the plant abounds in a milky juice, which is most abundant in 
the autumn, at which season the roots should be gathered. 

Properties. The dried root is dark brown, much shrunken, 
very brittle, without smell, but has a sweetish, mucilaginous, 
bitterish taste, a,nd yields its active properties to water. 

Medical P^^operties and Uses. Taraxacum is tonic, diuretic, 
and slightly aperient, acting particularly on the liver, increasing 
the biliary secretion, and has been substituted for mercury when 
the latter has been inadmissible. Useful in dropsy connected 
with derangement of the liver. 

Inpusum Taraxaci. U. S. Infusion of Taraxacum. (Two 
troyouDces to a pint of boiling water.) Dose, wineglassful, two 
or three times a day, or oftener. 

ExTRACTUM Taraxaci. U. S. Extract of Taraxacum. (The 
inspissated juice of the root collected in autumn.) The pure ex- 
tract should be of a brownish color, with a bitter and aromatic 
taste, and completely soluble in water. Dose, 10 to 20 grains. 

Extractum Taraxaci Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of 
Taraxacum. (A concentrated tincture of the root.) Dose, f3i 
to f5ij. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DIURETICS. . 281 

ERIGERON. U. S. Fleabane. 

The HERB of Erigeron heterophyllum and of Erigeron Phila- 
delphicum, iudigenous herbaceous plants. The whole herb is 
used, and should be collected while the plant is in flower. It 
has a feeble aromatic odor and bitterish taste, and imparts its 
virtues to boiling water. 

lledical Properties. Fleabane is mildly diuretic, and useful 
in dropsical and nephritic affections. Given in decoction (^i to 
Oj) as an adjuvant to more active remedies. 

SCOPARIUS. U. S. Broom. Broom-Tops. 

The DRIED TOPS of Cytisus Scoparius, a common European 
shrub, cultivated in gardens in this country. The whole plant 
has a bitter, nauseous taste, and, when bruised, a strong, pecu- 
liar odor. The officinal portions are the tops of the branches, 
which yield their active properties to water and alcohol. They 
contain a neutral principle, scoparin, and a volatile liquid alka- 
loid, spartein. 

Medical Pr-operfies and Uses. In small doses, they are diu- 
retic and laxative ; in larger doses, cathartic and emetic : they are 
used principally in dropsies, but are very objectionable in acute 
inflammatory cases. Dose, 20 to 30 grains, best given in decoc- 
tion made by boiling ^ss of the fresh tops in a pint of water. 

There are many vegetable substances more or less used as diu- 
retics in combination with more active remedies, which, though 
less frequently resorted to than the foregoing, require a brief 
notice. Among the more important are : 

Apocynum Cannabinum. Indian Hemp. The root of Apocy- 
nuni cannabinum, an iudigenous herbaceous plant, possessing 
emetic, cathartic, and diuretic properties. 

Petrgseltnum. The root of PetroseUnum sativum, the com- 
mon parsley, a small plant, native of Europe, but cultivated 
everywhere in gardens for its leaves. A mild diuretic, admi- 
rably suited to cases of strangury brought on by blisters. Pars- 
ley-seeds contain a peculiar principle, in the form of a yellowish, 



282 MATERIA ME Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

oily liquid, called apiol, which, in doses of from 5 to 10 drops, 
possesses emmenagogue properties. 

Carota. Gai'rot-aeed, the fruit of Daucus carota, a common 
indigenous plant, possesses properties analogous to the aromatics, 
with a peculiar tendency to the kidneys, the secretion of which 
it promotes. The root, boiled, and beaten into a smooth consist- 
ence with water, may be used as a poultice to sloughing and 
phagedenic ulcers, the fetor of which it corrects, while it also 
changes the character of the diseased action. 

Armoracia. Horse-radish root, the fresh root of Cochlearia 
armoracia, a perennial plant, native of Western Europe, but 
cultivated for culinary purposes in the United States, is highly 
stimulant, promoting the appetite and increasing the secretions, 
particularly the urine. It may be employed in dropsical affec- 
tions occurring after fevers and attended with much debility. 

Delphinium. U. S. Larkspur, the root and seeds of Delphi- 
nium consolida, a showy annual plant, growing abundantly in 
Europe and this country, possesses diuretic properties, but is 
little if at all used. 

TEREBINTHINA. U. S. Turpentine. 

The term turpentine, in its general sense, is applied to the 
liquid or concrete oleoresinous juice obtained from different 
trees belonging to the family of pines. Only two are recognized 
as officinal in the U. S. Ph. 

Terebinthina. U. S. White Turpentine. Common American 
Turpentine. The concrete juice of Finns palustris, the long- 
leaved or yellow pine, and Pinus Tseda, the old field pine, and of 
other species of Pinus, large evergreen trees of the Southern 
States. It is procured by making excavations into the trunk of 
the tree, a few inches from the ground, into which the juice 
flows freely during the warm season, gradually thickening on 
exposure. 

Properties. As found in the shops, it is in irregular, yellowish- 
white masses, of various consistence, of a somewhat aromatic 
odor, and a warm, pungent, bitterish taste. In its recent state 
it affords about seventeen per cent, of a volatile oil, the Oleum 



LOCAL REMEDIES —DIURETICS. 283 

Terebinthin^, the properties of which have been already ex- 
plained. 

Terebintpiina Canadensis. U. S. Canada Turpentine. 
Canada Balsam Balsam of Fir. The juice of Abies balsamea, 
a large, beautiful, evergreen tree, native of the colder regions of 
the United States and Canada. It is procured by breaking the 
vesicles which form spontaneously upon the trunk and branches 
of the tree, and collecting the contents. 

Properties. When pure, it is a thin, tenacious, transparent, 
colorless or yellowish liquid, of a strong, agreeable odor, and a 
bitter, somewhat acrid taste. By exposure it becomes thicker, 
and ultimately solid. 

There are other varieties known in commerce, having essen- 
tially the same properties : Venice Turpentine, from Larix 
Eiu^opsea, or larch, growing abundantly upon the Alps and Jura 
Mountains; Chian Turpentine, from Pts/acia Terehinthus, a 
native of Southern Europe and Syria; Bordeaux Turpentine, 
from Pinus silvestris and P. maritima, growing in France 

The turpentines, if solid, soften with heat and become adhesive. 
At a higher heat they melt, and burn with a bright flame but 
much smoke. They are only very slightly soluble in water, but 
wholly so in alcohol, ether, and the fixed oils. On distillation 
they yield a volatile oil, the residue consisting of resin. 

Iledical Prope7'ties and Uses. Their effects on the system 
are essentially the same as those of the volatile oil, but less 
speedy and less marked, exercising a powerful influence upon 
the mucous membranes, particularly those of the urino-genital 
organs. At one time they were much used in gleet and other 
diseases of the urinary organs ; but they have been generally su- 
perseded by the volatile oil, though they are sometimes preferred 
when a slow effect, with little general stimulation, is desired. 
Dose, 20 to 40 grains, given in pill, electuary, or emulsion. Ex- 
ternally applied, they act as rubefacients. 

The following substances may be properly considered here, as 
they are derived, directly or indirectly, from the turpentines. 

Resina. U. S. Resin, commonly called rosin, the residuum 
afier the. distillation of the volatile oil from white turpentine. 



284 MATERIA MEJDICA AND TJIERAPEUTICS. 

Properties. In its pure state it is clear and pellucid, and, as 
usually found, varies in color from a yellowish brown to a dark 
brown, according to its purity, brittle, with a shining fracture, 
and a slight terebinthinate odor and taste. It is insoluble in 
water, but soluble in alcohol, ether, and the fixed and volatile 
oils. It melts at 270°, is completely liquid at 306°, and is en- 
tirely decomposed at a red heat, with a dense yellow flame and 
much smoke. It is never used internally, but, on account of its 
great adhesiveness, is very extensively employed in the prepara- 
tion of plasters and ointments. 

Ceratum Resins. U. S, Resin Cerate. Basilicon Ointment. 
(Prepared by melting together ten parts of resin, four of yellow 
wax, and sixteen of lard.) It is much used as a stimulant ap- 
plication to blistered surfaces, indolent ulcers, burns, scalds, etc. 

Ceratum Resins Compositum. U. S. Deshler^s Salve. (Pre- 
pared by incorporating together twelve parts, each, of resin, suet, 
and yellow wax, six parts of turpentine, and seven parts of lin- 
seed-oil.) This is more stimulating than the preceding, but is 
applicable to similar purposes. 

Pix LiQUiDA. IJ. S. Tar. The impure turpentine procured, 
by burning, from the wood of Pinus palustris and of other 
species. The wood is set on fire, and covered with earth, in order 
to insure slow combustion and to prevent the escape of the vola- 
tile portions. The resinous matter is melted, and, mixed with the 
condensed products arising from the decomposition of the wood, 
flows out beneath in a semi-liquid form, charcoal being left behind. 

Properties. Tar is a liquid or semi-liquid, almost black, with 
a peculiar empyreumatic odor, and a bitter, resinous, somewhat 
acid taste. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, and the fixed and vola- 
tile oils. It consists of resinous matter, united with acetic acid, 
oil of turpentine, and various volatile empyreumatic products, 
colored with charcoal. Submitted to distillation, it yields an 
aqueous acid liquor (pyroligneous acid) and a volatile oily 
matter (oil of tar), leaving, as a residue, pitch. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is slightly sti'mulant and 
diuretic, resembling the turpentines in its effects, but milder in 
its operation. It is occasionally employed in catarrhal aflections 
and in diseases of the urinary passages. Its vapor, when inhaled, 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DIURETICS. 285 

acts as a stimulant to the lining membrane of the air-passages, and 
has been found beneficial in bronchial diseases and in phthisis. 
Locally applied, it acts as a stimulant, and sometimes induces 
healthy action in indolent and foul ulcers ; it has also proved ser- 
viceable in cutaneous diseases, especially those which affect the 
scalp. 

Infusum Picis LiQUiDiE. U. S. Tar Water. (By shaking a 
mixture of one part tar and four parts water, and filtering the 
infusion.) The water dissolves a portion of the acetic acid, em- 
pyreumatic oil, and resinous matter, and acquires the odor and 
taste of tar. It may be used as a stimulant diuretic in cystitis, 
and externally as a wash. 

Unguentum Picis Liquids. IT. S. Tar Ointment. This is 
prepared by mixing equal parts of tar and melted suet together, 
and is highly useful as a stimulant application in various scaly 
eruptions, particularly that called tinea capitis, or scald-head. 

Creasotum. it. S. Creasote. This is an artificial product, 
,and is prepared from the oil obtained by the distillation of tar. 
The process for procuring it is a very complex one. The oil of 
tar is first freed from acetic acid by carbonate of potash, and 
distilled ; phosphoric acid is then added, to neutralize the ammo- 
nia, and another distillation is resorted to, producing a mixture 
of creasote and eupion. This is mixed with a solution of caus- 
tic potash, which combines with the creasote and allows the 
eupion, which is lighter, to collect on the surface. This is 
separated, and the alkaline solution which remains is neutralized 
by sulphuric acid, setting free creasote, which is decanted and 
purified by redistillation. 

Properties. Creasote, when pure, is a colorless, transparent, 
oleaginous liquid, sp. gr. 1"057, slightly greasy to the touch, 
with a persistent, smoky, disagreeable odor, and a caustic, burning 
taste. It boils at 397°, and is combustible, burning with a sooty 
flame. It is soluble in alcohol and ether, unites in all propor- 
tions with oils, and is a solvent of iodine, phosphorus, and resins. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It possesses the power of im- 
mediately coagulating albumen, and of preserving animal sub- 
stances. Internally, in small doses it occasions a sensation of 
warmth in the stomach, and appears to exercise a peculiar 



286 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

sedative action on the stomach. It also increases the urine, 
to which it communicates its odor. In overdoses it acts as a 
poison, producing depressed action of the heart, convulsions, and 
coma. It is principally employed to arrest nausea and vomiting 
when not dependent on inflammation or structural disease of 
the stomach, and occasionally proves effectual in diarrhoea. In 
chronic bronchitis accompanied by excessive expectoration, the 
vapor mixed with that of boiling water is often useful in checking 
the secretion and correcting the fetor of the sputa. Externally, 
it is employed as an astringent to arrest hemorrhage from small 
vessels, and as an application to indolent or flabby ulcers and 
chronic skin diseases, especially those of the scalp. In poisoning, 
the stomach should be evacuated, and ammonia and stimulants 
administered. Dose, 1 to 2 drops, in pill or in mucilage, well 
diluted. 

Aqua Creasoti. XJ. S. Creasote Water. (By mixing 5i of 
creasote with a pint of water.) 

Unguentum Creasoti. U. S. Creasote Ointment. (5ss crea- 
sote to ^i lard.) 

AciDUM Carbolicum, Carbolic Acid. This acid, also called 
phenylic or phenic acid, is one of the products of the distilla- 
tion of coal tar. It is easily prepared by treating the oils of 
coal tar, which distil between 350° and 400°, with caustic pot- 
ash, removing the alkaline solution and adding to it muriatic 
acid, when the carbolic acid is liberated and rises to the surface 
as an oily fluid, which may be purified by distillation. 

Properties. Carbolic acid, when first obtained, is in colorless, 
prismatic crystals, which deliquesce and remain fluid at ordinary 
temperatures. As usually met with, it is a colorless, oily-look- 
ing fluid, of a slight tarry and aromatic odor, resembling that of 
creasote, with an acrid and burning taste. Specific gravity, 
1-062. It is fusible at 95°, and passes into vapor at 3tO°, is 
only slightly soluble in water, but freely soluble in alcohol, ether, 
and glycerin. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In its action on the system, 
carbolic acid closely resembles creasote. Internally it possesses 
the power of allaying some forms of vomiting and gastric irrita- 
bility, especially when produced by miasma or putrid exhalations. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DIURETICS. 28*7 

It has also been used as an inhalation in phthisis to allay irrita- 
tion and arrest haemoptysis, and in chronic bronchitis to check 
the profuse secretion. Externally, in its pure state, it acts as a 
mild caustic by coagulating the albumen. When diluted, it acts 
as a mild local stimulant, and may be used as a gargle in the 
various forms of sore-mouth and ulcerated sore-throat, and as a 
wash to ill-conditioned and fetid ulcers. It has also proved use- 
ful in hemorrhoidal affections and fistulas. It destroys the lower 
forms of animal life, and hence, in the form of ointment, soon 
effects a cure in scabies. Its powers as a disinfecting and de- 
odorizing agent are very marked. A small quantity added to 
decomposing matters rapidly and completely removes all smell. 
It also possesses remarkable antiseptic powers, preventing the 
decomposition of organic substances. Internally, it may be 
given in solution (one part carbolic acid to forty parts water), 
in doses of from 5ss to 5i ; or 1 drop of the deliquesced acid in 
the form of pill. As an external application, Waring recom- 
mends that 5ij of carbolic acid be mixed in 5i of liquor potasses 
and half a pint of water. Or it may be used in the form of oint- 
ment (five to thirty grains of carbolic acid to an ounce of lard). 

COPAIBA. F. S. 

This is the oleorestnous juice of Copaifera multijuga and 
of other species of Copaifera, large and elegant trees, growing 
in Brazil and other parts of South America. On making inci- 
sions into the stems of the trees, there exudes a clear, colorless, 
and thin juice, which soon becomes thicker and of a yellowish 
color. 

Properties. It is a clear, transparent liquid, of an oily con- 
sistence*, with a strong, peculiar odor, and a hot, acrid, and 
nauseous taste. It is insoluble in water, but entirely soluble in 
alcohol, ether, and the fixed and volatile oils, and with the alka- 
lies it forms saponaceous compounds. It forms with magnesia 
a translucent mass, sufficiently consistent to form pills. It con- 
tains a volatile oil, resin, and a minute proportion of acid. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Copaiba is gently stimulant 
to the mucous membranes, resembling in its operation the tere- 



288 MATERIA ME Die A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

binthinates, and in large doses it acts as a cathartic. During 
its administration ttie urine acquires a peculiar odor, and its 
smell may be detected in the breath. Occasionally it produces a 
cutaneous eruption, resembling urticaria, and when given in 
large doses it causes nausea and vomiting. Its action seems 
specially directed to the mucous membrane of the bladder and 
urethra; and hence it is a remedy of great value in diseases of 
the genito-urinary system, particularly gonorrhoea. Its modus 
operandi is obscure ; but most writers think it operates by ex- 
citing a new action on the irritated mucous surfaces. In chronic 
diseases of the mucous membranes, as chronic diarrhoea or dys- 
entery, and in chronic bronchitis, it has been used with success. 
Dose, 20 to 40 drops, three times a day, generally given in 
emulsion with some aromatic water. It is often given in cap- 
sules of gelatine, which cover its taste and readily dissolve in 
the stomach. 

Oleum Copaiba. U. S. Oil of Copaiba. The oil of copaiba 
is obtained by distillation, and constitutes about one-half of the 
copaiba. It possesses the^ properties of the oleoresin, and may 
be used for the same purposes. Dose, 10 to 15. drops. 

Pilule Copaiba. U. S. Pills of Copaiba. When copaiba is 
mixed with one-sixteenth of its weight of magnesia, the latter 
combines chemically with the resin and acts as an absorbent of 
the volatile oil, producing a soft, tenacious mass capable of being 
made into pills. Each pill contains five grains of copaiba. 

POTASSiE CARBONAS. U. S. Carbonate of Potash. 

The impure carbonate of potash of commerce is procured from 
the ashes of wood by lixiviation, and the subsequent evaporation 
of the solution obtained. This, subjected to calcination, is ren- 
dered purer, and is then called pearlash. The officinal salt, 
known as salts of tartar, is obtained by purifying pearlash by 
dissolving it in water, filtering and evaporating the solution, and 
granulating by constant stirring. 

Properties. It is usually met with in the form of a coarse, 
white, granular powder, inodorous, and of an unpleasant, acrid, 
alkaline taste. It attracts moisture from the atmosphere, and 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DIURETICS. 289 

becomes converted into a dense oil-like liquid, formerly called 
oleum tartai'i 2^er deliquium. Composition, KOjCO^+SHO. 

PoTASSiB Carbonas Pura. U. S. Pure Carbonate of Potassa 
is prepared by heating the bicarbonate of potash to drive off one 
equivalent of carbonic acid, and differs from the preceding in 
containing no impurities. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is an antacid and diuretic. 
Its diuretic effect is greatly increased by the use of diluents, and 
by combination with other diuretics. It exercises all the peculiar 
effects of the alkalies on the system, and in calculous affections 
is preferred to the carbonate of soda, and, as Dr. Wood says, 
" seems to be generally used where the object is to alkalize the 
system." It is an old remedy for hooping-cough, and in doses of 
one grain, repeated three or four times a day, seems to exercise a 
controlling inguence on this disease. Externally, it is applied in 
the form of lotion, bath, or ointment, for the relief of the chronic 
forms of scaly and pustular eruptions. Its most common use is 
in the preparation of the neutral mixture or effervescing draught. 
In large quantities it acts as a corrosive poison, for which oils 
and the vegetable acids are the antidotes. Dose, 10 to 30 grains, 
given in some aromatic water sweetened with sugar. For ex- 
ternal application, from 5i to 5iii, dissolved in a pint of water. 
As an ointment, from ten grains to 5i to an ounce of lard. 

POTASS^ BICARBONAS. U. S. Bicarbonate of Potassa. 

This salt is prepared by passing carbonic acid through a solu- 
tion of the carbonate till it ceases to be absorbed, and crystal- 
lizing by evaporation. 

Properties. It occurs in colorless, transparent, right rhombic 
prisms, is inodorous, and has a saline, alkaline taste, without 
acridity. It is permanent in the air; exposed to a moderate heat, 
it parts with one equivalent of its carbonic acid, becoming reduced 
to the carbonate. It is soluble in four times its weight of water, 
and is insoluble in alcohol. Composition, KO,2C02-{-HO. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Its effects are similar to those 
of the carbonate, but not so powerful. It possesses the advan- 
tage of being less unpleasant to the taste, and its employment 

19 



290 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

, may be continued for a longer period. The dose is from 20 to 60 
grains. 

POTASS^ ACETAS. U. S. Acetate of Potassa. 

This salt, formerly known as sal diureticus, is prepared by 
saturating dilute acetic acid with bicarbonate of potash, and 
evaporating cautiously. 

Properties. It is a pure, white, deliquescent salt, with a 
fibrous texture, somewhat unctuous to the touch, with a pungent, 
saline taste ; very soluble in water and alcohol. It is decom- 
posed by heat, pyroacetic spirit being driven off, and carbonate of 
potash left. Composition, KO,(C^H303). 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small doses, a mild and 
efficient diuretic ; in larger doses, acting as a saline purgative. 
It proves eminently useful as a diuretic in dropskal affections, 
and is highly spoken of by Dr. Gr. Bird in the treatnaent of acute 
rheumatism, the urine being remarkably increased, both in its 
aqueous afid solid constituents. Dose, from 20 to 60 grains. 

SOD^ ACETAS. U. S. Acetate of Soda. 

This salt is manufactured on a large scale in the preparation 
of acetic acid, but for medicinal use may be procured by satu- 
rating acetic acid with carbonate of soda, and evaporating. 

Properties. It is a white salt, crystallizing in long, striated 
prisms, with a sharp, bitterish, not disagreeable taste. Compo- 
sition, NaO,(C,H303) + 6HO. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Same as those of the acetate 
of potash. Dose, 20 grains to 5\j- 

Ammonia Phosphas. Phosphate of Ammonia. This salt 
was brought to the notice of the profession by Dr. T. H. Buckler, 
of Baltimore, as a remedy for gout and rheumatism. It may be 
prepared by saturating a strong solution of phosphoric acid with 
ammonia, and evaporating. It is in white, rhombic, effervescent 
crystals, of a slight ammoniacal odor and a not unpleasant taste. 
On exposure it loses both ammonia and water, and becomes 
opaque. It is soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol. Com- 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DIAPHORETICS. 291 

position, 2(NII^O)P05-f HO. Dose, 10 to 40 grains, three times 
a day, dissolved in a tablespoouful of water. 

AMMONiiB Benzoas. Benzoate of Ammonia. This salt is 
prepared by neutralizing benzoic acid with a solution of am- 
monia, evaporating- and crystallizing. It occurs in white or 
colorless, glistening, laminar crystals, having the odor of benzoic 
acid, with a bitter, saline, balsamic taste. It is deliquescent in 
the air, and very soluble in water and alcohol. Composition, 
NH^O,(Cj^H503)+HO. It is diuretic, stimulating the mucous 
membrane of the urinary passages. Being more soluble than 
benzoic acid, it is more readily absorbed and converted into hip- 
puric acid, which passes out through the kidneys and is found 
in the urine. It may be used in chronic inflammation of the 
bladder, and is serviceable where a tendency to phosphatic de- 
posit exists, and has been recommended in anasarca, with albu- 
minuria following scarlatina. Dose, 10 to 20 grains. 

DIAPEOKETIOS. 

Diaphoretics are medicines which- tend to increase the secre- 
tion and exhalation from the skin ; when this is profuse, they are 
called suDORiPics. 

The skin, by means of its sebaceous and sudoriferous glands, 
secretes and excretes fatty matters, and the perspiration or sweat. 
Besides this, it exhales water from its surface, which serves to 
regulate the temperature of the body. The perspiration is said 
to be insensible when no visible moisture is discernible on the 
skin, and sensible when it is so discernible ; but there is no real 
difference between the two. In the former case it evaporates as 
fast as formed, while in the latter it remains iu the form of 
minute, colorless drops. The quantity of perspiration exhaled 
by different portions of the body differs, and is influenced both 
by internal and external conditions. Thus, it is augmented by 
increased vascularity of the skin, by a higher temperature of 
the body, by a quicker circulation, and therefore by exercise and 
effort generally. It is also increased by certain. conditions of the 
nervous system, which tend to relax the skin and its vessels. 
On the other hand, it is diminished or almost entirely arrested in 



292 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

febrile conditions and certain forms of excitement. Of the ex- 
ternal circumstances modifying the quantity of the perspiration, 
the most important are the temperature and hygrometric condi- 
tion of the atmosphere. Thus, warm or dry air increases, while 
cool or moist air diminishes it. 

The agents which, under certain circumstances, augment the 
cutaneous exhalation are numerous. External heat, assisted by 
the copious use of diluents, friction, exercise, and all agents 
which excite vascular action, promote sweating. The sudden 
and temporary application of cold, in the form of cold aEFusion or 
cold bath, proves sudorific by the reaction which it occasions. 
Diaphoretics, properly so called, are medicinal agents which act 
through the circulation and cause sweating. These produce 
their effects in different and opposite ways : by diminishing the 
force of the circulation, and thus relaxing the cutaneous vessels ; 
by stimulating the capillary vessels to increased secretion ; by 
augmenting the force of the circulation generally ; or by pro- 
ducing an impression upon the stomach which is communicated 
to the skin. 

They are employed therapeutically (as summed up by Pareira) : 
1. To restore the cutaneous secretion when it has been checked 
by cold, and thereby to relieve the consequences of its suppres- 
sion. 2. To promote the subsidence of diseases which naturally 
terminate in augmented cutaneous secretion, as in simple con- 
tinued fever, the exanthemata, and intermittents. 3. To produce 
determination to the surface in various maladies attended by 
coldness of the skin and congestion of the internal organs. 4. To 
antagonize other secretions : thus, they are sometimes employed" 
to check excessive secretion of urine, or to relieve diarrhoea. 5. 
To establish a substitute for some other secretion : thus, when 
the renal secretion is diminished or suppressed, we endeavor to 
relieve the system by diaphoretics. "We also employ them to 
eliminate noxious matters from the system ; and in this way 
they prove useful in gout, rheumatism, syphilis, and various 
other diseases. 

During the administration of diaphoretics, it is essential that 
the surface should be kept warm, and a bad conductor of heat, 
such as flannel, should be employed ; care must also be taken to 



LOCAL REMEDTES.— DIAPHORETICS. 293 

avoid the application of cold, eitlier by exposing the surface of 
the body to cold air, or by the use of cold drinks, while the per- 
spiration continues ; and finally, where we wish to check the 
diaphoresis, it must be done gradually, by drying the surface 
of the body with warm, dry towels, and by diminishing the 
covering. 

Diaphoretics may be considered under the three heads of 
nauseating, refrigerant, and alterative diaphoretics. 

NAUSEATING DIAPHORETICS. 

Most emetics are diaphoretic in small doses. Ipecacuanha and 
tartar emetic are chiefly used, and, from the nausea they occa- 
sion, produce a general relaxation of the cutaneous capillaries, 
by which the watery parts are permitted to ooze through their 
coats. The former has been treated of under the head of Emetics, 
the latter under that of Sedatives. Tartar emetic seems to act 
also by its direct sedative influence upon the nervous system, and 
through it upon the circulation and its dependent functions. 

REFRIGERANT DIAPHORETICS. 

Most of the alkaline salts, when absorbed into the circulation, 
depress the action of the heart, diminish the general heat, and 
stimulate the skin and kidneys to increased action. Those which 
are disposed to act on the cutaneous system, without the aid of 
diluents, may be properly considered here. The nitrate of potash 
has already been considered among the refrigerants, but, conjoined 
with other diaphoretic remedies, it sometimes acts by promoting 
determination to the skin. 

POTASS^ CITRAS. U. S. Citrate of Potassa. 

This salt is prepared by saturating citric acid in solution with 
bicarbonate of potassa, evaporating, and granulating by constant 
stirring. 

Properties. It is in the form of a white, granular powder, 
inodorous, with a saline taste. It is deliquescent, soluble in 
water, but insoluble in alcohol, decomposed at a red heat, le«,v- 



294 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

ing a residue of carbonate of potassa. Composition, 3K0, 

Medical Properties and Uses. This salt is useful as a diapho- 
retic in febrile disorders, but it is generally prepared at the 
moment of administering it. Dose, 5 to 20 grains, in solution. 

Liquor Potass^ Citratis. XJ. S. Solution of Citrate of 
Potassa is prepared by dissolving half a troyounce of citric 
acid and three hundred and thirty grains of bicarbonate of 
potassa in half a pint of water. 

MiSTURA Potass^ Citratis. U. S. This solution, known as 
Neutral Mixture, is prepared by saturating fresh lemon juice 
with the bicarbonate of potassa. It is an agreeable refrigerant 
and diaphoretic, used in fevers and inflammations, and when 
given in a state of effervescence, known as Effervescing Draught, 
it has an excellent effect in allaying nausea. 

Liquor Ammoni/e Acetatis. TJ. S. Solution of Acetate of 
Ammonia. This preparation, called Sioirit of Mindererus, is an 
aqueous solution of acetate of ammonia, made by saturating 
dilute acetic acid with carbonate of ammonia. 

Properties. It is transparent and colorless, inodorous, and 
has a faint, cooling, saline taste. It should be prepared in small 
quantities at a time, as the acid is decomposed on exposure and 
carbonate of ammonia generated. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is a,n excellent diaphoretic, 
when aided by keeping the surface warm, and by tepid dilution. 
It also lowers the pulse, and abates febrile heat; hence useful in 
febrile and inflammatory diseases, the exanthemata particularly. 
Externally it may be used as a discutient to bruises and in- 
flamed surfaces. Dose, 5i to 5iv, repeated every few hours. 

Spiritus ^theris NiTROSi. U. S. Sioirit of Nitrous Ether. 
Spirilus Nitri Duicis. Sweet Spirit of Nitre. This is a solu- 
tion of nitrous ether (C^HjOjNOJ in rectified spirit. Nitrous 
ether is generated by the reaction of nitric acid with alcohol, 
and is prepared by distilling a mixture of these substances, and 
purifying l)y redistillation with carbonate of potassa. 

Properties. When pure, spirit of uili-ous ether is a colorless, 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DIAPHORETICS. 205 

volatile liquid, of a fragrant, ethereal odor, and a sweetish, acid- 
ulous taste. It has a slightly acid reaction, sp. gr. O'SSt, boils 
at 145°, and is highly inflammable, burning with a whitish 
flame. It mixes with water and alcohol in all proportions. 

Medical Propertiea and Uses. As a refrigerant diaphoretic, it 
is much used in mild febrile affections, catarrhs, and influenza, 
for the purpose of allaying the heat of skin and moderating the 
excitement of the circulation. As a mildly stimulating diapho- 
retic, it- may be administered in dropsical affections in combina- 
tion with other medicines of this class. Dose, 20 to 60 drops, 

ALTERATIVE DIAPHORETICS. 

These are agents which appear to act specifically on the func- 
tion of the skin, but also have a tendeucy to influence, to a 
greater or less degree, all the secretions. They are more used 
for their general alterative effect than for their direct diaphoretic 
properties, and are chiefly employed in the treatment of chronic 
rheumatism, obstinate cutaneous diseases, and in the various 
forms of constitutional syphilis. 

GUAIACUM. U. S. Guaiac. 

The WOOD and resin obtained from Guaiacum officinale, a 
large and beautiful tree, growing in the West Indies and tropical 
America. All parts of the tree possess medicinal properties, 
but the wood and the concrete juice only are officinal, 

GuAiACi Lignum. U, S, The wood, known as lignum vitas, is 
much used in the arts, on account of its extreme hardness and 
density. It is usually imported in logs or billets, but as found 
in the shops is in the form of raspings or shavings. It has a 
peculiar aromatic odor, and an acrid, bitterish taste, and con- 
tains about 26 per cent, of the resin. 

GuAiACi Resina. it. S. The resin either exudes spontaneously 
from incisions made into the trunk, or is obtained from the wood 
by the aid of heat. It occurs in irregular pieces, of various sizes, 
of a dark-olive or reddish-brown color, with an odor and taste 
similar to, but stronger than, that of the wood. It is- brittle, pre- 



296 MATERIA MEDIOA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

sents a smooth, shining fracture, and forms a light-gray powder, 
which acquires a greenish tint on exposure. It is insoluble in 
water, but soluble in alcohol. Both wood and resin owe their 
activ^e properties to a resinoid principle, termed guaiacin. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Guaiacum is a warm, stimu- 
lating diaphoretic and alterative. Its stimulating properties 
render it inadmissible in acute cases, but in chronic fibrous rheu- 
matism and in gout it may be used with benefit, as tending to 
restore capillary action. In constitutional syphilis it was at one 
time regarded as a specific, and is still highly esteemed as an 
alterative in this disease and in some forms of cutaneous erup- 
tion, but is generally used in combination with other remedies. 
In certain uterine affections it has been used with benefit. 
Dose, 10 to 30 grains. 

TiNCTURA GuAiAci. U. S. Tincture of Guaiacum. (Six troy- 
ounces to two pints of alcohol.) Dose, 5i, increased if necessary. 

TiNCTURA GuAiACi Ammoniata. U. S. Ammoniated Tincture 
of Guaiacum. (Six troyounces to two pints of aromatic spirits 
of ammonia.) This preparation is more stimulating than the 
simple tincture, and at the same time somewhat antacid. Dr. 
Dewees speaks of it highly in amenorrhoea, and states that he 
has succeeded with it where almost all other emmenagogues have 
failed. Dose, the same as the simple tincture. Water decom- 
poses both these tinctures, and they should be given with some 
viscid substance. 



MEZERE.UM. TJ. S. Mezereon. 

The isARK of the Daphne Blezereum and Daphne Gmaium, 
hardy shrubs, three or four feet in height, growing wild in Eng- 
land and the north of Europe. 

Properties. The bark is usually collected in the spring, and is 
met with in the form of thin, flat, or quilled pieces, tough and 
fibrous, of an olive hue on its outer surface, yellowish-white 
within, of a faint, unpleasant odor, and sweetish, acrid taste. 
Water and alcohol extract its virtues. It contains daphnin, — 
a peculiar, crystallizable, bitter principle, — an acrid resin, upon 
which its irritant properties depend, and an acrid, volatile oil. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DIAPHORETICS. 297 

Medical Properties and Uses. Mezereon is a powerful stim- 
ulating diaphoretic, exciting the action of the vascular system ; 
in large doses it produces nausea, vomiting, and purging, and in 
overdoses acts as an acro-narcotic poison. It has long been 
esteemed as a remedy in chronic rheumatism, secondary syphilis, 
and obstinate diseases of the skin. Dose, 10 grains, best given 
in decoction. Externally, it is irritant and vesicant, and may be 
used in the form of ointment (prepared by mixing the alcoholic 
extract with lard) for maintaining the discharge from blistered 
surfaces. 

SASSAFRAS RADICIS CORTEX. TJ. S. Bark of 

Sassafras Boot. 

The BARK of the root of Sassafras officinale, a tree of medium 
size, growing in great abundance throughout the United States, 

Properties. As found in the shops, it is in pieces of various 
sizes, of a grayish-red color, light, porous, and very brittle, pre- 
senting, when freshly broken, a lighter color than that of the 
exposed surfaces. It has an agreeable, fragrant odor, and a 
warm, aromatic taste. Water and alcohol extract its virtues, 
which depend upon a volatile oil combined with tannin and ex- 
tractive. 

Oleum Sassafras. U. S. Oil of Sassafras. The bark con- 
tains about 2 per cent, of oil, which may be obtained by dis- 
tillation with water. It is of a yellow color, becoming reddish 
by age, and possesses all the propei'ties of the bark. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Sassafras is a stimulating dia- 
phoretic and diuretic, and may be used in the same cases as the 
preceding articles. It is much used as a domestic remedy, in 
the form of decoction, in chronic affections of the skin. 

Sassafras Medulla. U. S. Sassafras Pith. This is in white, 
slender, cylindrical pieces, very light and spongy, with a muci- 
laginous taste, and the slight flavor of the bark. It abounds in 
gummy matter, which dissolves in water, forming a thick, trans- 
parent mucilage, much used as a soothing application in inflam- 
mation of the eyes, and as a drink in inflammatory affections of 
the urinary organs. 



298 3IATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

MuciLAGO Sassafras. U. S. Mucilage of Sassafras. (Two 
drachms to a pint of water.) 

SARSAPARILLA. U. S. 

The ROOT of Smilax officinalis and of other species of Smilax, 
slender, prickly, trailing shrubs, natives of Mexico and the warm 
regions of South America. 

F7'operties. The dried roots are generally several feet in length, 
sometimes attached to a rhizome, about the thickness of a com- 
mon quill, cylindrical, flexible, wrinkled longitudinally, with more 
or less root-fibres attached to them. They consist of a thick 
cortical part, covered with an epidermis, which can be easily sep- 
arated, a thin inner layer of woody fibre, and a central medulla 
or pith. Their color varies from a red or brown to a grayish 
tint. It is inodorous when dry, but in decoction acquires a de- 
cided and peculiar odor ; the taste is mucilaginous, bitter, and 
slightly nauseous, leaving an acrid sensation in the mouth and 
fauces. 

It is generally met with in bundles formed of folded roots. 
There are several varieties in commerce, designated according 
to the place of shipment. Honduras sarsapariUa, the variety 
most used in this country, is of a dirty or grayish-brown color, 
and has but few rootlets attached. The inner bark presents a 
mealy, amylaceous appearance when broken. Jamaica or i^ed 
sarsapariUa differs from the preceding only in having a lively- 
red tint and more attached root-fibres, and is most esteemed as 
containing comparatively little starchy matter. Brazilian sar- 
sapariUa, or, as it is sometimes called, Lisbon sarsapariUa, re- 
sembles the Honduras in color and mealiness, but is almost free 
from rootlets. Mexican sarsajmriUa consists of thin, tough, 
grayish roots, connected by their rhizome with few rootlets, and 
destitute of starch in the cortex. 

All these varieties contain a crystalline principle, termed 
smilacin, which is white, inodorous, and almost tasteless, and 
upon which the medicinal virtues of the root depend. Besides 
this, it contains an acrid, bitter resin, starch, lignin, and other 
unimportant substances. It yields its virtues to boiling watei 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DIAPHORETICS. 299 

and alcohol ; but much of the sarsaparilla of the shops is nearly 
or quite inert from age, or from being mixed with roots of allied 
species which do not possess any medicinal properties. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It appears to be a stimulant 
to the secretions, especially those of the skin and kidneys, while 
it improves the appetite, strengthens the digestion, and invigo- 
rates the whole system. It is thought to prove highly service- 
able in syphilis and in affections consequent upon syphilis, and 
may also be employed in chronic rheumatism, scrofulous dis- 
eases, certain cutaneous diseases, and other depraved conditions 
of health. In these cases it is usually associated with other 
alterative diaphoretics and tonics. 

Decoctum Sabsaparill.^; Compositum. U. S. Compound 
Decoction of Sarsaparilla. (Prepared by boiling together six 
troyounces of sarsaparilla, a troyounce, each, of sassafras, guaia- 
cum wood, and liquorice root, with three drachms of mezereon, in 
four pints of water.) This preparation is an imitation of the 
celebrated Lisbon diet drink, and may be used as an alterative 
diaphoretic. Dose, 4 to 6 fluidounces. 

Syrupus SARSAPARiLLiE CoMPOSTTUS. U. S. Compound 
Syrup of Sarsaparilla. This syrup is made by first forming a 
tincture, with diluted alcohol, of sarsaparilla, guaiacum wood, 
roses, senna, and liquorice root, then evaporating oif most of the 
alcohol, and incorporating sufScient sugar with the residue to 
form a syrup, to which are added a few drops of the volatile oils 
of sassafras, anise, and gaultheria. Dose, ^ss to ^ij; generally 
used as a vehicle for alterative medicines. Care must be taken 
not to combine corrosive sublimate with this preparation, as it is 
said to be completely decomposed. 

Ex'iRACTUM Sarsaparilla Fluid um. U. S. Fluid Extract 
of Sarsaparilla. Prepared by evaporating a strong tincture and 
adding sugar. Dose f 5i to f 5ij- 

ExTRACTUM Sarsaparilla Fluidum Compositum. IT. S. 
Compound Fluid Extract of Sarsaparilla. This preparation 
contains all the ingredients of the compound decoction, except 
the guaiacum wood, and may be considered as representing that 
preparation in a concentrated state. Dose, f5i. 



300 ■ MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Aralia NuDicAULis. U.S. Sec. The root oi Ar alia nudicaulis, 
commonly called False Sarsaparilla, or small spikenard, an in- 
digenous, perennial plant, is thought to have an alterative influ- 
ence analogous to that of the genuine sarsaparilla, and, in the 
form of infusion, is sometimes used in rheumatism and cutaneous 
diseases. 

Xanthoxylum. U. S. Sec. The bark of Xanthoxijlum frax- 
ineum, prickly ash, a common indigenous shrub, is closely allied 
to mezereon in its physical and therapeutical properties. It is a 
powerful eliminant, exciting the whole secretory and excretory 
system, particularly that of the skin, and is extensively used in 
domestic practice in chronic rheumatism and secondary syphilis. 
It may be given in infusion, decoction, or fluid extract. Xan- 
thoxylin, the oleoresin, prepared by exhausting the bark by 
alcohol and evaporating, may be given in doses of from 1 to 3 
grains. 

AscLEPiAS. U. S. Sec. The root of Asclepias tuberosa, a 
small plant growing abundantly throughout the United States, 
and known in different localities as butterjiy-iveed or pleurisy- 
root. This root is a mild alterative tonic, acting with great cer- 
tainty upon the skin, and possessing sedative properties which 
render it efficacious in affections of the serous membranes. It is 
extensively employed at the South in pulmonary affections, and 
in rheumatism where it is necessary to determine to the skin 
without exciting or heating the system. It may be given in in- 
fusion or decoction, or the resinoid principle, asclepione, to which 
it owes its remedial properties, may be given in doses of 2 or 8 
grains. 

Lappa. U. S. Sec. The root of Lappa minor, Burdock, a 
native of Europe, and growing abundantly in the United States. 
This root, possessing diaphoretic without irritant properties, is 
never employed in practice ; but the decoction is a popular diet 
drink in rheumatism and chronic cutaneous afl'ections. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— EXPECTORANTS. 301 



EXPEOTOEANTS. 

Expectorants are medicines which increase the secretion 
from the bronchial tubes and air-passages, and promote its sub- 
sequent expulsion. 

The mucous membrane lining the air-passages secretes a cer- 
tain amount of mucus, which is necessary to enable the membrane 
to perform its function properly. Prom various causes this 
membrane becomes disordered, and its secretions become changed 
in quantity as well as quality. The object aimed at here in the 
treatment is to effect such a change in the disordered membrane 
as will restore its normal secretion. Besides, there are other 
disordered conditions of the respiratory organs; thus, morbid 
matters may be found in consequence of ulceration, the presence 
of softened tubercles, or of pus, as in abscess. In all these 
cases expectoration may require to be assisted. The prominent 
symptom in each of these morbid conditions is cough, which is 
a forcible expiration, and an attempt of nature to remove the 
offending cause from the larynx, trachea, or bronchia. Expecto- 
rants are here useful by aiding nature in removing the cause of 
the cough, and by modifying the pulmonary secretions, pro- 
moting them when deficient, and diminishing them when 
excessive. 

They may be applied in various ways. By inhalation, they 
act directly on the mucous lining of the air-passages, and produce 
their effects by the changes which they thus occasion in it. By 
allowing them slowly to dissolve in the mouth and make an im- 
pression upon the fauces, which is transmitted to the mucous 
membrane of the trachea and bronchia. In this way demulcent 
articles act in allaying irritation and in favoring expectoration. 
Or they may act by being taken internally, and absorbed. These 
comprise medicines of very diversified characters. Thus, nau- 
seants promote secretion and exhalation by their depressing 
influence, and are most appropriate in acute and inflammatory 
cases. Tonics and stimulants improve the general health, and 
thus tend to restore the secretion to a healthy condition, and are 
best adapted to old or chronic cases where there is deficiency 



302 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

of power to expel the vitiated secretions. And the alkalies, 
from their property of rendering the fluids of the body more 
liquid, lessen the viscidity of the mucous secretion, and allow it 
to be more easily expelled from the air-passages. 

Most agents used as expectorants are derived from other 
divisions of medicinal substances, and none are more uncertain 
in their effects. We shall mention those here which are most 
generally used for their expectorant properties. 

The relaxing expectorants have been spoken of under the 
head of Arterial Sedatives and Emetics. The most important 
of these are tartar emetic and ipecacuanha. These prove useful, 
in minute doses, by relaxing the mucous membrane of the pul- 
monary organs, and thus promoting secretion and exhalation. 
They are usually given in combination, as additions to cough 
mixtures. Ipecacuanha is more commonly given in the form of 
syrup. 

SCILLA. U. S. Squill. 

The BULB of Scilla viariiima, Sea-onion, a perennial plant, 
shooting from a large bulb with fibrous roots, growing native on 
the shores of the Mediterranean. 

Proiierties. The bulb is pear-shaped, varying in size, composed 
of concentric fleshy scales, each of which is covered with a thin 
membranous coat. Two kinds are met with in commerce, the 
white and the red, which differ only in color. As found in the 
shops, it is usually cut into thin slices, of a dull yellowish-white 
color, flexible when moist, but brittle and pulverizable when dry, 
without odor, and of a bitter, acrid, and nauseous taste. It 
yields its virtues to water, alcohol, and vinegar. It contains an 
acrid resin, and a bitter principle, termed scillitin. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Squill, in small doses, is expecto- 
rant and diuretic ; in large doses, emetic ; and in excessive doses, 
an acro-narcotic poison. As an expectorant, it is said to attenu- 
ate the mucus, and to excite a more copious secretion from the 
mucous follicles, thereby relieving congestion and dyspnoea ; 
but it should never be employed in inflammatory cases. As a 
diuretic, it proves of the greatest service, in combination with 
other remedies, in dropsical diseases. As an emetic, its action is 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— EXPECTORANTS. 303 

too uncertain for general use, though it is occasionally used 
to excite nausea and emesis in hooping-cough and croup. Dose, 
from 1 to 2 grains, gradually Increased till it evinces its action 
upon the lungs or kidneys. As an emetic, from 6 to 12 grains. 

AcETUM SciLLiE. U. S. Vinegar of Squill. (Four troyounces 
of squill to two pints of distilled vinegar.) This preparation 
possesses all the properties of the medicine, but is injured by 
keeping, and is chiefly used in the preparation of the syrup. 

Syrupus Soill^. U. S. Syrup of Squill (prepared by dis- 
solving sugar in the vinegar of squill while hot) is much employed 
as an expectorant. Dose, f5i to fjij ; less for children. 

Syrupus SoiLL.as Compositus. U.S. Compound Syrup of 
Squill contains squill, seneka, and one grain of tartar emetic in 
each ounce of syrup, and is intended as a substitute for Cowers 
hive syrup, from which it differs in containing sugar instead of 
honey. It is emetic, diaphoretic, or expectorant, according to the 
dose. Dose for children, 10 drops to f5i, according to age. 

Pilule Scill^ Composite. U. S. Compound Pills of Squill. 
(These pills contain one part of squill, two parts, each, of ginger, 
ammonia, and soap, with sugar to form a pilular mass.) It is 
a stimulant expectorant compound, principally used in chronic 
bronchial affections. Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 

TiNCTURA SciLL.®. U. S. Tincture of Squill. (Four troy- 
ounces to two pints of diluted alcohol.) Dose, 10 to 40 drops. 

SENEGA. U. S. Seneka. 

% 

The ROOT of Polygala Senega, a hardy, perennial plant, native 
of North America, growing abundantly in the Southern and 
Western States. 

Properties. The dried root varies in size from a quill to that 
of the little finger, is much contorted, marked with rough emi- 
nences, and with a projecting line extending the whole length of 
the root. The virtues reside in the cortical portion, which is thick, 
hard, and resinous ; the central portion is white and inert. It 
has a faint odor, and a nauseous and acrid taste. The powder is 
grayish-yellow. Water and alcohol extract its virtues, which de- 
pend upon a peculiar principle, called senegin, or polygalic acid, 
a white substance, inodorous, and of a bitter, acrid taste. 



304 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Senega is a stimulating expec- 
torant, peculiarly adapted to the advanced stages of chronic bron- 
chitis and of pneumonia, especially when occurring in the aged 
or debilitated, or when the inflammatory symptoms have sub- 
sided. In large doses it is emetic and cathartic. Dose of the 
powder, from 10 to 20 grains. 

Decoctum Senegje. U. S. Decoction of Seneka. (By boiling 
a troyounce of senega in a pint of water for ten minutes.) Dose, 

Syrupus SENEGiE. U. S. Syrup of Seneka. (Prepared by ex- 
tracting the virtues of four troyounces of senega with two pints 
of diluted alcohol, and adding fifteen troyounces of sugar to make 
a syrup.) It affords a convenient mode of exhibiting senega in 
pectoral complaints. Dose, f5i to f 5ij or more. 

ExTRACTUM Senega Alcoholicum. Alcoholic Extract of 
Seneka. Dose, 1 to 3 grains. 

CIMICIFUGA. IJ. S. Black Snake-root. 

The ROOT of Cimicifuga racemosa, sometimes called Actea 
racemosa, and commonly known as Black Snake-root or Black 
Cohosh, a tall, stately plant, growing throughout the United 
States. 

Properties. The root consists of a thick, irregularly bent or 
contorted body, furnished with many slender radicles, of a dark- 
brown color externally, whitish internally, with a peculiar dis- 
agreeable odor, a;>d a bitter, astringent taste, leaving a slight 
sense of acrimony. It imparts its virtues to water and alcohol. 
It contains a peculiar alkaloid principle, cimicifugin, a resin, 
and volatile oil. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is an alterative tonic and 
expectorant. It is much used in chronic affections of the pulmo- 
nary organs, and is especially serviceable in the severe and pro- 
tracted cough of phthisis. Dr. Wood considers that it is useful 
in these affections by allaying irritation through its sedative prop- 
erties. It has also been found useful in chorea, and some otlier 
nervous affections, and appears to be a remedy of value in acute 
and chronic rheumatism. Dose of the powdered root, from 20 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— EXPECTORANTS. 305 

to 40 grains; or it may be administered in infusion or tincture. 
An excellent cough syrup may be prepared by combining cimi- 
cifuga, senega, liquorice root, ipecacuanha, and wild cherry. 

ExTRACTUM CiMiciFUG^ Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of 
Cimicifuga. Dose, 30 to 60 drops. 

ALLIUM. U. S. GarliG. 

The BULB of Allium, sativum, Garlic. A perennial, bulbous 
plant, native of Italy and the south of France, but cultivated in 
all civilized countries. 

Properties. The bulb is spherical, consisting of several small 
bulbs, called cloves, grouped together within a common mem- 
branous covering, of a dirty whitish color and withered aspect 
when dry. These small bulbs are of an oblong shape, somewhat 
curved, white and fleshy, with a strong, disagreeable, peculiar 
odor, and an acrid, pungent taste, which depend on a volatile oil. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Garlic acts as a general stim- 
ulant and expectorant. It is most generally used internally for 
its expectorant properties in chronic catarrh and other pectoral 
affections of children, as well as in the nervous and spasmodic 
coughs to which patients of this class are liable. Externally 
applied, it is stimulant and rubefacient; and applied in the form 
of poultice, it acts as a revulsive in febrile diseases, quieting rest- 
lessness and producing sleep. 

Syrupus Allii. U. S. Syrup of Garlic. (Prepared by dis- 
solving garlic in dilute acetic acid and adding sugar to form 
syrup.) Dose, f5i. 

Onion, the bulb of Allium Cepa, possesses similar properties. 
The juice, made into a syrup with sugar, forms an excellent ex- 
pectorant in infantile catarrh and croup when inflammatory 
symptoms are absent. 

BENZOINUM. U. S. Benzoin. 

The CONCRETE JUICE of Styrax Benzoin, a large tree, native of 
Sumatra, Java, and other parts of the East Indies. It is pro- 
cured by making incisions into the bark of the tree, and allowing 
the juice which exudes to concrete. 

20 



306 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Properties. It occurs either in whitish tears, or masses con- 
sisting of aggregate tears, of a reddish-brown color externally, 
or in large blackish masses of a mottled appearance. It is brittle, 
has a resinous aspect and fracture, an agreeable, aromatic odor 
which is increased by rubbing, and a sweet, balsamic taste. It is 
soluble in alcohol and ether, and is precipitated from the solution 
by water. It is fusible and inflammable, exhaling pungent fumes 
when heated. It contains resin, volatile oil, and benzoic acid. 

AciDUM Benzoicum. U. S. Benzoic Acid, also called Flowers 
of Benzoin, is procured from gum benzoin by sublimation, and 
occurs in white, feathery, acicular crystals, of a satiny appear- 
ance, having a faint, aromatic odor, and an acid, penetrating 
taste. It fuses at 248°, and volatilizes at 293°, producing white, 
suffocating vapors. It dissolves in twenty-five parts of boiling 
water, in two hundred parts of cold water, and in twice its weight 
of alcohol. It forms salts ; but its acid powers are very feeble. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Benzoic acid was formerly 
much used as a stimulating expectorant in old cases of bron- 
chitis and in the advanced stages of phthisis, but at present is 
not much used, except as a constituent of paregoric. For its 
action in diminishing the tendency of uric acid calculus, see 
Ammonise Benzoas. Dose, 10 grains, in pill or emulsion. 

TiNCTUEA Benzoini CoMPOSiTA. U. S. Compound Tincture 
of Benzoin is prepared by dissolving three troyounces of ben- 
zoin, half a troyounce of aloes, two troyounces of storax, and 
a troyounce of Tolu in two pints of alcohol. It is sometimes 
used as a stimulating expectorant in old pectoral diseases, in 
doses of from 30 drops to f 5ij- 

XJnquentum Benzoini. U. S. Ointment of Benzoin is pi'epared 
by beating together a troyounce of benzoin and sixteen troy- 
ounces of lard. The benzoin seems to obviate the liability of 
the lard to become rancid, and hence this ointment is useful as a 
vehicle of medicines in this form. 

BALSAMUM PERUYIANUM. U. S. Balsam of Peru. 

The juice of Myrospermum Peruiferum, a lofty, handsome 
tree, native of the forests of Peru and the warmer regions of 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— EXPECTORANTS. SOt 

South America. It is procured by making incisions into the bark 
of the tree. 

Properties. It is a thick, semi-transparent liquid, becoming 
thicker on exposure, of a dark, reddish-brown color, with an 
agreeable, aromatic odor, and a pungent, bitter, and acrid taste. 
It is inflammable, burning with a bright flame, and giving off a 
dense, white smoke. It is insoluble in cold water, but soluble in 
alcohol. Its principal constituents are resin, a peculiar oil, and 
cinnamic acid. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Balsam of Peru is a mild, 
stimulating expectorant, at one time much used in chronic broa- 
chitis, in the advanced stages of phthisis, and in old asthmatic 
cases, but now seldom employed as an internal remedy. Dose, 
f 5ss, best administered in emulsion with sugar or gum arable. 
Externally, in the form of ointment (5i of balsam to ^i of simple 
ointment), it is a mild stimulant application to indolent ulcers 
and to wounds in parts of inferior vitality, and often proves ser- 
viceable to sore or chapped nipples. 

BALSAMUM TOLUTANUM. U. S. Balsam of Tolu. 

The CONCRETE JUICE of Ilyrospermum Toluiferum, a tree 
growing upon the mountains of Tolu and in other districts of 
South America and Mexico. 

Properties. It is in soft, tenacious masses of a resinous 
aspect, becoming more solid and brittle on exposure, of a red- 
dish-yellow color, with a peculiar, fragrant odor, and a sweet, 
aromatic taste. Exposed to heat, it melts, and is inflammable, 
diffusing an agreeable odor while burning. It is soluble in alco- 
hol, ether, and the volatile and fatty oils. It contains resin, 
volatile oil, and cinnamic acid. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Balsam of Tolu is a stimu- 
lating expectorant, much employed, on account of its flavor, as 
an adjunct to cough syrups ; but it is contraindicated in active 
inflammatory states of the lungs and air-passages. 

TiNCTURA ToLUTANA. IT. S. Tiucture of Tolu is prepared by 
dissolving three troyounces of the balsam of Tolu in two pints of 
alcohol. It is often employed in small quantities to flavor cough 
syrups and troches. 



g'08 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Syrtjpus Tolutanus. U. S. Syrup of Tolu may be prepared 
by first precipitating the resin from the tincture of Tolu by means 
of carbonate of magnesia, and then adding water and sugar to 
form a syrup. It is a pleasant ingredient of pectoral mixtures. 
Dose, f 5i to f 5ij. 

STYRAX. U. S. Storax. 

The PREPARED JUICE of Liquidamhar orientale, the Oriental 
sweet-gum, a large tree, native of Asia Minor. It is obtained by 
expression from the inner bark of the tree. 

Properties. There are several varieties of storax, but the one 
commonly used is a semi-transparent, semi-fluid resin, brown or 
blackish on the surface exposed to the air, but of a greenish-gray 
color within, of a fragrant odor and aromatic taste. It is soluble 
in alcohol and ether, and melts at a moderate heat. It contains 
resin, a volatile oil, and cinnamic acid. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Storax is a stimulant expecto- 
rant, closely allied in its properties to benzoin and balsam of 
Tolu, but is now only used as a constituent of the compound 
tincture of benzoin. 

EMMENAGOGUES. 

Emmenagogues are medicines which excite or promote the 
functional action of the uterus, and tend to restore a healthy con- 
dition of the menstrual function. 

As the retention or suppression of the catamenia may be occa- 
sioned by very different circumstances, no one agent can be ex- 
pected to prove eramenagogue or to be applicable in every case: 
indeed, very opposite remedies are available in different instances* 
In most cases deficient menstruation is only a symptom of some 
derangement of the general health, and the function is to be re- 
stored by remedies which are employed with reference to this 
morbid condition. Aloes and purgatives, which act on the lower 
portion of the large intestines, operate by their stimulant action, 
being conveyed by sympathy to the contiguous uterus, and are 
adapted to cases where the suppression of the secretion depends 
upon congestion of the vessels of the uterus. Stimulating diu- 
retics may also act by a kind of sympathy, and thus stimulate its 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— EMMENAGOGUES. 309 

function. In amenorrhoea, coexisting with anaemia or debility, 
the preparations of iron are the most efficient remedies, and act 
by removing the cause, and restoring the deficient constituents 
in the blood. In hysterical cases the antispasmodics prove indi- 
rectly emmenagogue. 

The tei'm, however, is usually employed to designate those 
substances which are supposed to possess a direct action on the 
uterus and its appendages, so as to promote the menstrual dis- 
charge. The tonics, purgatives, and diuretics, which appear to 
possess special influence over this function, have already been re- , 
ferred to. Ergot, which has been by some classed among emmena- 
gogues, rather promotes uterine contractions than the menstrual 
function, and is more properly classed among the spinal stimu- 
lants. Under this head we shall mention those only which are 
peculiarly emmenagogue without other properties. 

SABINA. U. S. Savine. 

The TOPS of Janiperus Sabina, an evergreen, bushy shrub, 
with tough, slender branches, closely invested with short, acute, 
imbricated leaves, growing in the south of Europe, and intro- 
duced into this country. It bears considerable resemblance to 
our common red cedar, the Junvperus Virginiana, the leaves of 
which are sometimes substituted for it. 

Properties. The tops, consisting of the young branches with 
the attached leaves^ when dried are yellowish-green, with a strong, 
disagreeable odor, and a hot, bitter, and acrid taste. Water and 
alcohol extract their virtues, which depend on a volatile oil. 

Oleum Sabine. U. S. Oil of Savine is obtained by distillation 
from the fresh plant, and is a limpid, colorless, or light-yellowish 
liquid, with the odor and taste of the plant. 

Medical Properties and Uses'. Savine and its oil are stimu- 
lants, and appear to act powerfully upon the uterus, and may be 
used as emmenagogues in cases in which the circulation is lan- 
guid and unattended by fever. It is inadmissible in plethoric 
cases, and in overdoses- acts as an irritant poison. Dose in pow- 
der, 5 to 15 grains, sometimes given in infusion. Dose of the oil, 
1 to 5 drops. 



310 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Ceratum Sabine. TJ. S. Savine Cerate is prepared by evapo- 
rating the ethereal tincture of savine to the consistence of syrup 
and 'adding melted resin cerate. It is much used to keep up a 
discharge from blistered surfaces. 

RuTA. U. S. Secondary. Hue, the leaves of Buta graveolens, 
a hardy, evergreen under-shrub, native of the south of Europe, 
and cultivated in this country. It flowers during the whole 
summer, and is known by its strong, peculiar, and even fetid 
odor. It has a warm, bitter, and acrid taste. Water and alcohol 
extract its virtues, which reside in a volatile oil, separated by dis- 
tillation with water. It is an active stimulant, and appears to 
act upon the uterus, in moderate doses proving emmenagogue, 
and in larger doses causing a degree of irritation in the organ 
which sometimes produces abortion. In large doses it acts as 
an acro-narcotic poison. It is little employed by regular prac- 
titioners, but is in much repute among empirics and in domestic 
practice. Dose of the powder, from 15 to 30 grains; is also given 
in infusion or extract. 

RuBiA. U. S. Secondary. Madder is the root of Ruhia tincto- 
rum, or dyers'' madder, a herbaceous, perennial plant, native of 
the south of Europe, and extensively cultivated. The dried 
root, as found in commerce, is in long, cylindrical pieces, about 
the size of a goose-quill, of a reddish-brown color, having a 
strong, peculiar odor, and a bitter, astringent taste. It imparts 
its virtues to water and alcohol. It contains coloring matters, a 
saccharine substance, and some resin. The root is tonic, and 
has been used with advantage as an emmenagogue in amenor- 
rhoea. It may be given in powder or in decoction. Dose of the 
powder, 5ss to 5ij- 

GossYPii Radix. U. S. Secondary. Cotton Boot. The root 
of Gossypiiim hei^baceum, and of other species of Gosi^ypiuni, 
natives of the tropical regions of Asia and America. The her- 
baceous parts of the plant contain much mucilage, and have 
been used as a demulcent. The seeds yield, by expression, an 
oil which is used in the arts. The roots are emmenagogue, 
and are much employed for this purpose in domestic practice 
throughout the Southern States. The cotton-wool, a filament- 
ous substance separated from the seeds, forms an excellent 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— SIALOGOGUES. 311 

application to burns and scalds, and is recommended as a dress- 
ing to blisters when it is wished to heal them rapidly. 

Apiol. Apiolium. The peculiar principle of the seeds of 
Petroselinum sativum, or common parsley, obtained by treat- 
ing them with alcohol. It is a yellowish, oily-looking fluid, with 
a peculiar and tenacious odor and an acrid, piquant taste. It 
is soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. In doses of from 
8 to 15 drops, it is said to be the best and safest emmenagogue 
that can be employed. Waring states that "it is especially 
adapted for amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea, when they arise 
from a diminution, excess, or perversion of the vitality of the 
uterus, attended with local or general nervous symptoms." It 
should be administered when the menstrual discharge would be 
naturally expected to return, and continued for several days. It 
has also been supposed to possess antiperiodic properties similiar 
to those of quinia. 

SIALOGOGUES. 

This name is applied to medicines which increase the quan- 
tity or promote the excretion of the saliva. Those whose 
internal administration affects these organs through the medium 
of the circulation, of which mercury is the most important, are 
never given for this purpose expressly. The term is here 
applied to those substances which stimulate the excretory ducts 
by topical application to the secretory vessels. As they are 
generally chewed for this purpose, they are called masticatories. 
They are very seldom employed as remedial agents, as their 
therapeutical application is very limited. 

They are sometimes useful in toothache, and are often bene- 
ficial in relieving congestions in remote parts of the head, by 
the depletion and revulsion they occasion from the neighboring 
vessels. They may also be employed as direct stimulants in 
paralytic affections of the tongue and throat, and to restore and 
maintain the cohesive power of the gums in a spongy state of 
these parts. By the superabundant discharge of the natural 
secretion which they cause, they diminish the quantity of the 
circulating fluid in a degree that entitles them to be called evac- 



312 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

uants. Those ordinarily employed are mezereon and tobacco, 
which have been considered, and 

Pyrethrum. U. S. Secondary. Pellitory. The root of Ana- 
cyclus Pyrethrum, a small, perennial, herbaceous plant, a native 
of the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. The root is 
cylindrical or fusiform, about the thickness of the little finger, 
covered with a thick dark-brown bark studded with small, black, 
shining spots. It breaks with a resinous fracture, and presents 
a brownish-yellow internal surface. It is inodorous, and at first 
insipid, but afterward causes a hot, prickling sensation on the 
tongue and lips. It contains an acrid oleoresin, and a peculiar 
principle. When chewed, it acts as a local stimulant to the 
salivary glands, producing a copious secretion of saliva. For 
this purpose it is used in toothache, neuralgia of the face, and 
paralysis of the tongue. The dose, as a masticatory, is from 30 
grains to a drachm. 

, EEEHINES. 

Errhines are medicines which tend to increase the natural 
secretion from the mucous membrane of the nostrils. When 
they provoke sneezing, they are called sternutatories. All 
substances producing this effect are applied directly to the in- 
terior of the nostrils, and act by stimulating the secretory 
tissue. They may be used to promote secretion, and thus de- 
plete the neighboring vessels; to relieve the organ of suppres- 
sion of discharge ; or to produce a I'evulsive influence on neigh- 
boring parts. They are principally employed for the relief of 
headache and a tendency to fullness of the head ; sometimes 
they are used to provoke sneezing with a view to the expulsion 
of foreign bodies from the nasal cavities. Their medicinal em- 
ployment, however, is very limited, and no substances are used 
exclusively for this purpose. Almost any acrid substance will 
stimulate the pituitary membrane and act as an errhine: ammo- 
nia, tobacco, turpeth mineral, hellebore, and sauguinaria may be 
employed for this purpose. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— EPISPASTICS. 313 



KEMEDIES AFFECTING ORGANIZATION. 

These are all external remedies, which act by irritating, in- 
flaming, or destroying the part to which they are applied. 
When they operate so mildly as merely to excite the capillaries 
without occasioning the effusion of serum, they are called rube- 
facients; but if, by increased strength or continued application, 
they excite the extreme vessels into such a state of inflammation 
as to terminate in the effusion of a serous fluid between the 
cuticle and the skin, they are called epispastics; if they destroy 
the texture of the part, they are termed escharotics. The dis- 
tinction between these classes is not very marked: thus, water of 
ammonia may act as a rubefacient, an epispastic, or an escharotic, 
according to its degree of strength ; and most of the agents in 
one class may be so applied as to produce the characteristic 
effects of the others. 

EPISPASTICS, 

Also called vesicatories, or blisters, are substances which, 
when applied to the skin, irritate it and occasion the effusion of 
a thin, serous fluid under the cuticle. The part to which they 
are applied undergoes all the changes of ordinary inflammation, 
with redness, heat, swelling, and pain, followed by an effusion 
of serum and consequent separation of the cuticle, forming a 
blister. On removing the epispastic and discharging the serum, 
the part, unless again irritated, soon heals, and in a few days is 
restored to its natural state. 

They are employed for various purposes: 1. To establish a 
degree of irritation or inflammation on the surface, and thus 
cause a diversion of the circulation from the inflamed or en- 
gorged vessels of the neighboring organs, as in diseases of the 
heart, lungs, brain, and other important viscera. In these cases 
their stimulant effect should be considered, and their application 
avoided in the very acute stage of inflammatory diseases, or 
until the general excitement has been subdued. 2. To substitute 
a mild and easily managed disease for an internal and intractable 



314 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

one. 3. To stimulate the absorbents, and thus cause evacuation 
of effused fluids. 4. To stimulate the whole system, and thus 
support the action of the heart and give energy to the nervous 
system, in cases where the vital powers are much depressed. In 
low fevers, where the capillary circulation is feeble, it is requisite 
to seize the proper period for the application of a blister, lest the 
blistered surface should degenerate into troublesome or gangren- 
ous sores. 5. To relieve pain through the medium of sympathy. 
They are also applied to denude the cuticle, so as to apply medi- 
cines by the endermic method. They should be applied as near 
as possible to the morbid part, and must be used with great 
caution in children where there is great exhaustion and imme- 
diately after exanthematous diseases. Care is also necessary not 
to apply them where the skin is very tender and delicate, nor 
over a bony prominence, as the process of healing will be very 
slow and difficult. When it is desirable to keep up a discharge 
from a blistered surface for any length of time, the surface may 
be dressed with savine ointment or the ointment of Spanish flies. 
If much inflammation should take place, it may be relieved by 
emollient poultices; and when there is an indisposition to heal, 
nothing is so effectual as weak lead cerate. 

CANTHARIS. U. S. Cantharides. 

The Spanish Fly, or Cantharis vesicatoria, is an insect 
belonging to the beetle tribe, and is found adhering to the leaves 
of a number of trees and plants in the southern and temperate 
portions of Europe and Asia. They are collected by shaking 
them from the branches early in the morning, while they are 
yet torpid from the cold of the previous night. 

Properties. The insect is from six to ten lines in length, and 
two or three in breadth, of a shining, golden-greenish color, and, 
when alive, has a fetid, penetrating odor. When dried, they re- 
tain this offensive odor, and have an acrid, burning taste. They 
yield a grayish-brown powder, interspersed with shining green 
particles. They contain a volatile, odorous oil, fatty matter, and 
a peculiar principle, termed cantharidin, to which their vesicating 
properties are due. This may be procured by evaporating the 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— EPISPASTICS. 315 

ethereal tincture obtained bj percolation, dissolving the residue 
in boiling alcohol, decolorizing with animal charcoal, and crystal- 
lizing. It is in small, crystalline, micaceous plates, inodorous 
and tasteless, insoluble in water and cold alcohol, but soluble in 
hot alcohol, ether, and oil. The powder soon undergoes putre- 
faction if exposed to a damp atmosphere: hence the flies should 
be kept whole, and powdered as needed for use. They are also 
liable to be attacked by mites, which destroy the interior soft 
part of the body, reducing them to powder. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small medicinal doses, can- 
tharides are stimulant diuretic, and appear to exercise a peculiar 
action over the mucous membrane of the genito-urinary system. 
They seem to act as a tonic on these organs, and to arrest 
mucous discharges from them, and have been successfully used 
in leucorrhoea, chronic gonorrhoea, and all diseases of the bladder 
attended with want of tone and unaccompanied with inflamma- 
tory symptoms. In incontinence of urine in children, in paraly- 
sis of the bladder, they may be used with benefit. In large or 
poisonous doses, they cause violent inflammation of the mucous 
lining of the whole alimentary canal, and severe irritation and in- 
flammation of the urinary organs, attended with strangury, mic- 
turition of blood, and sometimes suppression of urine. In these 
cases the poison should be removed from the stomach as speedily 
as possible, and bland and demulcent liquids freely adminis- 
tered. Cantharides are principally used as external agents, some- 
times as stimulants, but more frequently as epispastics. Locally 
applied, they prove useful as a stimulant to promote the growth 
of the hair in baldness, and in falling off of the hair after debili- 
tating diseases, and are sometimes added to liniments to excite 
the sensibility of the skin in numbness and paralysis, and also 
to produce local irritation in neuralgic and rheumatic pains. As 
vesicants they have no equal, whether for certainty of effect or 
facility of application. When applied to the skin, they raise 
a large blister, and cause more effusion than any other local irri- 
tant, — even than boiling water and steam. 

Ceratum Cantharidis. U. S. Cerate of Cantharides. Blis- 
tering Cerate. (Prepared by adding twelve troyounces of pow- 
dered cantharides to seven troyounces of yellow wax and resin, 



316 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

each, and ten troyounces of lard, melted together.) This is the 
ordinary blistering plaster of the shops, and is best applied by 
spreading it on adhesive plaster, and covering it with thin gauze, 
to prevent any of the cerate from adhering to the cuticle. The 
time required for it to produce vesication varies according to the 
part to which it is applied: from four to twelve hours is the 
time it usually takes to produce a complete blister. A poultice 
of bread and milk, or flaxseed meal, may be applied for a few 
hours, and the surface may then be dressed with simple cerate ; 
or, if it be desirable to maintain the discharge for a short time, 
resin cerate may be used. In some constitutions it is apt to 
produce the irritant action of cantharides upon the urinary 
organs. In these cases demulcent fluids, or a decoction of uva 
ursi, will soon afford relief. 

Various other preparations have been recommended as sub- 
stitutes for the cerate. These consist of the active principle, 
cantharidin, dissolved in olive oil, or incorporated with wax, and 
spread upon cloth or paper, constituting the blistering cloth or 
paper of the shops. 

Ceratum Extracti Cantharidis. U. S. Cerate of Extract 
of Cantharides is prepared by first obtaining an alcoholic extract 
of the flies, and mixing it with resin, wax, and lard, melted to- 
gether. It may be used for the same purposes as the cerate of 
cantharides, but is more powerful. 

LiNiMENTUM Cantharidis. U. S. Liniment of Cantharides 
is prepared by dissolving, with the aid of heat, a troyounce of 
powdered cantharides in half a pint of oil of turpentine. It 
is a powerful irritant, and may be used as an external stimulant 
in very urgent cases, but with caution, as it is liable to produce 
troublesome, if not dangerous, vesication. It may be diluted 
with olive oil, or added to other liniments, 

TiNCTURA Cantharidis. U. S. Tincture of Cantharides (a 
troyounce of powdered cantharides to two pints of diluted alco-' 
hoi) possesses all the virtues of the flies, and is the most con- 
venient form for internal administration. It is also used exter- 
nally as a vesicant, and as an addition to stimulating liniments. 
Dose, 15 to 30 minims, best administered in some demulcent 
liquid. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— RUBEFACIENTS. SH 

CoLLODiUM CUM Cantharide. U. S. Collodion with Can- 
tharides. Gantharidal Collodion. The powdered flies are 
exhausted by ether and alcohol ; the alcoholic solution is evapo- 
rated, and the two liquids are then mixed ; gun-cotton, as prepared 
in the process for collodion; is then added, and the mixture 
agitated until it is dissolved. This is a very convenient epispas- 
tic, and affords a ready and convenient mode of blistering uneven 
or irregular surfaces. It may be applied by means of a camel's- 
hair pencil, and may be repeated without inconvenience, if the 
part has not received a sufficient coating. 

There are several other species of Cantharis found in the 
United States, which are sometimes substituted for the officinal. 
The Cantharis vittata, or potato fly, is the most common. This 
is smaller than the C. vesicatoria, but resembles it in shape, and 
contains cantharidin. The G. Nuttalli, a large and beautiful 
insect of Missouri, and the G. albida, another large species, found 
near the Rocky Mountains, are said to possess vesicating proper- 
ties quite equal to those of the Spanish fly. 

EUBEFAOIElifTS. 

Rubefacients are substances which simply irritate or inflame 
the part to which they are applied, without producing vesication. 
The principles of their operation are the same as those of epispas- 
tics, and they are employed where the object is to make a rapid 
and powerful but transient impression, as in sudden or extreme 
cases. Where a permanent effect is desired, blisters are preferred. 
Capsicum and oil of turpentine, which have been noticed as ar- 
terial stimulants, are excellent rubefacients, acting rapidly and 
efficiently on the skin. The turpentine may be applied in low 
states of fever, and is much used as an application over the 
whole abdomen, in puerperal and typhoid fevers. It may be 
used either as a lotion, or applied on flannel saturated with it 
and laid closely upon the part. 



318 MATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

SINAPIS. U. S. Mustard. 

The SEEDS of Sinapis nigra and Sinapis alba, Black and 
White Mustard, small, annual plants, natives of Europe, but cul- 
tivated in our gardens. 

Properties. Black mustard seeds are small, globular, rugose, 
of a deep-brown color, inodorous when whole, but exhaling a 
strong, pungent odor when crushed, with a hot, bitter taste. 
White mustard seeds are larger, of a yellowish color and a less 
pungent taste. These seeds ground and sifted constitute the 
flour of mustard, or mustard of the shops. This is a green- 
ish-yellow powder, with an acrid, burning taste, and a strong, 
penetrating odor, which is much increased by moistening it. It 
is liable to adulteration with flour and various other farinas, and 
is sometimes colored with turmeric. The seeds contain a &xed oil, 
which may be obtained by expression. The black mustard seeds 
contain a peculiar principle, myrosyne, analogous to vegetable 
albumen, and myronate of potassa, a bitter, inodorous substance. 
On distillation with water it yields a pungent, volatile oil, which 
does'not pre-exist in the seeds, but is developed on the addition 
of water, by the mutual reaction between the water, the myrosyne, 
and the myronate of potassa. This is colorless, of a pale-yellow 
color, with a penetrating odor, and an acrid, burning taste. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Mustard, in small doses, is 
stimulant, and is much used as a condiment to increase the 
appetite and to improve the tone of the digestive organs. In 
large doses, from 1 to 3 teaspoonfuls, it acts as a powerful stimu- 
lating emetic, and may be employed where the sensibility of the 
stomach is impaired, as in cases of narcotic poisoning, apoplexy, 
etc. Externally, it is irritant, and, if left in contact with the 
skin, causes vesication. It is much employed in the form of poul- 
tice, called sinapism, made by mixing mustard to the consistence 
of a poultice with water or vinegar, to produce counter-irritation, 
or when a speedy and powerful rubefacient impression is desired. 
The length of time during which the sinapism should be left on 
may be regulated by the feelings of the patient; but in cases of 
insensibility it should be removed as soon as the skin is reddened. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— RUBEFACIENTS. 31 9 

AMMONIA. 

Ammonia is a peculiar gaseous substance, composed of nitrogen 
and hydrogen, and easily obtained by the action of lime on muri- 
ate of ammonia ; the lime unites with the muriatic acid, and sets 
free the ammonia in the form of gas. This is passed by suitable 
contrivances into water, which absorbs it. 

Aqua Ammonia Fortior. U. S. Stronger Water of Ammonia. 
An aqueous solution of ammonia, of the sp. gr. 0'900, and contain- 
ing 26 per cent, of the gas. 

Aqua AMMONiiB. U. S. Water of Ammonia. The above re- 
duced by water to sp. gr. 0960, and containing about 10 per cent, 
of ammonia. 

Properties. Solution of ammonia is a transparent, colorless 
liquid, of an acrid, alkaline taste, and a strong, pungent, ammo- 
niacal odor. It is very strongly alkaline, and when exposed to 
the air quickly parts with ammonia, and also absorbs carbonic 
acid. It unites with oils to form soaps or liniments. It is in- 
compatible with acids, and decomposes most earthy and metallic 
salts, throwing down their oxides. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The solution is rarely given 
internally, the spiritus ammonise being preferred for internal use. 
The vapor, when inhaled, is powerfully irritant to the mucous 
membrane of the air-passages, and proves an excellent stimulant 
in syncope, in hysteria, and in collapse. It is also an antidote 
to poisoning by hydrocyanic acid and other sedative poisons. 
Externally applied, it is a valuable and efficacious rubefacient, and 
if applied of full strength and long continued, produces vesication. 
It may be employed in the way of friction, and for this purpose 
is usually united with oils to form liniments. 

LiNiMENTUM Ammonia. U. S. Volatile Liniment, prepared 
by mixing one part of solution of ammonia with three parts of 
olive oil, is an excellent rubefacient, much employed as a counter- 
irritant in neuralgia, chronic rheumatism, and other local inflam- 
mations without fever. It may be applied by rubbing it gently 
on the skin, or placing a piece of flannel, saturated with it, over 
the affected part. Where the parts are very tender, it may be 
diluted with oil. 



320 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

PIX BURGUNDICA. U. S. Burgundy Pitch. 

The PREPARED CONCRETE JUICE of AMes excelsa, the Norway 
Spruce, a large tree^ native of the mountainous districts of 
Northern Europe and Asia. The pitch is prepared by removing 
the juice which concretes upon the bark, and purifying it by melt- 
ing and straining. 

Properties. When pure, it is hard and brittle, opaque, of a 
brownish-yellow color, and feeble, terebinthinate odor and taste. 
It is very fusible, and at a moderate temperature becomes soft 
and adhesive. 

Iledical Properties and Uses. Burgundy pitch is employed 
only as a plaster, and as such acts as a gentle rubefacient. Ap- 
plied to the chest, it often proves highly serviceable in chronic 
bronchitis and other pulmonary affections, not only as a counter- 
irritant, but by protecting the chest from feeling the atmospheric 
changes. 

Emplastrum Picis BuRGiiNDica;. TJ. S. Burgundy Pitch 
Plaster is prepared by melting together twelve parts of Burgundy 
pitch and one part of yellow wax, which is used to give consist- 
ency to the pitch. 

Emplastrum Picis cum Cantharide. U. S. Plaster of Pitch 
with Spanish Flies. Warming Plaster is composed of twelve 
parts of Burgundy pitch and four parts of cerate of cantharides, 
and is an excellent rubefacient, much employed in various chronic 
diseases. 

PIX CANADENSIS. U. S. Canada Pitch. 

The PREPARED CONCRETE JUICE of AMcs Canadensis, the Hem- 
lock Spruce of the United States and Canada. The bark of the 
full-grown trees is boiled in water, and the pitch, which rises to 
the surface, is skimmed off and purified by melting and straining. 

Properties. It is hard, brittle, of a dark yellowish-brown 
color, a weak, peculiar odor, and no taste. It contains resin and 
a small proportion of volatile oil. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is a gentle rubefacient, 
analogous to Burgundy pitch in its medicinal effects. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— ESCHAROTICS. 321 

Emplastrum Picis Canadensis. U. S. Canada Pitch Planter 
is prepared by melting together twelve parts of Canada pitch and 
one of yellow wax. 

ESOHAEOTIOS. 

These are topical agents, which destroy the tissue of the part 
to which they are applied : those which act dynamically, by di- 
rectly destroying the vitality of a part, are actual cauteries, as 
heated iron, moxa, etc. ; those which act by virtue of their chemi- 
cal affinities for one or more constituents of the tissue, and thus 
decompose it, are caustics. They are employed to remove excres- 
cences or morbid growths of various kinds; to open abscesses; 
to form artificial ulcers or issues ; to alter the nature of morbid 
action in diseased surfaces ; and to decompose or destroy parts 
infected with poison. For these purposes various substances 
are used, which differ in strength and specific effects ; many of 
them have already been referred to under other heads, as the 
Mineral Acids, Sulphate of Copper, Arsenious Acid, and Cor- 
rosive Sublimate. In the selection of a caustic we must be guided 
by the circumstances of the case, and the effects we intend to 
produce. The mineral acids, in their concentrated state, act as 
caustics by virtue of their affinity for the water of the tissues ; 
of these, nitric acid is the most energetic, and is used where an 
immediate destruction of diseased parts is required. Arsenious 
acid was at one time much employed, especially in cancer, but 
is rarely used in the present day, since alarming consequences 
may result from its absorption. Bupuytren^s powder, which ob- 
tained so much celebrity as a local application in this and other 
malignant ulcerations, was a composition of four parts of arseni- 
ous acid and ninety-six parts of calomel. 

POTASSA. U. S. Caustic Potassa. 

PoTASSA is procured by evaporating solution of potassa until 
ebullition ceases, and pouring it into moulds to concrete. 

Properties. It is met with in slicks, having a fibrous fracture ; 
when perfectly pure, white and translucent, bat as usually found 
in the shops, of a grayish or bluish tint ; very deliquescent, and 

21 



322 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

readily attracting carbonic acid. Composition, KO,HO. A hy- 
drate of potassa. 

Iledical Properties and Uses. It is a powerful escbarotic, 
quickly destroying the vitality of the part to which it is applied, 
and extending its action to a considerable depth below the surface. 
It is much used for forming issues, and for opening abscesses. 

Potassa cum Calce. U. S. Potassa with Lime, sometimes 
called Vienna Caustic, is prepared by rubbing together equal 
parts of potassa and lime. It is a grayish-white powder, and for 
use may be made into a paste with a little alcohol. The presence 
of the lime renders it milder and slower in its operation, and it is 
much more manageable than the pure potassa. 

ARGENTI NITRAS FUSA. U. S. Fused Nitrate of Silver. 

This is obtained by melting the nitrate of silver and pouring it 
into silver moulds, and is commonly known as Lunar Caustic. 

Properties. It is in the form of hard, brittle sticks, about the 
size of a goose-quill, at first translucent, but becoming more or 
less dark on exposure to light. Its chemical properties are the 
same as those of the crystallized nitrate, referred to under the 
head of Tonics. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It acts as a stimulant vesi- 
cant or escharotic, according as it is used dissolved in water 
or in the solid state. Applied to the denuded cuticle, or to a 
mucous membrane, it first produces a white color, owing to its 
union with the albumen and fibrin of the tissues, which soon 
becomes grayish, and, if exposed to light, finally black. It is 
much more frequently employed than any other caustic, on ac- 
count of its mild and effectual action, for removing warts and 
other morbid excrescences, to check hemorrhage from small ves- 
sels, and to repress exuberant granulations upon sores. It es- 
tablishes a healthy surface and promotes cicatrization in relaxed 
and flabby ulcers, and its efficacy in these cases depends not so 
much on its corrosive action as on its causing increased absorp- 
tion and altered action. To primary chancres it is one of the 
best local applications, and applied freely to the whole surface 
it frequently destroys the character of, and checks, the disease; 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— ESCHAROTICS. 323 

indeed, in all sores about the prepuce or glans penis, whether 
of syphilitic origin or not, its application is for the most part 
beneficial. Applied to the sound skin, so as to encircle the in- 
flamed part, it tends to arrest the spread of erysipelas and ery- 
thema. It has also been proposed as a means of preventing 
the pitting in small-pox. It is employed with benefit in many 
forms of ulceration of the mouth and fauces, in excoriations of the 
nipples, in the chronic stages of many cutaneous diseases, and as 
an injection in leucorrhcea and gonorrhoea. It is often valuable 
in ulcerations of the cornea, in purulent and gonorrhoeal ophthal- 
mia, and in acute and chronic conjunctivitis. The. strength of 
the solution varies according to the indication to be fulfilled and 
the part to which it is to be applied, from ^ of a grain to 40 
grains, to the f5 of water. 

ZINCI CHLORIDUM. U. S. Chloride of Zinc. 

This salt is formed by dissolving metallic zinc in diluted muri- 
atic acid. It may be freed from any iron which may have existed 
in the zinc by adding a small quantity of nitric acid and chalk. 
The iron is peroxidated by the nitric acid, and separated by the 
chalk. 

Properties. It occurs in grayish-white, translucent masses, 
without odor, but with a sharp, styptic, metallic taste. It is 
very deliquescent, and soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. Com- 
position, ZnCl. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small doses it possesses the 
tonic and antispasmodic properties of the salts of zinc, and has 
been used in epilepsy, chorea, and other nervous diseases ; but its 
irritant qualities render it unsafe. It is chiefly used externally, 
as an escharotic in cancerous affections and in intractable ulcers. 
It not only destroys the diseased structure, but excites a new 
action in the surrounding parts. From its deliquescent nature, it 
cannot be used alone, but is usually made into a paste with flour, 
and allowed to remayi on the part for a shore time, when it is 
washed off, and a poultice applied. 



324 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

LIQUOR HYDRARGYRI NITRATIS. U. S. Solution of 
Nitrate of Mercury. 

The Acid Solution of Nitrate of Mercury is prepared by dis- 
solving mercury in nitric acid diluted with water with the aid of 
heat. The mercury is oxidized at the expense of part of the 
nitric acid, and the oxide of mercury thus formed is dissolved in 
the remainder. It is a solution of the binitrate of deutoxide of 
mercury in nitric acid. 

Properties. It is a dense, transparent, and colorless liquid, of 
a strongly acid taste. Sp. gr. 2-165. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is a powerful escharotic 
and caustic, and has been employed in cancerous and malignant 
ulcerations. It is too powerful for ordinary purposes. 

ACIDUM CHROMICUM. XJ. S. Chromic Acid. 

This acid is obtained by the action of sulphuric acid upon 
bichromate of potash in solution. The acid unites with the 
potash and sets free the chromic acid, which is deposited in 
crystals. 

Properties. It is in the form of brilHant crimson prisms, of 
an acid, metallic taste, very deliquescent, and readily soluble in 
water, forming an orange-yellow solution. Composition, CrOg. 
Teroxide of chromium. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Chromic acid is a powerful 
escharotic, oxidizing and decomposing the tissues, and well suited 
to the destruction of morbid growths. Its action is exceedingly 
slow and gradual, but deeply penetrating, and gives less pain 
than other caustics. It may be used in solution, graduated 
according to the degree of effect desired. 

POTASSiE BICHROMAS. U.S. Bichromate of Potassa. 

This salt is prepared by acidulating a solution of yellow chro- 
mate of potassa with sulphuric acid, and allowing the solution to 
crystallize by spontaneous evaporation. The neutral chromate of 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DEMULCENTS. 325 

potassa is obtained by igniting chrome-iron gre with nitrate of 
potassa and lixiviating the resulting mass with water. 

Properties. Bichromate of potassa occurs in orange-red, pris- 
matic crystals, soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol. Com- 
position, KO,2Cr03. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In small doses, alterative ; in 
larger doses, emetic ; and in overdoses, a corrosive poison. Ex- 
ternally applied, it is irritant and caustic, and is sometimes applied 
to syphilitic warts and excrescences. 



REMEDIES WHICH ACT MECHANICALLY. 

DEMULCENTS. 

Demulcents, or Lenitives, are medicines which soften and 
relax the tissues to which they are applied. They generally consist 
of gum, or a mixture of gummy with saccharine and farinaceous 
substances, and form with water a viscid solution. Most of them 
are nutritious, and may be used as articles of. diet in debilitated 
or irritated conditions of the stomach or alimentary canal, when 
more exciting articles cannot be taken. 

They may be used to sheathe and protect the gastro-enteric 
surface ; to relieve irritation and inflammation of the alimentary 
canal ; to diminish the acridity of the secretions in affections of 
the urinary passages ; as mild expectorants in catarrhal affec- 
tions, and as agreeable drinks in febrile diseases. 

Externally, they are used to soothe inflamed surfaces, to pro- 
tect parts from the action of irritating discharges, and as poul- 
tices to promote suppuration. They are also much used for 
pharmaceutical purposes to suspend medicines insoluble in water. 

i 
ACACIA. F. S. Gum Arabic. 

The concrete juice of Acacia vera, A. Arabica, and other 
species of Acacia, prickly trees or shrubs, natives of Africa and 



326 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Arabia. The gum exudes spontaneously from the bark, or from 
incisions made to facilitate its exudation, and hardens on exposure. 

Properties. Gum arable is in roundish tears, or amorphous 
pieces, or irregular fragments of various sizes, more or less trans- 
parent, or of a yellowish-white color, hard and brittle, breaking 
with a shining fracture, and readily pulverizable, yielding a pure 
white powder. It is inodorous, and has a mucilaginous, slightly 
sweetish taste. It is insoluble m alcohol, ether, and the oils, but 
dissolves in water, forming a viscid solution, called mucilage. It 
consists essentially of a peculiar principle called gum, but for 
which the name of arahin has been adopted. 

Several varieties of gum are met with in commerce : the most 
common are Turkey, Barbary, Senegal, East India, and Cape 
gum. The Turkey is the purest and the most esteemed. The 
other varieties are usually in larger-sized pieces, of a darker color, 
less brittle, and of a much inferior quality. The finer varieties 
are liable to be adulterated with the inferior, and these again 
with the cheaper and more common gums ; but the picked gum 
should alone be used in medicine. 

lledical Properties and Uses. Gum arable is nutritive and 
demulcent. It is employed in solution to sheathe and protect 
the surface in inflammations of the mucous membranes, in gas- 
tric irritation, in acrid poisoning, etc. Allowed to dissolve slowly 
in the mouth, it often affords relief in cough. Its chief use, how- 
ever, is as a vehicle for the administration of more active medi- 
cines, for suspending insoluble substances in water, and as a 
basis for pills. 

MuciLAGO Acacia. U. S. Mucilage of Gum Arabic is pre- 
pared by rubbing up powdered gum arable with water, in the 
proportion of half an ounce to an ounce. By keeping it becomes 
sour : it should therefore be prepared only in small quantities. 
Half a fluidounce is usually sufficient for a six- or eight-ounce 
mixture. 

Syrupus AcACi.a;. U. S. Syrup of Gum Arabic is prepared 
by dissolving two troy ounces of gum arabic in half a pint of water, 
and then dissolving fourteen troyounces of sugar with a gentle 
heat. This syrup is a good demulcent, and a convenient vehicle 
for the administration of other medicines. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DEMULCENTS. 327 



TRAGACANTHA. U.S. Tnagacanth. 

The CONCRETE JUICE of Astragalus verus, and of other species 
of Astragalus, an extensive genus of small, herbaceous, perennial 
plants, natives of Asia. The gum exudes spontaneously from 
the stems and branches, and is collected when dry. 

Properties. Tragacanth is in small, wrinkled, leaf-like pieces, 
of a whitish or yellowish-white color, serai-transparent, and re- 
sembling horn in appearance. It is inodorous, with a slightly 
viscid taste, very hard and fragile, but is with difficulty reduced 
to powder, unless thoroughly dried and powdered in a heated 
mortar. It does not dissolve in water like gum arable, but ab- 
sorbs a certain proportion of that liquid, swells up, and forms a 
soft, tenacious mass, which may be mechanically mixed with 
water. It is wholly insoluble in alcohol. It consists of two 
gums, one soluble in water, like arabin, the other insoluble, called 
tragacanthin, and a small quantity of insoluble starch. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is demulcent, but is not / 
much used internally, on account of its difficult solubility. It is 
extensively employed in the preparation of troches, for which its 
great tenacity and imperfect solubility render it very useful. 

MuciLAGO Tragacanth^. U. S. Mucilage of Tragacanth is 
prepared by macerating a troyounce of tragacanth in a pint of 
boiling water, triturating, and expressing through linen. This 
mucilage is very thick and viscid, and is chiefly used in making 
pills or troches, or for the suspension of heavy, insoluble sub- 
stances in water. 



ULMUS FULVA. T. S. Slippery Elm Bark. 

The INNER BARK of Ulvius fulva, the Slippery Elm, called also 
Bed Elm, a large, indigenous tree, growing most abundantly west 
of the Alleghany Mountains. 

Properties. The part used in medicine is the inner bark, from 
which the epidermis has been removed. It is met with in long, 
flat pieces, of a fibrous texture, a peculiar sweetish odor, and a 
highly mucilaginous taste when chewed. It abounds in muci- 



328 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

laginous matter, which readily dissolves in water, forming an 
insipid, mucilaginous fluid. 

Medical Properties and Uses. . Slippery elm bark is an ex- 
cellent demulcent and nutritive, and is applicable to all cases in 
which this class of medicines is employed. Externally, in the 
form of infusion, it is employed in inflammation of the skin, as in 
erysipelas, etc. The powder, mixed with water, is frequently em- 
ployed as a poultice in cases of external inflammation. 

MuciLAGO Ulmi. F. S. Mucilage of Slippery Elm Baric is 
prepared by macerating a troyounce of bruised slippery elm bark 
in a pint of boiling water. This is more properly an infusion, 
and may be used freely as a drink in catarrhal and nephritic 
diseases. 

LINUM. TJ. S. Flaxseed. 

The SEEDS of Linum usitatissimum, the Common Flax, an 
annual plant, cultivated in all parts of the world. 

Properties. The seeds are oval, oblong, about a line in length, 
pointed, smooth and shining, reddish-brown externally, and whit- 
ish within. They are inodorous, and have an oily, mucilaginous 
taste. Their investing coat abounds in a peculiar gummy matter, 
or mucilage, which is readily imparted to hot water, and the in- 
terior, or nucleus, is rich in a peculiar oil, which is separated by 
expression. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Flaxseed is an excellent demul- 
cent and emollient, and in the form of infusion, known as flaxseed 
tea, is much employed as a drink in inflammatory affections of the 
mucous membranes of the lungs and urinary passages. 

Infusum Lini Compositum. XJ. S. Compound Infusion of 
Flaxseed is prepared by macerating half a troyounce of flaxseed 
and two drachms of bruised liquorice root in a pint of boiling 
water. 

Lini Farina. TJ. S. Flaxseed Ileal. Linseed Meal. The 
ground seeds are of a dark-gray color, highly oleaginous, and 
when mixed with hot water form a soft, adhesive mass, much 
used as an emollient poultice to relieve inflammation or to pro- 
mote suppuration. 

Oleum Lini. TJ. S. Flaxseed or Linseed Oil is obtained from 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DEMULCENTS. 329 

the seeds by expression. It has a yellowish-brown color, a dis- 
agreeable odor, and a nauseous, somewhat acrid taste. It pos- 
sesses the property of drying-, or becoming solid on exposure to 
the air, and hence is much used in painting and the formation of 
printers' ink. MixQd with lime-water, it is used as an apphcation 
to recent burns. 

GLYCYRRHIZA, U. S. Liquorice Root. 

The ROOT of Glycyrrhiza glabra, a small, perennial plant, 
growing in the south of Europe, where it is also extensively cul- 
tivated as an article of commerce. 

Properties. The root is dug up when the plant is about three 
years old. As met with, it is in long and flexible cylindrical 
pieces, about the size of the little finger, externally of a brownish 
color, and yellow within. It is inodorous, and has a sweet, muci- 
laginous taste, mingled with a slight degree of bitterness. The 
powder is of a grayish-yellow color. It contains starch and a 
peculiar saccharine principle, glycyrrhizin, scarcely soluble in 
cold water, but readily so in boiling water, and differing from 
sugar in not undergoing vinous fermentation, and in not yielding 
oxalic acid by the action of nitric acid. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Liquorice root is an excellent 
demulcent, chiefly employed in the form of extract or decoction 
in catarrhal affections. It is also employed as an addition to 
other medicines in decoction, to give them flavor and render them 
more acceptable to the stomach. The powder is much used in 
pharmacy in the preparation of pills, either to give them due 
consistence, or to prevent them from adhering together. 

ExTRACTUM GLYCYRRHiziE. U. S. Liquoricc is prepared by 
evaporating a decoction of the dried root to the proper consist- 
ence. It is then formed into rolls from five to six inches long by 
an inch in diameter, which are dried in the air, and wrapped in 
laurel leaves. When good, it is black, dry, and brittle, breaking 
with a shining fracture, and of a sweet, slightly acrid taste. As 
the commercial liquorice contains many impurities, it requires to 
be purified for use. This is done by dissolving in water without 
boiling, straining, and evaporating, making what is known in 



330 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

the shops as refined liquorice. It is much used as an addition 
to cough mixtures, and is frequently added to infusions and de- 
coctions to cover the taste or obtund the acrimony of the prin- 
cipal medicine. Allowed to dissolve slowly in the mouth, it often 
allays cough by sheathing the irritated memjarane of the fauces. 

MiSTURA Glycyrrhiz^ Composita. U. S. Compound Mix- 
ture of Liquorice. Brown Mixture is prepai'ed by rubbing 
half a troy ounce, each, of liquorice, sugar, and gum arable with 
twelve fluidounces of water, and then adding two fluidounces of 
paregoric, and half a fluidounce, each, of wine of antimony and 
spirit of nitrous ether. This is an excellent cough mixture, 
much employed in the advanced stages of catarrhal affections 
after expectoration has become established. Dose, a tablespoon- 
ful for an adult ; a teaspoonful for a child two years old. 

Trochisci Glycyrrhiz^ et Opii. U. S. Troches of Liquorice 
and Opium are prepared by rubbing together half a troyounce 
of opium and ten troyounces, each, of liquorice, sugar, and gum 
arable, and then adding a fluidrachm of oil of anise, and water 
sufficient to make amass; to be divided into lozenges, each 
weighing six grains. Each lozenge contains about one-tenth of 
a grain of opium. They are demulcent and anodyne, and useful in 
allaying cough in cases which admit the employment of opium. 

CETRARIA. U. S. Iceland Moss. 

Getraria Islandica, a small plant, belonging to the natural 
order of Lichens, from two to four inches high, native of the 
dry mountainous districts of the northern parts of both hemi- 
spheres. 

Properties. As met with in the shops, Iceland moss consists 
of the dry frond, or leaf, much divided, irregular in shape, and 
fringed at the edges with rigid hairs, of a grayish, brownish- 
white or reddish color, inodorous, and with a mucilaginous, 
somewhat bitter taste. It contains about 80 per cent, of amyla- 
ceous matter, 3 per cent, of a peculiar bitter principle, cetrarin, 
•with a little gum, uncrystallizable sugar, and extractive. Cetrarin 
is an acid principle residing in the cortical portion of the thallus, 
and may be separated by maceration in a weak solution of car- 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DEMULCENTS. 331 

bonate of soda, which loaves behind the demulcent and nutritive 
principle. It imparts all its virtues to boiling water. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Cetraria is a mild, nutritive 
demulcent and tonic, well adapted to pulmonary affections. It 
is very much used, in the form of jelly, as an article of diet in 
diseases of debility, and in convalescence from acute diseases. 

Decoctum Cetraria. U. S. Decoction of Iceland 3Ioss is 
prepared by boiling half a troyounce of Iceland moss in a pint ■ 
of water for fifteen minutes, and straining with compression. 

CHONDRUS. U. S. Irish Moss. 

Irish Moss, or Carrageen, consists of the flat, slender frond of 
Chondrus crispus, a marine plant found on the coast of Eng- 
land and Ireland. 

Properties. When fresh, it is of a purplish color, but as found 
in the shops it is of a yellowish-white color, tough, and partially 
translucent, with a marine odor, and but little taste. It resembles 
Iceland moss in most of its properties, but is more mucilaginous 
and less bitter. It swells and softens in cold water, but does 
not dissolve ; boiling water dissolves a large proportion of it, 
and the decoction forms, when cold, a clear and colorless jelly. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Carrageen is an agreeable, 
nutritive demulcent, useful in intestinal diseases and pectoral 
affections. It is best given in the form of decoction or jelly. 

ALTERA. U. S. Marshmallow. 

The ROOT of Althaea officinalis, an herbaceous, perennial 
European plant, occasionally found in this country. The roots 
should be collected in autumn from plants at least two years old, 
and as prepared for the market are destitute of epidermis. 

Properties. As met with, it is in cylindrical pieces, three or 
four inches in length, with a fibrous fracture, of a whitish color, 
destitute of smell, and of a viscid, mucilaginous taste. It contains 
a large amount of mucilage, with starch, and a peculiar principle, 
asparagin, which it readily yields to boiling water. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Exclusively those of a demulcent, 
and used in the form of decoction or syrup. 



332 MATERIA MEDIC A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

MARANTA. U. S. Arrow-root 

The fecula of the root of Maranta arundinacea, a perennial 
plant, native of South America and the West Indies, but exten- 
sively cultivated in the Southern States. The root is white, 
tuberous, and jointed, running horizontally in the ground, send- 
ing down many tuberous rootlets, about the thickness of a quill. 
These tubers are dug up when about a year old, washed, and 
beaten in a wooden mortar to a pulp. This is then thrown into 
water, and well stirred, for the purpose of separating the amyla- 
ceous matter from the fibrous part.' The fibrous portion is then 
removed, and the milky liquor which remains is strained, and de- 
posits a white mass, which, when washed and dried, constitutes 
the arrow-root of commerce. 

Properties. It is in the form of a white powder, or small, 
irregular, granular masses, which produce a crackling sound when 
rubbed between the fingers. It has no odor or taste, is insoluble 
in water, but forms with boiling water a consistent jelly. Ex- 
amined under the microscope, it is found to consist of very minutfi, 
ovate-oblong or irregularly convex grains, with very fine rings, a 
circular hilum, which cracks in a stellate manner, and occasion- 
ally with small mammillary processes projecting from them. It 
is sometimes adulterated with common starch or potato starch, 
which may be detected by the microscope. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Arrow-root is a valuable nutri- 
tive and demulcent, much used as an article of diet for the sick 
and convalescent, and as food for infants after weaning or when 
the mother's milk is insufficient. A tablespoonful may be made 
into a paste with a little cold water, and a pint of boiling water 
then gradually added, with brisk agitation. This may be made 
palatable by flavoring it with sugar, lemon juice, etc. It may be 
prepared in the same way with milk. 

Canna. U. S. Canna. The fecula prepared from the rhizoma 
of an undetermined species of canna, and commonly known as 
tous-les-mois. It is obtained from the tubers in the same manner 
as the arrow-root, and has the ordinary chemical properties of 
starch. It may be employed and prepared in the same way as 
arrow-root. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DEMULCENTS. 333 



TAPIOCA. U. S. Tapioca. 

The fecula of the root of Janipha Manihot, a shrub from six to 
eight feet high, with a large, fleshy, tuberous root, native of 
Brazil, and extensively cultivated in the West Indies, where it is 
known as the cassava plant. There are two varieties, the sweet 
and the hitter ; the root of the latter contains an acrid, milky 
juice, which renders it highly poisonous if eaten in the recent 
state. The tapioca is obtained from the expressed juice, which 
deposits it on standing, and it is freed from the poisonous juice 
by repeated washings, and then dried by exposure to heat. 

Prop)erties. Tapioca occurs in irregular-shaped, hard, white^ 
rough grains, inodorous and tasteless, partially soluble in cold 
water. This solubility is owing to the rupture of the starch- 
granules by heat. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Precisely similar to those of 
arrow-root. It is prepared by boiling it in water or milk. 

SAGO. U. S. Sago. 

The prepared fecula of the pith of Sagus Rumphii, the Sago 
Palm, and of other species of Sagus, large trees growing in the 
East India Islands. The pith is reduced to powder, and the 
fecula separated from the woody fibre by repeated washings with 
water over a fine sieve, when the milky liquor which passes 
through deposits the sago in the form of a fine powder, which is 
dried and moulded into whatever shape may be desired. Com- 
mercial sago is prepared by forming the meal into a paste with 
water, and rubbing it into grains, and the natives refine it so as 
to give the grains a fine pearly lustre. 

Properties. Pearl Sago, which is the most esteemed, is in 
globular grains, about the size of a pin's head, hard, of a whitish 
or pinkish-white color, inodorous, and with but little taste. Com- 
mon Sago is in larger, more irregularly-rounded grains, of a 
browner color, and frequently mixed with a dirty-looking powder. 

In its chemical properties sago resembles starch ; is insoluble 
in cold water, but by long boiling forms a gelatinous solution. 



334 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Sago is demulcent and nutri- 
tious, and is used almost exclusively as an article of diet in febrile 
diseases and in convalescence from acute disorders. 



HORDEUM. U. S. Barley. 

Pearl Barley. The decorticated seed of Hordeum distichon, 
Common Barley, cultivated in different parts of the world. The 
seed, after being deprived of its husk, is rounded and polished in 
a mill. 

Properties. It is in small, spherical grains, white, smooth, 
retaining a trace of the longitudinal furrow of the seed, without 
odor, and of a mild, sweetish, mucilaginous taste. It contains 
starch, with some sugar, gluten, and gum. 

Bledical Properties and Uses. Barley is one of the mildest 
and least irritating of all the farinaceous substances, and is much 
used, in the form of decoction, as a demulcent drink in febrile and 
inflammatory affections, and as a vehicle for other remedies. 

Decoctum HoRDEi. U. S. Decoction of Barley. Barley Water 
is prepared by boiling two troyounces of barley with water for a 
short time, and, after thowing away the resulting liquid, pouring 
on it four pints of boiling water, and boiling down to two pints. 

Malt consists of the seeds made to germinate by warmth and 
moisture, and then baked so as to deprive them of vitality. 

AMYLUM. U. S. Starch. 

The fecula of the seed of Triticiim vulgare, Common Wheat. 
Starch is a proximate principle abounding in the various grains 
and tuberous roots, constituting a large portion of the vegetable 
food consumed by animals. The starch of commerce is prepared 
by washing coarsely bruised wheat, straining or pouring oS the 
liquid, and allowing it to stand till the fecula, which it holds in 
solution, has subsided. 

Properties. Starch usually occurs in small, white, pulverulent 
masses, having a crystalline aspect, unalterable in the air, crack- 
ling under the fingers when lightly pressed, inodorous and in- 
sipid. It is insoluble in alcohol, ether, and in cold water ; but 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— DEMULCENTS. 335 

unites with boiling water, forming with it an opaque jelly, which 
becomes more consistent as it cools. Starch is composed of an 
external teguraentary portion, termed amylin, and an interior 
mucilaginous portion, called amidin. With a cooled decoction 
of starch iodine forms a rich-blue color, which varies in intensity 
as the iodine or the starch predomioates. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Starch is nutritive and demul- 
cent, but in its ordinary form is seldom administered internally, 
except as an antidote for poisoning by free iodine. Dissolved in 
hot water, and allowed to cool, it is often employed as an enema 
in dysentery, diarrhcea, and inflammatory affections of the ab- 
dominal viscera and rectum, or as a vehicle for other remedies. 
Externally, in fine powder, it is applied to excoriated parts. 

SACCHARUM. IJ. S. Sugar. 

Saccharum Album. The refined sugar of Saccharum officina- 
rum, or Sugar-cane, an herbaceous plant, extensively cultivated in 
tropical countries. The physical properties of the different varie- 
ties of sugar are too well known to need description. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Sugar is highly nutritious, but 
as an article of diet is rather employed for its agreeable sweet- 
ness. As a medicine it is demulcent, and as such is used in 
coughs and in irritant poisoning. In pharmacy it is used to 
disguise the taste of medicines, to give them bulk and consistence, 
and to preserve them from change. 

Syrupus. U. S. Syrupus Simplex. Syrup. Simple Syrup is 
prepared by dissolving thirty-six troj' ounces of sugar in twenty 
fluidounces of water with the aid of heat, and, after straining, 
adding sufficient water to make the syrup measure two pints and 
twelve fluidounces. It is much used to sweeten extemporaneous 
mixtures, and in various pharmaceutical operations in which sugar 
in solution is required. 

Syrupus Fuscus. U. S. Molasses. Treacle. The impure, dark- 
colored syrup obtained in making sugar from the sugar-cane. 

Saccharum Lactis. U. S. Sugar of Milk, or Lactin, is a 
crystalline substance obtained from the whey of cow's milk. To 
prepare it, the milk is first coagulated by the addition of a little 



336 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

sulphuric acid, and the resultiug whey is evaporated to a syrupy 
consistence, and set aside to crystallize. It is a hard, somewhat 
gritty, white substance, possessing a slightly sweet taste. It has 
been proposed as a non-nitrogenous article of diet, but is princi- 
pally used in pharmacy in preparing powders which are required 
in a very fine condition. 

Mel. U. S. Honey. A saccharine fluid deposited by Apis melU- 
fica, the common honey-bee. It possesses the medical proper- 
ties of sugar, but is more laxative. It is often added to astrin- 
gent gargles, and is sometimes used as an addition to poultices, 
and as a vehicle. Clarified honey, Mel Despumatum, U. S., is pre- 
pared by melting honey in a vapor-bath, and removing the scum. 

The following demulcent substances, though not used as medi- 
cines, deserve notice, as affording nutritious and easily digested 
articles of diet. 

AvEN^ Farina. TJ. S. Oatmeal. The meal prepared by grind- 
ing the seeds of Avena sativa, the Common Oat, a plant cultivated 
throughout the world. It is a nutritious demulcent, with slightly 
laxative properties, and is much used in the form of gruel. Oat- 
meal gruel may be prepared by boiling one ounce of the meal 
with three pints of water to a quart, and after it cools pouring 
off the clear liquor from the sediment. 

IcHTHYOCOLLA. U. S. Isinglass is a gelatinous substance pre- 
pared from the sounds or swimming bladders of the Acipenser 
Huso, and other species of fish. It consists almost entirely of 
pure gelatin, which is soluble in boiling water, and forms, on 
cooling, a transparent jelly. Several other varieties of gelatin 
are found in the market, derived from other sources, and used for 
the same purposes. In the form of jelly it is a highly nutritious 
article of diet. It is used in pharmacy in preparing court-plaster, 
and in the formation of capsules for the administration of offen- 
sive medicines. 

Oryza. Bice. The seed of Oryza sativa, an annual plant, 
originally from the East Indies, but now extensively cultivated 
in various parts of the world. It is highly nutritive, and in the 
form of decoction rice-water is an excellent drink in irritation of 
the bowels with diarrhoea. 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— EMOLLIENTS. 337 

EMOLLIENTS. 

Emollients are bland and unirritating substances, capable of 
retaining moisture, and of forming a soft, slightly adhesive mass, 
and serve, when applied to the skin, to soften and relax its tissue. 
Nearly all the substances used as such have been mentioned 
under the head of Demulcents. Warm water is the most impor- 
tant of all the non-medicinal substances employed as emollients, 
and the higher the temperature at which it can be applied with- 
out producing pain, the greater will be its emollient power : in 
fact, the solid substances used merely afford the means of apply- 
ing heat and moisture. Those most commonly resorted to for 
the purpose of fomenting the part, either to diminish heat, ten- 
sion, and pain, and relieve inflammation, or to promote suppura. 
tion, are flaxseed meal and slippery elm bark. There are some 
substances which are not strictly demulcent or emollient, but which 
operate rather as protectives, and sheathe and defend the surface 
from the contact of air and from the action of matters which are 
capable of irritating it. These are generally oily, fatty, and waxy 
substances, and are seldom used alone ; but, as they are the basis 
of most of the officinal cerates and plasters, we will briefly refer 
to them under this head. 

GLYCERINA. U. S. Glycerin. 

Glycerin is a sweet principle obtained from fats and fixed oils, 
in which it exists in combination with the fatty acids, and is sepa- 
rated from them when they unite with bases in the process 
of saponification. It may be obtained by evaporation from the 
water in which lead-plaster has been made, care being taken to 
precipitate any lead held in solution, by sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and to drive off the excess of this gas by heat. 

Properties. It is a colorless or amber-colored, syrupy fluid, 
inodorous, with a sharp, sweet taste, sp. gr. 1-25, soluble in all 
proportions in water and alcohol, and possessing extensive powers 
as a solvent. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Glycerin is nutritive and emol- 
lient. As it abounds in carbon, it has been compared as a nutri- 

22 



338 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

ent with cod-liver oil, and may be used in cachectic and strumous 
conditions. Its property of not evaporating and becoming dry 
at ordinary temperatures, renders it particularly adapted to the 
treatment of skin diseases, and as an addition to any lotion, poul- 
tice, or external application, where the object is to keep the parts 
moist and soft. In pharmacy it is used as a solvent for many 
active remedies. 

Nitroglycerin, or Glonoin, is produced when glycerin is treated 
with equal parts of strong nitric and sulphuric acids, successively, 
in small portions, at a temperature kept below freezing. It is a 
bright-yellow, volatile, explosive, and oleaginous liquid. It has 
been administered dissolved in alcohol ; but its therapeutic effects 
have not been fully tested. 

OLEUM THEOBROM.^. U. S. Oil of Theohroma. 

Cacao Butter is the concrete oil of the kernels of the fruit of 
Theohroma Cacao, a large tree growing in tropical America. 
The fruit is an oblong capsule, six or eight inches in kngth, with 
a thick, coriaceous, somewhat ligneous rind, inclosing a whitish 
pulp, in which numerous seeds about the size of an almond are 
imbedded. These are ovate, somewhat compressed, and consist 
of an exterior thin shell, and a brown, oily kernel, and constitute 
the cacao and chocolate nuts of commerce. The oil is extracted 
either by expression, decoction, or the action of a solvent. 

Properties and Uses. Cacao butter is whitish or yellowish, 
solid at ordinary temperatures, but rapidly melting at the heat 
of the body, with an agreeable odor, and a bland, pleasant taste. 
It is sometimes used as an ingredient in cosmetic ointments, but 
is principally employed in pharmacy for preparing suppositories. 
From the seeds are prepared, by various processes, the well-known 
chocolate, which is used as a substitute for coffee with the invalid. 
It is also a good article of diet for convalescents. 

OLEUM AMYGDALAE DULCIS. U. S. Oil of Sweet 

Almonds. 

This is the fixed oil obtained by expression from the kernels of 
the fruit of Amygdalus communis, a small tree, native of Syria 



LOCAL REMEDIES.— EMOLLIENTS. 339 

and Barbary, but growing freely throughout the south of Europe. 
There are two principal varieties of this species of Amygdalus, 
the hitter and the sweet, the former bearing bitter, the latter 
sweet, almonds. The fixed oil is obtained equally from both ; but 
the bitter, after the fixed oil has been obtained, yields on distilla- 
tion with water another oil, the oil of bitter almonds, which has 
been referred to under the head of Sedatives. 

Properties and Uses. The oil of sweet almonds is clear and 
colorless, or of a slight greenish-yellow color, nearly inodorous, 
and of a bland, sweetish taste. It is used for the same purposes 
as olive oil, and, suspended in water by means of mucilage, forms 
a pleasant emulsion much used in coughs. 

ADEPS. U. S. Lard. 

Lard is the prepared fat of Sus Scrofa, the Hog, freed from 
saline matter. It is insoluble in water, partially soluble in alco- 
hol, but entirely so in ether and the volatile oils. When melted, 
it readily unites with wax and resins. 

Properties and Uses. Lard is emollient, and is occasionally 
employed by itself in frictions, or in poultices, to prevent them 
from becoming hard ; but it is chiefly employed in pharmacy as 
an ingredient of cerates and ointments. 

Ceratum Adipis. U. S. Ceratum Simplex. Simple Cerate 
is prepared by melting together two parts of lard and one part of 
white wax, and stirring the mixture constantly until cool. It is 
used as an emollient dressing for blisters and wounds, and in all 
cases where the object is to protect the part from irritation and 
to preserve its moisture. 

Unguentum Adipis. Unguentum Simplex. Simple Ointment 
is made by melting four parts of lard and one of white wax, and 
stirring constantly while cooling. This is also emollient, but is 
principally used as a vehicle for more active substances. 

Sevum. U. S. Suet is the fat of Ovis Aries, the Common 
Sheep, purified by melting and straining, and is of a firmer con- 
sistence, and requires a higher temperature for its fusion, than 
any other animal fat. It may be employed for the same pur- 



340 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

poses as lard, and is used in pharmacy to give a proper consist- 
ence to ointments and plasters. 

Cetaceum. U. S. Spermaceti is a peculiar, concrete substance, 
obtained from the head of Physeter macrocephalus, the Sper- 
maceti Whale. When pure, it occurs in white, pearly, crystal- 
line masses, which are formed of an infinite number of small, 
brilliant scales ; it is soft and unctuous to the touch, inodorous 
and insipid. It is employed in pharmacy as an ingredient in 
various cerates and ointments. 

Ceratum Cetacei. U. S. Spermaceti Cerate is prepared by 
melting together one part of spermaceti, three parts of white wax, 
and five parts of olive oil. Used for the same purposes as the 
simple cerate. 

Cera Flava. U. S. Yellow Wax, a peculiar, concrete sub- 
stance, prepared by Apis mellifica, the common honey-bee, and 
procured immediately from the comb. 

Cera Alba. U. S. White Wax is the same, bleached by ex- 
posing it to the combined influences of air, light, and moisture. 
Both are used in pharmacy in the formation of cerates, oint- 
ments, and plasters. 



REMEDIES THAT ACT ON SUBSTANCES 
WITHIN THE BODY. 

ANTACIDS. 

Alkalines, Antilithics, Lithontriptics, are medicines 
which neutralize free acids existing in the stomach, blood, or 
secretions, either by virtue of their chemical affinities, or by ab- 
sorbing the acid. They unite with the free acid and form mild 
and innocuous salts, which are absorbed and carried off by the 
various secretions. Their action is only temporary, as they do 
not correct that peculiar state of the digestive organs which 
favors the formation of acid. When given indiscriminately, or 



NON-SYSTEMIC REMEDIES.— ANTACIDS. Ml 

in too long-continued doses, they impair the function of diges- 
tion and deteriorate the blood: hence they must be used with 
proper caution. 

They are resorted to in dyspepsia accompanied with excess of 
acid in the primae vi£e; as antidotes in cases of poisoning by the 
acids ; as antilithics to neutralize Ifthic acid when separated in 
undue quantity by the urine ; and as alteratives in gout, rheu- 
matism, scrofula, etc. They are indicated in all diseases char- 
acterized by an excess of acid in the system, and should be 
administered largely diluted. 

The preparations of ammonia, magnesia, and the carbonate of 
potassa have been already referred to as possessing other more 
prominent properties, but may be used when remedies of this 
class are indicated. 

LIQUOR POTASS^. U. S. Solution of Potassa. 

This is prepared by boiling caustic lime with a solution of 
bicarbonate of potassa. In this process the lime, by its superior 
affinity, precipitates the carbonate of lime, while the potassa 
remains in solution as the hydrate of potassa. As thus pre- 
pared, solution of potassa has the specific gravity 1-065, and 
contains bf^ per cent, of hydrate of potassa. It may also be 
prepared extemporaneously by dissolving 3ss of pure caustic 
potassa in f §i of distilled water, and pouring off the clear liquid 
after the sediment subsides. 

Properties. It is a colorless, limpid liquid, with an intensely 
acrid, caustic taste, and an alkaline reaction. It has a strong 
affinity for carbonic acid, which it continually abstracts from the 
air, and hence should be kept in closely-stoppered bottles. 

Iledical Properties. It is antacid, diuretic, and lithontriptic ; 
its use in medicine is chiefly confined to neutralizing free acid 
in the stomach and in the secretions. In chronic bronchitis and 
catarrh, and in the advanced stages of pneumonia, where the 
expectoration is scanty, thick, and viscid, it proves useful in 
combination with expectorants. In calculous affections, and in 
some diseases of the bladder, when the urine is acid and there 
is much irritability of the urinary organs, it may be combined 



342 MATERIA MEDIO A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

with diuretics with benefit. As a blood alterant and resolvent 
it may be given in inflammations of serous membranes attended 
with fibrinous deposits, also in scrofula, rheumatism, etc. Dose, 
5 to 30 drops, freely diluted. It is incompatible with acids, 
all earths and oxides held in solution by acids, calomel, and cor- 
rosive sublimate. 

LIQUOR SOD^. U. S. Solution of Soda. 

This is prepared by double decomposition between carbonate of 
soda and hydrate of lime. It has a sp. gr. of rOYl, and contains 
5j^ per cent, of Jbydrate of soda. 

Properties and Uses. It is a colorless liquid, having an ex- 
tremely acrid taste and a strong alkaline reaction. It is employed 
in medicine as an antacid and antilithic ; it is well adapted to 
replace solution of potassa, being somewhat milder in its action. 
Dose, 5 to 30 drops, largely diluted. 

SOD^ CAUBONAS. U. S. Carbonate of Soda. 

Carbonate op Soda is found native, and is also extracted 
from the ashes of sea- weeds, in which case it is cabled barilla, or 
kelp ; it is, however, chiefly procured for commercial purposes 
from common salt, by first converting it into a sulphate of soda, 
and then decomposing this by carbonate of, lime. Composition, 
NaO,CO,+10HO. 

Properties and Uses. It crystallizes in colorless or white, large, 
oblique or rhombic prisms, which effloresce on exposure to the 
air, forming a white, opaque powder. It is inodorous, with a 
harsh, disagreeable taste and an alkaline reaction. It is very 
soluble in water, and contains 62 per cent, of water of crystalli- 
zation, which may be dissipated by heat. It is antacid and 
deobstruent, and in large doses acts as an irritant poison. It 
is chiefly used in the arts, and in the preparation of numerous 
officinal salts. Dose, 10 to 30 grains. 

SoDyE Carbonas Exsiccata. U. S. Dried Carbonate of Soda 
is prepared by exposing the carbonate to heat in an iron vessel 
until it is thoroughly dried. Dose, 5 to 15 grains. 



N0N-SYSTE3IIC RE3IEDIES.— ANTACIDS. 343 



SODiE BICARBONAS. TJ. S. Bicarbonate of Soda. 

This is prepared bj adding an additional equivalent of car- 
bonic acid to the carbonate of soda. The process usually resorted 
to consists in passing gaseous carbonic acid into a box contain- 
ing effloresced crystals of the carbonate, when the bicarbonate is 
generated. Composition, NaO,2C02-}-HO. 

Properties and Uses. As met with in the shops, it is a dry, 
snow-white powder, of an alkaline taste, permanent in the air, 
and soluble in thirteen parts of water. It is used in medicine 
as a mild antacid, and, from its mild taste and less irritating 
qualities, is more acceptable to the stomach than the carbonate. 
Dose, 10 to 60 grains. 

PuLVERES Efpervescentes. U. S. Ejfervescing Powders. 
Soda Powders consist of two powders, the one containing twenty- 
five grains of tartaric acid, the other thirty of bicarbonate of 
soda. The acid and alkaline powders are to be dissolved in sepa- 
rate portions of water and then mixed, when tartrate of soda 
is formed, while the carbonic acid escapes with effervescence. 
These powders are refrigerant, and afford an agreeable drink in 
febrile complaints. 

LIQUOR CALCIS. TJ. S. Solution of Lime. 

Aqua Calcis. Lime-Water is prepared by slaking four troy- 
ounces of lime in eight pints of water. Each fluidounce contains 
about half a grain of lime. 

Proj^erties. It is a colorless, limpid liquid, without odor, of a 
styptic, alkaline taste. Exposed to the air, it absorbs carbonic 
acid, and hence should be kept either in closely-corked bottles, 
or in bottles with an excess of lime. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Lime-water is antacid, tonic, 
and astringent, much used for nausea and vomiting depend- 
ent upon irritability of the stomach. In diarrhoea dependent 
upon acidity in the primas vise, especially when occurring in 
infants and young children, it may be given with benefit in com- 
bination with milk. It is also sometimes used as a solvent for 
urinary calculus, but does not appear to possess any particular 



344 3IATERIA 3IEDIGA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

virtues over the other alkalies. Dose, f^ss to f^ij. Mixed with 
olive or linseed oil, it is much used as a local application to burns 
and scalds, etc, 

CALCIS CARBONAS. Carbonate of Lime. 

Carbonate of Lime is officinal in three forms. 

Calcis Carbonas Precipitata. U. S. Precipitated Carbonate 
of Lime is prepared by precipitating a solution of chloride of 
calcium with carbonate of soda and drying the precipitate. It 
is in the form of a fine white powder, free from grittiness, in- 
soluble in water, but wholly soluble in dilute muriatic acid with 
effervescence. 

Creta PRiEPARATA. U. S. Prepared Chalk is prepared from 
crude chalk by levigation and elutriation. Composition, CaO, 
CO2. Nearly pure carbonate of lime. 

Medical Properties and Uses. These preparations are excel- 
lent antacids, absorbents, and astringents. The chalk is generally 
preferred, and is especially adapted to diarrhoea accompanied 
with acidity, and may be advantageously combined with the 
vegetable astringents and opium. Dose, 10 to 40 grains, or more. 
Externally, it is highly useful in burns, ulcers, and excoriations, 
absorbing the discharge, and thus preventing the spread of the 
disease. 

MiSTURA Cret^. U. S. Chalk Mixture is prepared by tritu- 
rating half a troyounce of prepared chalk, two drachms, each, 
of gum arable and sugar, with fo'w, each, of cinnamon-water and 
water. It is a convenient form of administering chalk. 

Testa Pr^eparata. U. S. Prepared Oyster-Shell is prepared 
by reducing oyster-shell freed from extraneous matter to a fine 
powder. It differs from prepared chalk in containing animal 
matters, and is supposed to be more acceptable to the stomach. 
Dose and mode of administration, same as those of chalk. 

Calcis Phosphas Precipitata. TJ. S. Precipitated Phosphate 

of Lime. This salt is prepared by macerating calcined bone in 

dilute muriatic acid, precipitating with ammonia, and drying at 

a temperature not exceeding 212°. The muriatic acid dissolves 



NON-SYSTEMIC RE3IEDIES.— ANTACIDS. 345 

the phosphate of lime of the bones, and lets it fall, on the ad- 
dition of ammonia, in a state of minute division. Composition, 
3CaO,PO,. 

Projjerties and Uses. It is a white powder, without taste or 
smell, insoluble in water, but soluble in acids. It is antacid and 
alterative, highly spoken of in scrofula and scrofulous affections 
and in diseases accompanied with defective nutrition. It forms 
the basis of several of the phosphatic preparations now so popu- 
lar. -Dose, 10 to 30 grains. 

LITHIJS CARBONAS. U. S. Carbonate of Lithia. 

LiTHiA is the oxide of lithium, a rare metal, resembling so- 
dium, and ranks in chemical properties with the alkalies. The 
CARBONATE is found in many mineral waters ; it is obtained from 
the lithia minerals, or by decomposing the sulphate of lithia or 
chloride of lithium with carbonate of ammonia. Composition, 
LO,CO,. 

Properties and Uses. It is a white powder, of an alkaline 
reaction, sparingly soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol, and 
fusible at a high temperature. It is characterized by imparting 
a crimson color to the flame of alcohol. Its medicinal uses are 
the same as those of the other fixed alkalies. Its value depends 
on its affinity for uric acid, on its small combining proportion, 
and on the great solubility of the urate of lithia. These quali- 
ties render it a valuable antacid in certain states of the system 
in which urate of soda is liable to be deposited in the tissues, as 
in gout, etc. Dose, 3 to 6 grains. 

LiTHiiE CiTRAS. U. S. Citrate of Lithia is prepared by dis- 
solving the carbonate in a solution of citric acid. It is a white, 
amorphous powder, deliquescent, and soluble in water. Compo- 
sition, 3LO,(Cj2Hj^Ojj). Its medical properties and uses are the 
same as those of the carbonate, but it possesses the advantage 
of a less disagreeable taste and of being less disposed to irritate 
the stomach. Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 



346 MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 



CARBO LIGNI. TJ. S. Charcoal. 

This is prepared from the lighter kinds of wood by exposure 
to a red heat without excess of air. 

Properties and Uses. It is a black, shining, brittle, porous 
substance, tasteless, inodorous, and insoluble. It is a good con- 
ductor of electricity, but a bad one of heat. It is disinfectant 
and absorbent, and acts as an antacid by virtue of its absorb- 
ing powers, and not from any chemical influence. It may be 
employed with advantage in dyspepsia with fetid breath and 
eructations, attended with obstinate constipation. A teaspoon- 
ful is the usual dose. Added to poultices it proves highly ser- 
viceable in correcting the fetor of the discharge and in ari;esting 
the progress of the ulceration in foul and gangrenous ulcers. It 
is also much used as a dentifrice, and is thought to check caries 
of the teeth. 

CARBO ANIMALIS. U. S. Animal Charcoal. 

Bone Black, Ivory Black, is obtained by subjecting bones to a 
red heat in close vessels. It is used as an antidote to vegetable 
and animal poisons, and in pharmacy for decolorizing vegetable 
principles. 

ANTHELMINTICS. 

Anthelmintics, or Vermifuges, are agents which destroy or 
cause the expulsion of intestinal worms. They effect this in dif- 
ferent ways : as specifics, destroying the worm while in the in- 
testines, requiring a brisk cathartic to assist and complete their 
action ; by their mechanical action, wounding or irritating the 
worms, and causing them to leave their hold on the membrane ; 
or by their purgative action, effecting their expulsion. In this 
latter way most of the cathartics act as anthelmintics. Their 
action is also rendered more effectual by combining them with 
other medicines of the same class. As a general rule, they should 
be taken upon an empty stomach (the best time is in the morn- 
ing, before breakfast). 



NON-SYSTEMIC REMEDIES.— ANTHELMINTICS. 34t 

SPIGELIA. U. S. Pinkroot. 

The ROOT of Spigelia llarilandica, Carolina Pink, an indige- 
nous, perennial, herbaceous plant, abounding in the Southern 
States. 

Properties. The root consists of numerous, brownish-yellow, 
slender, crooked fibres, from three to six inches in length, proceed- 
ing from a small, dark-brown, knotty head. They have a peculiar 
odor, and a sweetish, slightly bitter, not unpleasant taste. They 
afiTord a grayish powder, and impart their virtues to water and 
alcohol. They contain a bitter principle, a volatile oil, resin, and 
other unimportant matters. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In medicinal doses, it is anthel- 
mintic, without any sensible effect upon the system. In larger 
doses, it causes vomiting and purging; and in excessive doses, it 
operates as an acro-narcotic poison. It is much employed in this 
country as a safe and efficacious remedy against lumbrici, or round 
worms. Dose for a child, 10 to 20 grains. 

Infusum SpiGELiiE. U. S. Infusion of Spigelia is made by 
adding half a troy ounce of the root to a pint of boiling water. It 
is rendered more efficient by the addition of a little senna. 

ExTRACTUM SpiGELi.aj Fluidum. U. S. Fluid Extract of 
Spigelia is prepared by adding sugar to the concentrated tincture. 
It is a dark-brown, translucent, syrupy liquid, with the flavor of 
the root. Dose, f5i to fjij for an adult; 10 to 30 minims for a 
child. It is most used in connection with the fluid extract of 
senna. 

ExTRACTUM SpiGELiiE ET Senn^ Fluidum. XJ. S. Fluid Ex- 
tract of Spigelia and Senna contains, besides spigelia and senna, 
sugar and aromatic oils to give it flavor and to prevent griping, 
and carbonate of potassa to hold the resinous matter in solution. 
Dose, f3ss for adults ; f^i for children. 

CHENOPODITJM. U. S. Wormseed. 

The FRUIT of Chenopodium anthelminticum, or Jerusalem 
oak, an indigenous, perennial plant, growing in almost all parts 
of the United States. 



348 3IATERIA 3IEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. 

Properties and Uses. The whole herb has a strong, peculiar, 
aromatic odor, but only the seeds, which ripen throughout the 
autumn, are used. These are small, irregularly-shaped, of a 
greenish-yellow color, a peculiar bitterish, aromatic, and pun- 
gent taste, and possessed in a high degree of the smell of the 
plant. Their properties depend upon a volatile oil. Wormseed 
is an efficient anthelmintic, and is much used for the expulsion of 
the round worms in childfen. Dose, from 20 to 40 grains, admin- 
istered in powder mixed with syrup. It is usually given night and 
morning for .a few days, followed by a brisk cathartic. 

Oleum Chenopodii. U. S. Oil of Wormseed, prepared by 
distillation, is of a light-yellow color, becoming deeper yellow by 
age. Sp. gr. 0'908. It is soluble in alcohol and ether. Dose, 
4 to 8 drops. 

The fruit of Chenopodium ambrosioides, also an indigenous 
plant, is often mixed with the genuine, but is much weaker. 

SANTONICA. U. S. Levant Wormseed. 

Santonici Semen. European Wormseed. The unexpanded 
flowers and peduncles of Artemisia Contra, and other species of 
Artemisia, plants growing in Persia, Asia Minor, and other parts 
of the world. 

Properties and Uses. Wormseed consists of the unexpanded 
flowers with the peduncles attached or separate, and minute leaves 
or fragments of leaves. It has a deep-greenish color, a very 
strong aromatic odor, increased by friction, and a very bitter, 
disagreeable taste. It contains a volatile oil, a resinous matter, 
and a neutral principle, santonin, to which it owes its efficacy. It 
acts as a mild, stimulating tonic, but is chiefly used as an anthel- 
mintic. Dose, 20 to 30 grains, made into an electuary with honey. 
The active principle is generally preferred, on account both of its 
energy and want of taste. 

Santoninum. TJ. S. Santonin is prepared by first exhausting 
santonica by digestion in diluted alcohol in connection with 
slaked lime, and then precipitating with acetic acid. When pure, 
it is in brilliant, colorless, rhombic prisms, becoming yellow on 
exposure to light, inodorous, of a feeble, bitterish taste, sparingly 



NON-SYSTEMIO REMEDIES.— ANTnELMINTICS. 349 

soluble in water, but freely soluble in .chloroform and boiling 
alcohol. It possesses the vermifuge properties of santonica in a 
marked degree, with some slight narcotic powers, producing a 
yellow discoloration of the vision. Dose, 2 to 4 grains, with 
sugar or in syrup. 

FILIX MAS. U. S. Male Fern. 

The RHizoMA of Aspidium Filix mas, or Male Fern, a crypto- 
gamic plant, native of Europe and Asia, and growing abundantly 
in woods and shady places in this country. 

Properties and Uses. The root, as found in the shops, is of 
various sizes, externally of a brownish color, internally yellow- 
ish or reddish-white, without odor, of a sweetish, bitter, and 
nauseous taste. It contains a volatile oil, a fixed oil, and resin. 
The powdered root is of a greenish-yellow color. The male 
fern-root appears to act as a poison to the worms, as they are 
discharged dead in all cases. It proves a valuable anthelmintic 
in the treatment of taenia. Dose of the powdered root, 5i to 5iii> 
administered in electuary or emulsion, early in the morning, and 
followed in a few hours by a brisk cathartic. The ethereal ex- 
tract, known in Europe as the oil of fern, has all the anthel- 
mintic powers of the root, and may be given in the dose of f 5ss. 

PEPO. IJ. S. Pumpkin Seed. 

The SEED of Cucurbita Pepo, the Common Pumpkin, a very 
common plant in this country. 

Properties and Uses. The seeds are oval, flattish at each ex- 
tremity, of a light, brownish-white color, and a sweetish and aro- 
matic odor and taste. They consist of a firm, brittle coating, and 
a white, oily kernel, and contain a fixed oil, upon which their vir- 
tues depend. They are highly recommended as efficient for the 
expulsion of tape-worm. Dose, ^ij, to be taken in the morning 
fasting, and followed, in an hour or two, by a dose of castor oil. 
They are best administered by depriving them of their outer 
coat and beating them into a paste with sugar, or made into an 
emulsion with water and sugar. 



350 MATERIA MEDIO A AND THERAPEUTICS. 

AzEDARACH. U. S. Secondary. Azedarach. The bark of the 
root of Melia Azedarach, Pride of China, Pride of India, or 
Common Bead-Tree, a large and beautiful tree, native of the 
East, but extensively cultivated as an ornamental tree in dif- 
ferent parts of the world. The recent root is preferred. It has 
a bitter, nauseous taste, and yields its virtues to boiling water. 
Its medical properties are similar to those of spigelia. It is 
best given in the form of decoction (two troyounces to a pint of 
boiling water), in tablespoonful doses, every two or three hours 
till it affects the bowels. 

MucuNA. U. S. Secondary. Cowhage. The setas or hairs of 
Mucuna pruriens, Cowhage or Cowitch, a perennial, climbing 
plant, native of the East and West Indies and intertropical 
America. The fruit is a pod, about five or six inches long, con- 
taining from three to five seeds, and thickly covered with short, 
stiff, brown hairs, which are officinal. Its action is purely me- 
chanical, the set£e wounding and irritating the worms, obliging 
them to leave their hold on the lining of the intestines. It is 
chiefly serviceable in cases of ascarides and lumbrici. The pods 
are dipped in honey or molasses, and the hairs scraped off with 
the liquid. Dose, teaspoonful night and morning for several 
days, followed by a brisk cathartic. 

Brayera. U. S. Secondary. Koosso. The dried flowers of 
Brayera anthelmintica, a small tree of Abyssinia. It is in 
compressed masses, of a greenish-yellow color, with a fragrant, 
balsamic odor and a disagreeable taste. It destroys entozoa, 
but, being devoid of cathartic power, it fails to expel them with- 
out the subsequent administration of a purgative. It has been 
principally administered in cases of taenia, or tape-worm, and 
should be taken fasting, in the form of infusion, or in that of 
electuary, with honey, followed by a mild aperient. Dose for an 
adult, §ss. 

RoTTLERA. U. S. Secondary. Kameela. The powder or hairs 
obtained from the capsules of Rottlera tinctoria, a small tree 
growing abundantly throughout Hindostan and in several of 
the East Indian islands. It is an orange-red, granular powder, 



NON-SYSTEMIC REMEDIES.— ANTnELMINTICS. 351 

with little taste or smell, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol 
and ether. It is highly esteemed as an anthelmintic in India, 
Dose, 5i to 5'j, followed by castor oil. 

Cadinum Oleum. Oil of Cade. A tarry oil, obtained by the 
dry distillation of the wood of Juniperus Oxycedrus. Inter- 
nally, in doses of a few drops, it has been given as an anthel- 
mintic; externally, it is a useful application in chronic eczema, 
lepra, and other obstinate skin diseases. 

Stanni Pulvis. Powdered Tin is prepared by reducing 
melted tin to a powder while it is cooling. Formerly it was 
much used against lumbrici, or round worm, and is supposed to 
act by its mechanical properties, but is now seldom prescribed. 
Dose, 5i, mixed with molasses. 



IE"DEX. 



Abies balsamea, 283 

Canadensis, 320 

excelsa, 320 
Absorption of medicines, 19 
Acacia, 325 

Arabica, 325 

catecliii, 40 

vera, 325 
Aceta, 28 
Acetate of ammonia, sol. of, 294 

iron, 112 

lead, 53 

morphia, 158 

potassa, 290 

soda, 290 

zinc, 118 
Acetic acid, 193 
Ace turn, 194 

colchici, 277 

destillatum, 194 

lobelise, 252 

opii, 157 

sanguinarise, 251 

scillffi, 303 
Acidum aceticum, 193 
dilutum, 193 

arseniosum, 231 

benzoicum, 306 

carbolicum, 286 

chromicum, 324 

citricum, 193 

gallicum, 36 

hydriodicum dilutum, 229 

hydrocyanicum dilutum, 205 

muriaticum, 128 
dilutum, 128 

nitricum, 127 

dilutum, 127 

nitromuriaticum, 129 
dilutum, 129 

pbosphoricum dilutum, 137 
glaciale, 137 



Acidum sulplauricum, 126 
aromaticum, 126 
dilutum, 126 

tannicum, 35 

tartaricum, 195 

valerianicum, 144 
Achillea millefolium, 84 
Acipenser huso, 336 
Aconite, 200 
Aconitia, 201 
Aconitum, 200 

napellus, 200 
Acorus calamus, 94 
Actea racemosa, 304 
Adeps, 339 
^ther, 174 

fortior, 174 
Agathotes chirayta, 63 
Age as a modifying influence, 21 
Alcohol, 134 

amylicum, 136 

dilutum, 134 

fortius, 134 
Aldehyde, 178 
Alkalies, 340 
Allium, 305 

cepa, 305 

sativa, 305 
Allspice, 90 
Aloe, 261 

Barbadensis, 262 

Capensis, 262 

purificata, 262 

Socotrina, 261 

spicata, 261 

vulgaris, 262 
Aloes, 261 
Alteratives, 208 
Althea, 331 

officinalis, 381 
Alum, 48 

ammonio-ferric, 106 
23 ( 353 ) 



354 



INDEX. 



Alum, dried, 50 

whey, 49 
Alumen, 48 

exsiccatum, 50 
Aluminae sulphas, 50 
Aluminium, 48 
Amber, 143 
American centaury, 63 

Colombo, 62 

hellebore, 203 

ipecacuanha, 252 

senna, 260 

valerian, 146 
Ammonia, 319 
Ammoniac, 141 
Ammoniacum, 141 
Ammonise acetatis liquor, 294 

aqua, 319 

benzoas, 291 

carbonas, 131 

citras, 193 

linimentum, 319 

murias, 241 

phosphas, 290 

spiritus, 132 

aromaticum, 131 

valerianas, 145 
Ammoniated copper, 114 

mercury, 222 

tincture of guaiacum, 296 
valerian, 145 
Ammonii bromidum, 237 

iodidum, 230 
Ammonio-citrate of iron, 110 

sulphate of copper, 114 

tartrate of iron, 107 
Amorphous quinia, 75 
Amygdalus communis, 206, 338 
Amylene, 178 
Amyli iodidum, 230 
Amylum, 334 
Anacyclus pyrethrum, 312 
Anaesthetics, 173 
Anamirta cocculus, 173 
Angelica archangelica 84 
Angustura, 81 
Anise, 95 
Anisum, 95 
Anodynes, 147 
Antacids, 340 
Anthelmintics, 346 
Anthemis, 79 

nobilis, 79 
Antilithics, 340 
Antimonial powder, 190 

wine, 189 



Antimonii et potassse tartras, 187 

oxidum, 189 

oxysulphuretum, 191 

sulphuretum aureum, 191 
precipitatum, 190 
Antimonium, 186 
Antimony, 186 
Antiperiodics, 64 
Antispasmodics, 138 
Apiol, 282, 311 
Apis mellifica, 340 
Apocynum cannabinum, 281 
Application of medicines, 22 
Aqua ammonise, 319 
fortior, 319 

amygdalae amarae, 206 

aurantii florum, 86 

calcis, 343 

camphorae, 172 

chlorini, 238 

cinnamomi, 87 

creasoti, 286 

fceniculi, 95 

fortis, 127 

lauro-cerasi, 206 

menthae piperitae, 98 
viridis, 98 

phagedsenica, 217 

regia, 129 
Aquae, 27 

Aralia nudicaulis, 300 
Arctostaphylos uva ursi, 45 
Argenti chloridum, 117 

cyanidum, 117 

nitras, 115 
fusa, 322 

oxidum, 116 
■ Argentum, 115 
Areca catechu, 40 
Argel, 259 
Aristolochia reticulata, 80 

serpentaria, 80 
Armoracia, 282 
Arnica, 145 

montana, 145 
Aromatics, 85 
Aromatic confection, 87 

powder, 87 

spirits of ammonia, 131 

sulphuric acid, 126 

syrup of rhubarb, 258 
Arrow-root, 332 
Arseniate of iron, 112 

quinia, 75 
Arsenic, 230 
Arsenici iodidum, 236 



INDEX. 



355 



Arseniciethydnirgyri iodidi liquor, 

235 
Arsenicum, 231 
Arscnious acid, 231 
Arsenite of potassa, solution of, 234 
Artemesia contra, 348 
Arterial sedatives, 186 

stimulants, 130 
Asclepias tuberosa, 300 
Aspidium iilixmas, 349 
Assafcetida, 140 
Assarum, 94 

Canadense, 94 
Astragalus verus, 327 
Astringents, 34 
Atropa belladonna, 161 
Atropia, 163 
Atropite sulphas, 164 
Aurantii cortex, 85 
Avente farina, 336 
Avena sativa, 336 
Azedarach, 350 



Balm, 100 
Balsam of fir, 283 

Peru, 306 

Tolu, 807 
Balsamodendron myrrha, 82 
Balsamum Peruvianum, 306 

Tolutanum, 307 
Barbadoes aloes, 262 
Barley, 334 

water, 334 
Barii chloridum, 240 
Barosma crenata, 278 
Basilicon ointment, 284 
Bean of Calabar, ordeal, 207 

St. Ignatius, 182 
Bearberr}', 45 
Belladonna, 161 
Benzoate of ammonia, 291 
Benzoic acid, 306 
Benzoin, 305 
Benzoinum, 305 
Bicarbonate of potassa, 289 

soda, 348 
Bichloride of mythelene, 178 

mercury, 219 
Bichromate of potassa, 324 
Biniodide of mercury, 221 
Bismuth, 121 
Bismuthum, 121 
Bismuthi et aramonise citras, 123 

subcarbonas, 122 

subnitras. 122 



Bismuthi tannas, 123 

valerianas, l23 
Bitartrate of potassa, 274 
Bitter ash, 59 

cucumber, 265 
Bittersweet, 1G5 
Blackberry root, 44 
Black cohosh, 304 

drop, 157 

ginger, 93 

hellebore, 268 

mustard seed, 318 

pepper, 90 

snakeroot, 304 

wash, 217 
Blisters, 313 
Blue mass, 214 

pill, 214 

ointment, 216 

vitriol, 113 
Bolus, 30 
Boneset, 79 
Brayera, 350 

anthelmintica, 350 
Bromide of ammonium, 237 

iron, 112 

potassium, 236 
Bromine, 236 
Brominium, 236 
Broom, 281 
Brown mixture, 330 
Brucia, 180 
Buchu, 278 
Burdock, 300 
Burgundy pitch, 320 
Butter of cacao, 337 
Butternut, 261 



Cacao butter, 337 
Cadinum oleum, 351 
Cadmii iodidum, 121 

sulphas, 121 
Cadmium, 121 
Caifea Arabica, 147 
Caffein, 147 
Calabar bean, 207 
Calamine, 119 
Calamus, 94 
Calcii chloridum, 240 
Calcined magnesia, 271 
Calcis carbonas prfficipitata, 344 

chloridum, 240 

phosphas prsecipitata, 345 
Calisaya bark, 65 
Calomel, 218 



356 



INDEX. 



Calumba, 61 

Calx chlorinata, 239 

Camphor, 170 

liniment, 172 

water, 172 
Camphora, 170 

officinarum, 170 
Canada balsam, 283 

pitch, 320 

snakeroot, 94 

turpentine, 288 
Canella alba, 88 
Canna, 332 
Cannabin, 168 
Cannabis extractum, 168 

Inclica, 168 

sativa, 168 
Cantharidal collodion, 317 
Cantharides, 314 
Cantharidin, 314 
Cantharis, 314 

vesicatoria, 314 

vittata, 317 
Cape aloes, 261 
Capsicum, 133 

annuum, 133 
Caraway, 95 
Carbo animalis, 346 

ligni, 346 
Carbolic acid, 286 
Carbonate of ammonia, 131 

iron, 103 

lead, 52 

lime, 344 

lithia, 345 

magnesia, 271 

potassa, 288 

soda, 340 

zinc, 119 
Cardamom, 92 
Cardamomum, 92 
Carminatives, 85 
Carota, 282 
Carrageen, 331 
Carthagena barks, 67 
Carum, 95 

carui, 95 
Caryophyllus, 89 

aromaticus, 89 
Cascarilla, 82 
Cassia acutifolia, 259 

cinnamon, 86 

elongata, 259 

fistula, 256 

Murilandica, 260 

obovata, 259 



Castor, 139 

fiber, 139 

oil, 256 
Castoreum, 139 
Cataplasmata, 32 
Cataplasms, 32 
Cataria, 98 
Catechu, 39 
Cathartics, 253 

vegetable, 255 

mineral, 270 
Catnep, 98 
Caustic potassa, 321 
Caustics, 321 
Cayenne pepper, 133 
Centaury, American, 63 
Cephalis ipecacuanha, 248 
Cera alba, 340 

flava, 340 
Cerasus serotina, 77 
Cerata, 31 
Cerates, 31 
Ceratum adipis, 339 

cantharidis, 315 

cetacei, 340 

extracti cantharidis, 316 

plumbi subacetatis, 54 

resinte, 284 

compositum, 284 

sabinse, 310 

simplex, 339 

zinci carbonatis, 119 
Cerii nitras, 124 

oxalas, 124 
Cerium, 124 
Cetaceum, 340 
Cetraria-, 330 

Islandica, 330 
Cevadilla, 202 
Chalk mixture, 344 
Chalybeates, 101 
Chamomile, 79 
Charcoal, 346 
Chenopodium, 347 

ambrosiodes, 347 

anthelminticum, 347 
Cherry-laurel water, 206 
Chimaphila umbellata, 46 
Chiretta, 63 
Chlorate of potassa, 242 

quinia, 75 
Chloric ether, 177 
Chloride of ammonium, 241 

barium, 240 

calcium, 240 

iron, 106 



INDEX. 



357 



Chloride of mercury, mild, 218 

ammonium, corrosive, 219 

silver, 117 

zinc, 323 
Chlorinated lime, 239 

soda, solution of, 239 
Chlorine, 237 

water, 238 
Chlorinum, 237 
Chlorodyne, 177 
Chloroform, 175 
Chloroformum, 175 

purificatum, 175 
Chocolate, 337 
Chondrus, 331 

crispus, 331 
Chromic acid, 324 
Cimicifuga, 304 

racemosa, 304 
Cinchona, 64 

Calisaya, 66 

Condaminea, 65 

fiava, 65 

micrantha, 65 

pallida, 66 

rubra, 66 

succirubra, 66 
Cinchonia, 69 
Cinchonije sulphas, 75 
Cinchonic red, 67 
Cinchonidia, 69 
Cincho-tannic acid, 67 
Cinnabar, 223 
Cinnamomum,'86 
Cinnamon, 86 

water, 87 
Cissampelos pareira, 279 
Citrate of ammonia, 193 

bismuth and ammonia, 123 

iron, 110 

and ammonia, 110 
and quinia. 111 
and strychnia, 111 

lithia, 345 

magnesia, solution of, 272 

morphia, solution of, 158 

potassa, 294 
Citric acid, 193 
Citrine ointment, 222 
Citrullus colocynthis, 265 
Citrus aurantium, 85 

vulgaris, 85 
Classification of medicines, 32 
Cloves, 89 
Clysters, 23 
Coccoloba uvifera, 41 



Cocculus Iildicus, 173 

palmatus, 61 
Codcia, 151 
Cod-liver oil, 56 
Coffee, 147 
Cohosh, 304 
Colchicum, 277 

autumnale, 277 
Collyria, 23 

Collodion cum cantharide, 317 
Colocynth, 265 
Colocynthin, 265 
Colocynthis, 265 
Colombo, 61 

American, 62 
Commercial quinidia, 69 
Confectio aromatica, 87 

aurantii corticis, 86 

opii, 157 

rosse, 45 

sennse, 260 
Confections, 30 
Conia, 169 
Conium, 168 

naaculatum, 168 
Conserves, 30 
Contrayerva, 84 
Convolvulus scammonia, 265 
Copaiba, 287 
Copaifera multijuga, 287 
Copper, 113 
Copperas, 104 
Coptis, 63 

trifolia, 63 
Coriander, 96 
Coriandrum, 96 

sativum, 96 
Cornus circinata, 76 

Florida, 76 

sericea, 76 
Corrosive sublimate, 219 
Cotton root, 310 
Cowhage, 350 
Cowitch, 350 
Coxe's hive syrup, 303 
Cranesbill, 43 
Cream of tartar, 274 
Creasote, 285 

ointment, 286 

water, 286 
Creasotum, 285 
Greta praparata, 344 
Croton Eluteria, 82 

oil, 268 

tiglium, 268 
Crown bark, 65 



358 



INDEX. 



Cubeba, 91. 
Cubebs, 91 
Cucumber, bitter, 265 

squirting, 267 
Cucurbita pepo, 349 
Culver's pbysic, 269 
Cupri nitras, 115 

subacetas, 115 

sulpbas, 113 
Cuprum, 113 

ammoniatum, 114 
Cusparia, 82 
Cynancbum Monspeliacum, 265 

olesefolium, 259 
Cyanide of mercury, 224 

potassium, 206 

silver, 117 
Cyanobydric acid, 205 
Cypripedium, 146 
Cytisus scoparius, 281 



Dandelion; 280 
Dapbne mezereum , 296 
Datura stramonium, 164 
Daturia. 164 
Daucus carota, 282 
Deadly nightshade, 161 
Decocta, 27 
Decoction of barley, 334 

bittersweet, 166 

cincbonia, 72 

dogwood, 76 

Iceland moss, 331 

logwood, 43 

oak bark, 38 

pipsissewa, 47 

sarsaparilla, compound, 299 

seneka, 304 

uva ursi , 46 
Decoctions, 27 
Definition of medicines, 17 
Demulcents, 325 
Delphinium, 282 

consolida, 282 
Deshler's salve, 284 
Diachylon, 52 
Diaphoretics, 291 

alterative, 295 

nauseating, 293 

refrigerant, 293 
Digital! no, 196 
Digitalis, 195 

purpurea, 195 
Diluted alcohol, 134 

hydrocyanic acid, 205 



Diluted muriatic acid, 128 
nitric acid, 127 
nitromuriatic acid, 129 
sulphuric acid, 126 

Diospyros Virginiana, 48 

Diuretics, 275 

Dogwood, 76 

Donovan's solution, 235 

Dorema ammoniacum, 141 

Dorstenia contrayerva, 84 

Doses of medicines, 21 

Dover's powder, 157 

Dracontium foetidum, 146 

Drastics, 253 

Drimys Winteri, 88 

Dryobalanops camphora, 171 

Dulcamara, 165 

Dupuytren's powder, 321 



Eccritics, 245 

Effects of medicines, 18 

Effervescing draught, 294 

powders, 343 
Elaterine, 267 
Elaterium, 267 
Electuaries, 30 
Elettaria cardamomum, 92 
Elixir paregoric, 156 

proprietatis, 262 

of valerianate of ammonia, 145 

of vitriol, 126 
Emetics, 245 
Emmenagogues, 308' 
Emollients, 337 
Emplastra, 31 

Emplastrum ammoniac!, 142 
cum hydrargyro, 216 

antimonii, 189 

arnicDS, 146 

assafa3tida3, 141 

belladonnte, 163 

galbani compositum, 142 

hydrargyri, 216 

picis BurgundicEe, 329 
Canadensis, 321 
cum cantharide, 320 

plumbi, 52 

saponis, 52 
Emulsion, 28 
Endermic application of medicines, 

24 
Enemata, 23 
Epispastics, 313 
Epsom salts, 272 
Ergot, 183 



INDEX. 



359 



Ergota, 183 
Ergotiii, 183 
Erigeron, 281 

heteropbyllum, 281 
Phihulelphicum, 281 
Errliines, 312 
Escharotics, 321 
Ether, chloric, 177 
sulphuric, 174 

compound spirit of, 174 
Ethiops mineral, 224 
Eugenia pimento, 90 
Eupatorium, 79 

perfoliatum, 79 
Euphorbia corollata, 252 

ipecacuanha, 252 
Evacuants, 245 
Expectorants, 301 
Extracta, 30 

Extractum aconiti alcoholicum, 202 
arnicaa alcoholicum, 146 
belladonna, 162 

alcoholicum, 163 
buchu fluidum, 279 
cannabis, 168 

purificatum, 168 
cimicifugse fluidum, 305 
cinchonse, 72 

fluidum, 73 
colchici aceticum, 278 
radicis fluidum, 278 
seminis fluidum, 278 
colocynthidis alcoholicum, 266 

compositum, 266 
conii, 169 
. alcoholicum, 170 

fluidum, 170 
dulcamarse, 166 

fluidum, 166 
ergotse fluidum, 185 
gentiauDs, 61 

fluidum, 61 
glycyrrhizje, 239 
hsematoxyli, 43 
hellebori alcoholicum, 269 
hyoscyami, 16U 

alcoholicum, 160 
fluidum, 160 
ignatiffl alcoholicum, 182 
ipecacuanhse fluidum, 249 
jalapiE, 264 
juglandis, 261 
kramerise, 42 
lupuliniB fluidum, 167 
nucis vomicse alcoholicum, 182 
opii, 157 



Extractum podophylli, 265 

pruni Virginianuj fluidum, 78 

quassiaj, 59 

rhei alcoholicum, 259 

fluidum, 259 
sarsaparillae fluidum, 299 

compositum, 299 
senegaj alcoholicum, 304 
senna3 fluidum, 200 
serpentariiB fluidum, 81 
spigelife fluidum, 347 

et senna3 fluidum, 347 
stramonii, 164 

alcoholicum, 164 
taraxaci, 280 

fluidum, 280 
uva ursi fluidum, 45 
valerianse alcoholicum, 145 

fluidum, 145 
veratri viridis fluidum, 205 
zingiberis fluidum, 94 
Eucalyptus resinifera, 41 



False barks, 67 

sarsaparilla, 300 
Eennel seed, 95 

water, 95 ^ 
Fern, male, 349 
Ferri acetas, 112 

arsenias, 112 

bromidum, 112 

chloridum, 106 a 

chloridi tinctura, 107 

citras, 110 

et ammonise citras, 110 
sulphas, 106 
tartras, 109 

et potassse tartras, 108 

et quinife citras. 111 

et strychniffi citras. 111 

ferrocyanidum. 111 

iodidi syrupus, 108 

iodidum, 107 

lactas, 112 

nitratis liquor, 110 

oxalas, 112 

oxidum hydratum, 102 

phosphas, 109 

pulvis, 102 

pyrophosphas, 109 

ramenta, 102 

subcarbonas, 103 

sulphas, 104 

exsiccata, 105 

subsulphatis liquor, 105 



360 



INDEX. 



Ferri tersulphatis liquor, 105 

valerianas, 113 
Ferrum, 100 

redactum, 102 
Pilix mas, 349 
Flaxseed, 328 

meal, 328 

oil, 328 
Fleabane, 281 

Fleming's tincture of aconite, 202 
Flowers of benzoin, 306 

sulphur, 270 
Fluid extracts, 31 
Foeniculum vulgare, 95 
Fowler's solution, 234 
Foxglove, 195 
Frasera, 62 
Fraxinus ornus, 255 
Friction, 24 
Fusel oil, 136 



Gadus morrhuRj 56 
Galbanum, 142 
Galipea cusparia, 81 

officinalis, 81 
Galla, 38 
Gallic acid, 36 . 
Galls, 38 
Gamboge, 266 
Gambogia, 266 
Gargles, 23 
Garlic, 305 

Gaultheria procumbens, 99 
Gelsemium, 207 

sempervirens, 207 
Gentian, 60 
Gentiana, 60 

lutea, 60 
Geranium, 43 

maculatum, 43 
Gillenia, 252 

stipulacea, 252 

trifoliata, 252 
Ginger, 93 
Glauber's salt, 272 
Glycerin, 337 
Glycerina, 337 
Glycyrrhiza, 329 

glabra, 329 
Glycyrrhizin, 329 
Goldthread, 63 
Gossypii radix, 310 
Gossypium herbaceum, 310 
Goulard's cerate, 54 

extract, 64 



Granati fructus cortex, 47 
radicis cortex, 47 

Green vitriol, 104 

Griiiith's mixture, 103 

Guaiac, 295 

Guaiaci lignum, 295 
radix, 295 

Guaiacum oiEcinale, 295 

Gum arable, 325 



Habit, influence of, 22 
Hsematoxylon Campechianum, 43 
Hashish, 168 
Hedeoma pulegioides, 99 
Helleborus niger, 268 
Hellebore, American, 203 

black, 268 

white, 202 
Hemlock, 168 
Hemp, 168 
Henbane, 159 
Hiera picra, 263 
Hive syrup, 303 

Hoffmann's anodyne liquor, 175 
Honey, 336 
Honeys, 28 

Hope's camphor mixture, 128 
Hops, 166 
Hordeum, 334 

distichon, 334 
Horehound, 84 
Horsemint, 98 
Horseradish, 282 
Huanuco bark, 65 
Humulus, 166 , 

lupulus, 166 
Huxham's tincture of bark, 72 
Hydragogues, 253 
Hydrargyri bichloridum, 219 

binoxidum, 217 

chloridum corrosivum, 219 
mite, 218 

cyanidum, 224 

iodidum rubrum, 221 
viride, 221 

nitratis liquor, 222 
unguentum, 222 

oxidum nigrum, 217 
rubrum, 217 

sulphas flava, 223 

sulphuretum nigrum, 224 
rubrum, 223 
Hydrargyrum, 208 

ammoniatum, 222 

cum creta, 215 



INDEX. 



361 



Hyclriodic acid, dilute, 229 
Hydrochloric acid, 128 
Hydrocyanic acid, dilute, 205 
Hyoscyainus, 159 

niger, 159 
Hypnotics, 147 

Hypodermic method of administer- 
ing medicines, 24 
Hyposulphite of soda, 243 



Iceland moss, 330 
Ichthyocolla, 386 
Idiosyncrasy, influence of, 21 
Ignatia, 182 

amara, 182 
Indian hemp, 168, 281 

physic, 252 

poke, 203 

tobacco, 251 
Infusa, 26 
Infusion of angustura, 82 

buchu, 279 

capsicum, 134 

cascarilla, 88 

catechu, compound, 40 

cinchona flava, 72 
rubra, 72 

chamomile, 80 

cloves, 89 

Colombo, 62 

dandelion, 286 

digitalis, 198 

flaxseed, 328 

gentian, compound, 61 

ginger, 94 

bops, 167 

juniper, 280 

pareira, 279 

quassia, 59 

rhatany, 42 

rhubarb, 257 

roses, compound, 45 

sage, 99 

senna, 260 

serpentaria, 81 

spigelia, 347 

tar, 285 

thorough wort, 79 

tobacco, 200 

wild-cherry bark, 78 

valerian, 145 
Inhalations, 23 
Injections, 28, 
Iodide of ammonium, 230 

arsenic, 235 



Iodide of arsenic and mercury, so- 
lution of, 235 

barium, 241 

cadmium, 121 

iron, 107 

lead, 54 

mercury, 221 

potassium, 227 

sodium, 230 

starch, 230 

sulphur, 271 

zinc, 120 
Iodine, 224 
lodinum, 224 
Ipecacuanha, 248 

spurge, 252 
Irish moss, 331 
Iron, 100 • 
Isinglass, 336 
Ivory black, 346 



Jalap, 263 
Jalapa, 263 
Jamaica ginger, 93 

pepper, 90 
James's powder, 190 
Jamestown weed, 164 
Janipha manihot, 333 
Jerusalem oak, 347 
Jesuits' powder, 64 
Juglans, 261 

cinerea, 261 
Juniper berries, 279 
Juniperus communis, 279 

oxycedrus, 351 

sabina, 309 



Kameela, 350 
Kentish's ointment, 133 
Kermes mineral 191 
Kinic acid, 68 
Kino, 41 
Kinovic acid, 68 
Koosso, 350 
Krameria, 42 

ixina, 42 

triandra, 42 



Labarraque's liquid, 239 

Labiat£e, 96 

Lac assafcetidse, 141 

sulphuris, 270 
Lactate of iron, 112 



362 



INDEX. 



Lactate of zinc, 120 
Lactuca sativa, 159 
Lactucarium, 159 
Lappa minor, 300 
Lard, 339 

Larix Europtea, 283 
Larkspur, 282 
Laudanum, 156 

Sydenham's, 157 
Lavandula, 96 

vera, 96 
Lavender, 96 
Laxatives, 253 
Lead, 50 

acetate of, 53 

carbonate of, 62 

iodide of, 54 

oxide of, 51 

plaster, 52 

subacetate of, solution of, 54 
Ledoyen's disinfecting fluid, 55 
Lenitives, 325 
Leopard's bane, 145 
Leptandra, 269 

Virginica, 269 
Leptandrin, 269 
Lignum vitce, 295 
Lime-water, 343 
Lini farina, 328 

oleum, 328 
Linimenta, 32 
Liniments, 32 
Linimentum ammonise, 319 

camphorse, 172 

cantharidis, 316 
.cliloroformi, 177 

saponis, 173 

terebinthinse, 133 
Linseed meal, 328 

oil, 328 
Linum, 328 

usitatissimum, 328 
Liquidanibar orientale, 308 
Liquor ammonias acetatis, 294 
arsenitis, 235 

arsenici et hydrargyri iodidi, 
235 

atropiaj, 163 

barii chloridi, 240 

calcis, 341 

calcii chloridi, 240 

fcrri citratis, 110 
nitratis, 110 
subsulpliutis, 105 
tersulphatis, 105 

hydrargyri nitratis, 324 



Liquor iodini compositus, 229 
magnesiEe citratis, 272 
morphias sulphatis, 158 
plumbi subacetatis, 54 

dilutus, 54 
potasste, 341 

arsenitis, 234 
citratis, 294 
sod£e, 341 

arsenitis, 235 
chlorinatse, 239 

Liquores, 27 

Liquorice, 329 

Liriodendron tulipifera, 84 

Litharge, 51 
plaster, 52 

Lithias carbonas, 845 
citras, 345 

Lithium, 345 

Lithontriptics, 350 

Lobelia, 251 
inflata, 251 

Logwood, 43 

Lotio nigra, 217 

Lozenges, 30 

Loxa bark, 65 

Lunar caustic, 322 

Lupulin, 167 

Lupulina, 167 » 



Mace, 89 

Macis, 89 

Madder, 310 

Magendie's solution of morphia, 

158 
Magnesia, 271 
Magnesise carbonas, 271 

citratis liquor, 272 

sulphas, 272 
Magnolia glauca, 84 
Male fern, 349 
Malt, 334 
Mandrake, 264 
Manganesii oxidum nigrum, 124 

sulphas, 124 
Manna, 255 
Mannite, 255 
Maranta arundinacea, 332 
Marine acid, 128 
Marjoram, 100 
Marrubiurn vulgare, 84 
Marshmallow, 331 
Massa hydrargyri, 214 
Masticatories, 311 
May-apple, 264 



INDEX. 



363 



Meadow stiffron, 277 
Meconic acid, 152 
Meconin, 151 
Medicines, applicjiition of, 22 

doflnitioii of, 17 

etfecls of, 18 

forms of, 25 

operations of, 19 
Mel, 336 

dcspumatum, 336 
Melaleuca cajuputi, 143 
Melia azedaruch, 350 
JVIelissa officinalis, 100 
Mellita, 28 
Mentlia piperita, 97 

viridis, 98 
Mercury, 208 

with chalk, 215 
Mercurial ointment^ 216 

plaster, 216 
Metbjdene, bichloride of, 178 
Mezereon, 296 
Mezereum, 296 

Mild chloride of mercury, 218 
Milfoil, 84 
Milk of assafcetidffi, 141 

sugar of, 335 

of sulphur, 270 
Milk-weed, 252 
Mineral acids, 125 

cathartics, 270 

tonics, 100 
Mistura ammoniaci, 142 

assafoetidae, 141 

chloroformi, 177 

cretse, 344 

ferri composita, 103 

glycyrrhizte composita, 330 

potassffi citratis, 294 
Misturse, 28 

Modus operandi of medicines, 19 
Momordica elaterium, 267 
Monarda punctata, 98 
Monkshood, 200 
Monsel's solution, 105 
Morphia, 150 
Morpi5i£e acetas, 158 

citras, 158 

murias, 158 

sulphas, 158 
MorrliuEe oleum, 56 
Moschus, 139 

moscniferus, 139 
Mucilages, 28 
Mucilago acacise, 326 

sassafras, 298 



Mucilago tragacantha), 327 

•ulmi, 328 
Mucuna prurions, 350 
Muriate of ammonia, 241 

iron, tincture of, 107 

morphia, 158 
Muriatic acid, 128 

diluted, 128 
Musk, 139 
Mustard, 318 
Myristica, 88 

fragrans, 88 
Myrospermum Peruiferum, 306 

Toluiferum, 307 
Myrrh, 83 
Myrrha, 83 



Narceia, 151 
Narcotics, 147 
Narcotina, 151 
ISTarthex assafo3tida, 140 
Nepeta cataria, 98 
Nervous sedatives, 195 

stimulants, 138 
Neutral mixture, 294 
Niccoli sulphas, 125 
Nickel, sulphate of, 125 
Nicotia, 199 
Nicotiana tabacum, 198 
Nicotianin, 199 
Nihil album, 119 
Nitrate of cerium, 125 

copper, 115 

iron, solution of, 110 

lead, 55 

nitrate, solution of, 324 

potassa, 191 

silver, 115 
fused, 322 
Nitre, 191 
Nitric acid, 127 
Nitro-glycerin, 338 
Nitromuriatic acid, 129 
Nitrous acid, 128 

oxide, 178 • 

Nutgall, 38 
Nutmeg, 88 
Nus vomica, 179 



Oak bark, 37 
Oatmeal, 326 
Oil of amber, 143 

anise, 96 

bitter almonds, 206 



364 

Oil of cade, 351 

cinnamon, 87 

cajuput, 143 

caraway, 95 

cloves, 90 

cubebs, 92 

fennel, 95 

juniper, 280 

lavender, 97 

mace, 89 

mustard, 318 

nutmeg, 89 

partridge-berry, 99 

pennyroyal, 99 

peppermint, 98 

rosemary, 97 

sassafras, 297 

savine, 309 

theobroma, 337 

tobacco, 200 

turpentine, 132 

valerian, 144 

vitriol, 126 

wine, 175 

vpormseed, 348 
Ointments, 31 
Olea Europsea, 256 
Oleoresina capsici, 134 

cubebse, 92 

lupulinse, 167 

piperis, 91 

zingiberis, 94 
Oleoresinas, 31 
Oleum sethereum, 179 

amygdalse amarse, 206 
dulcis, 337 

copaiba, 288 

gaultherias, 99 

lini, 328 

monardse, 98 

morrhuaj, 56 

oliva3, 256 

ricini, 256 

succini, 143 

terebinthinse, 132 

thy mi, -100 

tiglii, 268 
.Olive oil, 256 
Opium, 149 
Orange-flower water, 86 

peel, 85 
Origanum marjoram, 100 
Oryza sativa, 336 
Oxalate of cerium, 124 

■ iron, 112 
Oxide of antimony, 189 



INDEX. 



Oxide of iron, hydrated, 102 

lead, 51 

mercury, 217 

silver, 116 

zinc, 118 
Oxymels, 28 

Oxysulphuret of antimony, 191 
Oyster-shell, prepared, 344 



Pale bark, 65 
Palma Christi, 256 
Papaver somniferum, 149 
Paramorphia, 152 
Paregoric elixir, 156 
Pareira brava, 279 
Parsley, 281 
Partridge-berry, 99 
Parts to which medicines are ap- 
plied, 22 
Pearlash, 288 
Pearl sago, 838 
Pellitory, 312 
Pennyroyal, 99 
Pepo,' 849 
Pepper, 90 
Peppermint, 97 

water, 98 
Permanganate of potassa, 244 
Persimmon, 48 
Peruvian bark, 64 
Petroselinum sativum, 281 
Phagedenic lotion, 217 
Phosj^hate of ammonia, 290 

iron, 109 

lime, precipitated, 344 

soda, 278 

zinc, 120 
Phosphoric acid, 137 
Phosphorus, 136 
Physeter macrocephalus, 840 
Physostigma venosum, 207 
Physostigmin, 207 
Pills, 29 
PilulEe, 29 

aloes, 263 

et assafcetidas, 263 
et mastiches, 263 
et myrrhas, 268 

antimonii conipositaj, 191 

catharticie compositiB, 267 

copaibic, 288 , 

ferri carbonatis, 103 
compositic, 104 
iodidi, 108 

galbani composita3, 143 



INDEX. 



865 



Pilula3 hydrargyri, 214 
opii, 157 
quiniio sulphatis, 73 

rhei, 259 

composita3, 259 

sapoiiis compositne, 158 

scilliB composita3, 303 
Pimenta, 90 
Pimento, 90 
Pimpinolla unisum, 95 
Pinkroot, 347 
Pinus maritima, 283 

palustris, 132, 282 

sylvestris, 283 

tseda, 283 
Piper, 90 

caudatum, 91 

cubeba, 91 

longum, 91 

nigrum, 90 
Piperine, 91 
Pipsissewa, 46 
Pistacliia terebinthus, 283 
Pitch, Burgundy, 320 

Canada, 320 
Pix Burgundica, 320 

Canadensis, 320 

liquida, 285 
Plasters, 31 
Pleurisy-root, 300 
Plumbi acetas, 53 

carbonas, 52 

iodidum, 54 

nitras, 55 

oxidum, 51 

tannas, 55 
Plumbum, 50 
Plummer's pill, 191 
Podopbj^lin, 264 
Podophyllum, 264 

peltatum, 264 
Poison-oak, 183 
Polygala senega, 303 
Pomegranate root, 47 

rind, 47 
Poppy, 149 
Potassa, 321 

cum calce, 321 

solution of, 341 
Potassse acetas, 290 

bicarbonas, 289 

bichromas, 324 

bitartras, 274 

carbonas, 288 

chloras, 242 

citras, 293 



Potassaa et sodaa tartras, 275 

nitras, 191 

■permanganas, 244 

sulphas, 273 

tartras, 274 
Potassii bromidum, 236 

cyanidum, 206 

iodidum, 227 
Potato fly, 317 
Potentilla tormentilla, 47 
Pride of China, 350 
Propylamin, 184 
Prunus Virginianus, 77 
Prussic acid, 205 
Prussian blue. 111 
Psychotria emetica, 250 
Pterocarpus erinaceus, 41 

marsupium, 41 
Pulveres, 27 

eflervescentes, 343 
aperientes, 275 
Pulvis aloes et canellse, 263 

antimonialis, 190 

aromaticus, 87 

ipecacuanha compositiis, 157 

ipecacuanhse et opii, 157 

jalapae compositus, 264 

rhei compositus, 259 
Pumpkin seed, 349 
Punica granatum, 47 
Purgatives, 253 
Pyrethrum, 312 
Pyrophosphate of iron, 109 

soda, 273 



Quassia, 59 

amara, 59 

excelsa, 59 
Quercitron, 37 
Quercus alba, 37 

infectoria, 38 

suber, 38 

tinctoria, 37 
Quevenne's Iron, 102 
Quicksilver, 208 
Quinia, 68 
Quinise chloras, 75 

sulphas, 73 

tannas, 74 

valerianas, 74 
Quinidia, 69 
Quinidine, 69 
Quinine, 68 
Quinoidia, 75 
Quinoidine, 75 



366 



INDEX. 



Eed bark, 66 

precipitate, 217 
Eeduced iron, 102 
Eefrigerants, 186 
Kesin, 283 

cerate, 283 
Kesin of jalap, 264 
. podophyllum. 264 

scammony, 265 
Eesina, 288 
Eesinte, 31 
Ehatany, 42 
Elieum, 257 

palmatum, 257 
Ehigolene, 178 
Ehubarb, 257 
Ehus toxicodendron, 183 
Eice, 386 

Eichardsonia scabra, 250 
Eicini oleum, 256 
Eicinus communis, 256 
Eochelle salt, 275 
Eosa centifolia, 45 

Gallica, 44 
Eosmarinus officinalis, 97 
Eottlera tinctoria, 850 
Eubefacients, 317 
Eubia tinctorium, 310 
Eubus, 44 

Canadensis, 44 

villosus, 45 
Eue, 310 
Euta graveolens, 310 



Sabadilla, 202 
Sabbatia angular is, 63 
Sabina, 809 
SabiuEB oleum, 309 
Saccbarum, 335 

album, 335 

lactis, 385 

saturni, 52 
Ssevum, 339 
Sage, 99 
Sago, 833 

Sagus Eumpbii, 338 
Sal ammonia, 241 

diureticus, 290 

prunelle, 192 
Salacine, 76 
Salix alba, 76 
Saltpetre, 191 
Salvia officinalis, 99 
Sanguinaria, 250 

Canadensis, 250 



Santonica, 348 
Santonici semen, 348 
Santonin, 848 
Santoninum, 848 
Sarsaparilla, 298 
Sassafras medulla, 297 

officinale, 297 

pith, 297 

radicis cortex, 297 
Savine, 809 
Scammonium, 265 
Scammony, 265 
Scilla, 302 

maritima, 302 
Scoparius, 281 
Scutellaria laterifolia, 146 
Sea-onion, 302, 

side grape, 41 
Secale cereale, 183 
Secalia, 184 
Sedatives, 185, 

arterial, 186 

nervous, 195 
Seidlitz powders, 275 
Senega, 303 
Seneka, 303 
Senna, 259 

American, 260 
Septfoil, 47 
Serpentaria, 80 
Sex, influence of, 21 
Sialogogues, 811 
Silver, 115 

nitrate of, 115 
fused, 322 

oxide of, 116 
Simaruba, 60 

excelsa, 59 

officinalis, 60 
Simple bitters, 58 

cerate, 839 

ointment, 339 

syrup, 334 
Sinapis, 318 

alba, 818 

nigra, 318 
Sinapism, 818 
Skin, application of medicines to, 

24 
Skullcap, 146 
Skunk cabbage, 146 • 
Slippery clm'bark, 327 
Smilax officinalis, 298 
Snakeroot, black 804 

Virginia, 80 
Soap liniment, 173 



INDEX. 



36T 



Soap plaster, 52 
Soda3 acetas, 290 

bicarboiuis, 343 

carbonas, 342 

cxsiccata, 342 

et potassaj tartras, 275 

hyposulphis, 243 

phosphas, 273 

sulphas, 272 

sulpliis, 243 
Sodii iodidum, 230 
Solania, IGG 

Solanum dulcamara, 165 
Solution of acetate of ammonia, 294 

arsenite of potassa, 234 

bimeconate of morphia, 158 

chloride of barium, 240 

chloride of calcium, 240 

chlorinated soda, 239 

chlorine, 238 

citrate of iron, 110 
magnesia, 272 
morphia, 158 
potassa, 294 

iodide of mercury and arsenic, 
235 

lime, 343 

nitrate of iron, 110 
mercury, 324 

potassa, 341 

soda, 341 

subacetate of lead, 54 

subsulphate of iron, 105 

sulphate of morphia, 158 

tersulphate of iron, 105 
Solutions, 27 
Soporifics, 147 
Spanish fly, 314 
Spastics, 179 
Spearmint, 98 
Spermaceti, 340 

cerate, 340 
Spiced plaster, 87 
Spigelia Marilandica, 347 
Spikenard, 300 
Spinal stimulants, 179 
Spirit of ammonia, 132 
aromatic, 131 

camphor, 172 

chloroform, 177 

cinnanaon, 87 

ether, compound, 280 

juniper, compound, 280 

lavender, 97 

compound, 97 

Mindererus, 294 



Spirit of nitric other, 294 

nutmeg, 89 

peppermint, 98 

salt, 128 

turpentine, 132 

wine, 134 
Spiritus, 29 

EBtheris nitrosi, 294 

frumenti, 135 

vini Gallici, 135 
Spruce, hemlock, 320 
Spurge, ipecacuanha, 252 

Norway, 320 
Squill, 302 

Squirting cucumber, 267 
Stanni pulvis, 351 
Starch, 334 
Stibium, 186 
Stimulants, 129 

arterial, 130 

cerebral, 147 

nervous, 138 

spinal, 179 
Stomachics, 85 
Storax, 308 
Stramonium, 164 
Strychnia, 179 
Strychnias sulphas, 182 
Strychnos Ignatia, 182 

nux vomica, 179 

tieute, 183 

toxifera, 183 
Styptics, 34 
Styrax, 308 
Subacetate of copper, 115 

lead, 54 
Subcarbonate of bismuth, 122 

iron, 103 
Subnitrate of bismuth, 122 
Succinic acid, 143 
Succinum, 143 
Succus conii, 170 
Sudorifics, 291 
Sugar, 335 

of lead, 53 

milk, 335 
Suet, 339 
Sulphate of alumina, 50 

alumina and potassa, 48 

atropia, 164 

cadmium, 121 

cinchonia, 75 

copper, 113 

iron, 104 

dried, 105 

iron and ammonia, 106 



368 



INDEX. 



Sulphate of magnesia, 272 

manganese, 124 

mercury, 223 

morphia, 158 

potassa, 273 

quiuia, 73 

soda, 272 

strychnia, 182 

zinc, 117 
Sulphite of magnesia, 244 

lime, 244 

soda, 243 
Sulphur, 270 

lotum, 270 

prsecipitatum, 270 

sublimatum, 270 
Sulphuret of mercury, 223 
Sulphuric acid, 126 

aromatic, 126 

diluted, 126 
Sulphuris iodidum, 271 
Suppositories, 23 
Sus scrofa, 339 
Sweet spirit of nitre, 294 
Sydenliam's laudanum, 157 
Sympathy, operation of medicines 

through, 19 
Symplocarpus fcetidus, 146 
Syrup of blackberry root, 44 

citric acid, 193 

garlic, 305 

ginger, 94 

gum arable, 326 

iodide of iron, 108 

ipecacuanha, 249 

lactucarium, 159 

orange peel, 86 

phosphate of iron, quinia, and 
strychnia, 110 

rhubarb, 258 

aromatic, 258 

sarsaparilla, compound, 299 

seneka, 304 

squill, 303 

compound, 303 

Tolu, 308 

-wild-cherry bark, 78 
Syrupi, 28 
Syrupus, 335 

simplex, 835 

fuscus, 335 



Tabacum, 198 
Tamarind, 255 
Tamarindus, 255 



Tannate of bismuth, 123 

lead, 65 

quinine, 74 
Tannic acid, 35 
Tannin, 35 
Tapioca, 333 
Tar, 284 

ointment, 285 

water, 285 
Taraxacum, 280 
Tartar emetic, 187 
Tartarized antimony, 187 
Tartaric acid, 95 

Tartrate of antimony and potassa, 
187 

iron and ammonia, 109 

iron and potassa, 108 

of potassa, 274 

of soda and potassa, 276 
Tasteless ague drop, 234 
Tea, 147 

Temperament, influence of, 21 
Terchloride of formyle, 176 
Terebinthina, 282 

Canadensis, 283 
Terebinthinse oleum, 182 
Terra Japonica, 40 
Testa prajparata, 344 
Thea Chinensis, 147 
Thebaina, 15 
Thein, 147 

Theobroma cacao, 838 
Thornapple, 164 
Thoroughwort, 79 
Thyme, 100 
Thymus vulgaris, 100 
Tiglii oleum, 268 
Tin, powder of, 351 
Tinctura ferri chloridi, 107 

opii, 156 

acetata, 156 

camphorata, 156 

deodorata, 156 
Tincturaj, 28 
Tincture of aconite leaf, 202 

root, 202 

aloes, 262 

and myrrh, 262 

arnica, 146 

assafcetida, 141 

belladonna, 163 

benzoin, compound, 306 

cannabis, 168 

cantharidis, 316 

capsicum, 134 

cardamom. 93 



INDEX. 



369 



Tincture cardamom, compound, Of 

castor, 139 
^ catechu, 41 

cinchona, 72 

compound, 72 

cinnamon, 87 

colcliicum, 277 

coh;mbo, 62 

conium, 170 

cubebs, 92 

dis2;italis, 198 

gaUs, 39 

gentian, compound, 61 

ginger, 94 

guaiacum, 296 

ammoninted, 296 

hellebore, 269 

hemp, 168 

hops, 167 

hyoseyamus, 180 

iodine, 227 

compound, 229 

jalap, 264 

kino, 42 

lobelia, 252 

lupuline, 167 

myrrh, 84 

nux vomica, 182 

opium, 156 

quassia, 59 

rhubarb, 258 
and senna, 258 

sanguinaria, 251 

serpentaria, 81 

squill, 803 

stramonium, 165 

Tolu, 306 

valerian, 145 

ammoniated, 14& 

veratrum viride, 20S 
Tobacco, 198 

Indian, 251 
Tolu, balsam of, 307 
Toluifera balsamum, 307 
Tonics, 55 

mineral, 100 

vegetable, 58 
Tormentilla, 47 
Tous-les-mois, 333 
Toxicodendron, 183 
'Tragacanth, 327 
Tragacantha, 327 
Triticum vulgare, 334 
Troches, 30 
Trochisci glycerrhiza et opii, 830 

ipecacuanha, 250 



Tulip-tree bark, 84 
Turpentine, 132, 282 
Turpcth mineral, 223 
Tutty, 119 



Ulmu5 fulva, 327 
Uncaria gambir, 40 
Unguenta, 31 
Unguentum acidi tannici, 30 

adipis, 339 

antimonii, 189 

belladonnse, 163 

benzoini, 306 

creasoti, 286 

gallaj, 39 

hydrargyri, 216 

ammoniati, 222 
nitratis, 222 
oxidi rubri, 217 

iodini, 227 

compositum, 228 

picis liquidse, 285 

plumbi carbonatis, 52 

simplex, 337 

stramonii, 165 

sulphuris, 270 
iodidi, 271 

tabaci, 200 

veratria3, 203 

zinci oxidi, 119 
Uva ursi, 45 



Valerian, 144 
Valeriana officinalis, 144 
Valerianate of ammonia, 145 

bismuth, 123 

iron, 113 

quinia, 74 

zinc, 120 
Valerianic acid, 144 
Vallet's mass, 103 
Venice turpentine, 282 
Veratria, 202 
Veratrum, 203 

album, 203 

sabadilla, 202 

viride, 203 
Verdigris, 115 
Vermifuges, 346 
Vermilion, 223 
Vesicatories, 811 
Vienna caustic, 322 
Vina, 29 
Vinegar, 194 
24 



370 



INDEX. 



Vinegar, distilled, 194 
Yinnm, 136 

aloes, 263 

antimonii, 189 

colchiei radicis, 278 
seminis, 278 

ergotse, 185 

ipecacuanliEe, 249 

opii, 157 

rhei, 258 

tabaci, 200 
Virginia snakeroot, 80 
Vitis vinifera, 136 
Vitriol, blue, 113, 

green, 104 

oil of, 126 

white, 117 



Warner's gout cordial, 258 
Washed sulphur, 270 
Wax, white, 340 

yellow, 340 
Weights and measures, 25 
White arsenic, 231 

bismuth, 122 

ginger, 93 

hellebore, 202 

lead, 52 

mustard seed, 318 

oak bark, 37 

pepper, 90 

precipitate, 222 

turpentine, 282 

vitriol, 117 

wax, 340 
Wild-cherry bark, 77 



Wine-whey, 136 
Wines, 29 
Willow bark, 76 
Wintera, 88 
Winter-green, 99 
Wolfsbane, 200 
Woody nightshade, 165 
Wormseed, 347 
European, 348 



Xanthorrhiza apiifolia, 63 
Xanthoxylum fraxineum, 300 



Yarrow, 84 

Yellow bark, 65 
gentian, 60 
jasmine, 207 
root, 63 
wash, 217 
wax, 340 



Zincj 117 
Zinci acetas, 118 

carbonas prsecipitata, 119 

chloridum, 323 

iodidum, 120 

lactas, 120 

oxidum, 118 

phosphas, 120 

sulphas, 117 

valerianas, 120 
Zincum, 117 
Zingiber, 93 

officinalis, 93 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 



OF 



J. B. LIPPINCOTT & Co. 

PHILADELPHIA. 



Will be sent by tnail. fost faid., on receipt of the f rice. 



The Albert N''Tanza. Great Basin of the Nile^ 
and Explorations of the Nile Sources. By Sir Samuel White 
Baker, M. A., F. R. G. S., &c. With Maps and numerous Illus- 
trations, from sketches by Mr. Baker. New edition. Crown 8vo. 
Extra cloth, $3. 



" It is one of the most interesting and 
instructive boolcs of travel ever issued ; 
and this edition, at a reduced price, will 
bring it within the reach of many who 
have not before seen it." — Bostonjournal. 



" One of the most fascinating, and cer- 
tainly not the least important, books of 
travel published during the century." — 
Boston Eve. Transiript. 



The Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia^ and the Sword- 

Hunters of the Hamran Arabs. By Sir Samuel White Baker, 
M. A., F. R. G. S., &c. With Maps and numerous Illustrations, 
from original sketches by the Author. New edition. Crown 
8vo. Extra cloth, $2.75. 



" We have rarely met with a descriptive 
work so well conceived and so attractively 
written as Baker's Abyssinia, and we cor- 



dially recommend it to public patronage. 
... It is beautifully illustrated." — N. O. 
Times. 



Eight Years'' Wandering in Ceylon. By Sir 
Samuel White Baker, M. A., F. R. G. S., &c. With Illustra- 
tions. i6mo. Extra cloth, $1.50. 



" Mr. Baker's description of life in Cey- 
lon, of sport, of the cultivation of the soil, 
of its birds and beasts and insects and rep- 
tiles, of its wild forests and dense jungles, 
of its palm trees and its betel nuts and in- 
toxicating drugs, will be found very in- 
teresting. The book is well written and 
beautifully printed." — Bait. Gazette. 



" Notwithstanding the volume abounds 
with sporting accounts, the natural history 
of Ceylon is well and carefully described, 
and the curiosities of the famed island are 
not neglected. It is a valuable addition to 
the works on the East Indies." — Phila. 
Lutheran Observer. 



PUBLICATIONS OF J. B. LIPPINCOTT &- CO. 



Tricotrin. The Story of a Waif and Stray, By 

OuiDA, author of " Under Two Flags," &c. With Portrait of the 
Author from an Engraving on Steel. i2mo. Cloth, $2. 

" The book abounds in beautiful senti- 



"The story is full of vivacity and of 
thrilling interest ^' — Pittsburg Gazette. 

"Tricotrin is a work of absolute power, 
some truth and deep interest." — N. Y. 
Day Book. 



ments, expressed in a concentrated, com- 
pact siyle which cannot fail to be attractive, 
and will be read with pleasure in every 
household." — San Francisco Titnes. 



Granville de Vigne; or, Held in Bondage. A 

Tale of the Day. By Ouida, author of " Idalia," " Tricotrin," &c. 
i2mo. Cloth, $2. 



"This is one of the most powerful and 
spicy works of fiction which the present 



century, so prolific in light literature, has 
produced." 



Strathmore; or. Wrought by His Own Hand. A 

Novel. By Ouida, author of " Granville de Vigne," &c. i2mo. 

Cloth, $2. 

" It is romance of the intense school, | Braddon and Mrs. Wood, while its scenes 
but it is written with more power, fluency and characters are taken from high life." 
and brilliancy than the works of Miss | — Boston Transcript. 

Chandos. A Novel. By Ouida, author of '-'■Strath- 

roore," " Idalia," &c. i2mo. Cloth, $2. 



"Those who have read these two last- 
named brilliant works of fiction (Granville 
de Vigne and Strathmore) will be sure to 
read Chandos. It is characterized by the 
same gorgeous coloring of style and some- 



what exaggerated jjortraiture of scenes and 
characters, but it is a story of surpassing 
power and interest." — Pittsburg Evening 
Chronicle. 



Idalia. A Novel. By Ouida, author of '■^Strath- 

more," " Tricotrin," &c. i2mo. Cloth, |2. 



" It is a story of love and hatred, of 
affection and jealousy, of intrigue and de- 
votion. . . . We think this novel will at- 
tain a wide popularity, especially among 



those whose refined taste enables them to 
appreciate and enjoy what is truly beau- 
tiful in literature." — Albany Evening 
yoii7'nal. 



Under Two Flags. A Story of the Household 

and the Desert. By Ouida, author of "Tricotrin," "Granville de 
Vigne," &c. i2mo. Cloth, $2. 



" No one will be able to resist its fasci- 
nation who once begins its perusal." — 
Philada. Evening Bulletin. 

" This is probably the most popular work 



of Ouida. It is enough of itself to estab- 
lish her fame as one of the most eloquent 
and graphic writers of fiction now living." 
— Chicago Journal of Commerce. 



Ouida's Novelettes. First Series, Cecil Castle- 

maine's Gage. Second Series, Randolph Gordon. Third Series, 
Beatrice Boville. Each of these volumes contains a selection of 
"Ouida's" Popular Tales and Stories. i2mo. Cloth, each j^i. 75. 

of pleasing nan-atives and adventures alive 



" The many works already in print by 
this versatile authoress have established 
her reputation as a novelist, and these 
short stories contribute largely to the stock 



to the memory of all who are given to 
romance and fiction." — N. Haven Jour. 



The Old Mam' selW s Secret. After the German 

of E. Marlitt, author of "Gold Elsie," "Countess Gisela," &c. 
By Mrs. A. L. Wister. Sixth edition. i2mo. Cloth, $1.75. 



"A more charming story, and one which, 
having once commenced, it seemed more 
difficult to leave, we have not met with for 
many a day.' — The Round Table. 

"Is one of the most intense, concentrated, 
compact novels of the day. . . . And the 
work has the minute fidelity of the author 



of 'The Initials,' the dramatic unity of 
Reade, and the graphic power of George 
Klliot. "• — Cohanbus (.(9.) Journal. 
"Appears to be one of the most interest- 
ing stories that we have had from Europe 
for many a day." — Bosioji Traveler. 



Gold Elsie. From the German of E. Marlitt, 

author of the " Old Mam'selle's Secret," " Countess Gisela," &c. 
By Mrs. A. L. Wister. Fifth edition. i2mo. Cloth, $1.75. 



" A charming story charmingly told."- 
Baltitnore Gazette. 



"A charming book. It absorbs your 
attention from the title-page to the end." — 
The Ho}ne Circle. I 

Countess Gisela. From the German of.E. Mar- 

iitt, author of "The Old Mam'selle's Secret," "Gold Elsie," 
" Over Yonder," &c. By Mrs. A. L. Wister. Third Edition. 
i2mo. Cloth, $1.75. 



" There is more dramatic power in this 
than in any of the stories by the same 
author that we have read." — N.O. Times. 

" It is a story that arouses the interest 



of the reader from the outset." — Pittsburg 
Gazette. 

"The best work by this author." — 
Philada. Telegraph. 



Over Yonder. From the German of E. Marlitt, 

author of " Countess Gisela," " Gold Elsie," &c. Third edition. 
With a full-page Illustration. 8vo. Paper cover, 30 cts. 



"'Over Yonder' is a charming novel- 
ette. The admirers of ' Old Mam'selle's 
Secret' will give it a glad reception, while 
those who are ignorant of the merits of 



this author will find in it a pleasant in- 
troduction to the works of a gifted writer." 
— Daily Sentitiel. 



Three Thousand Miles through the Rocky Moun- 

tains. By A. K. McClure. Illustrated. i2mo. Tinted paper. 
Extra cloth, $2. 



"Those wishing to post themselves on 
the subject of that magnificent and ex- 
traordinary Rocky Mountain dominion 
should read the Colonel's book." — New 
York Times. 

" The work makes one of the most satis- 
factory itineraries that has been given to 
us from this region, and must be read 
with both pleasure and profit." — Philada. 
North A merican. 

'■ We have never seen a book of Western 
travels which so thoroughly and completely 
satisfied us as this, nor one written in such 



agreeable and charming style." — Bradford 
Reporter. 

•' The letters contain many incidents of 
Indian life and adventures of travel which 
impart novel charms to them." — Chicago 
Rvening yournal. 

" The book is full of useful information."' 
— New York Independent. 

" Let him who would have some proper 
conception of the limitless material rich- 
ness of the Rocky Mountain region, read 
this book." — Charleston {,S. C.) Courier. 



PUBLICATIONS OF J. B. LIPPINCOTT 6- CO. 



JBulwer's Novels. Globe Edition. Complete in 

twenty-two volumes. With Frontispiece to each volume. Beau- 
tifully printed on fine tinted paper. i6mo. Extra cloth, ^^33 ; 
extra cloth, gilt top, $38.50 ; half calf, neat, $55 ; half Turkey, gilt 
top, $66 ; half calf, gilt extra, $66. Each novel sold separately, 
as below, in extra cloth, at $1.50 per volume. 



The Caxtons i vol. 

My Novel 2 vols. 

What will He Do with It ?..2 vols. 

Devereux i vol. 

Last Days of Pompeii. . ..i vol. 
Leila, Calderon and Pilgrims, i v. 

Rienzi I vol. 

The Last of the Barons . . i vol. 

Harold i vol. 

Eugene Aram i vol. 

" The Globe edition of Bulwer is very 
neat and satisfactory — more satisfactory 
than any other issued in this country." — 
Philada. North A merica7t. 

"The Globe edition is remarkable for a 
judicious combination of cheapness, legi- 
bility and beauty." — Charleston Cotirier. 

"We have repeatedly borne witness to 
the pre-eminence of the Globe over all 
other editions, in respect to cheapness, 
neatness and convenience of size." — Cin- 
cmnati Gazette. 

" The clear-cut type, delicately-tinted 
paper and tasty binding of this Globe edi- 
tion of Bulvver's works cannot be awarded 
too much praise." — R^iral New Yorker. 

" We repeat what we have so often be- 
fore slated — that the Globe edition is the 
best ever issued on this side of the Atlan- 
tic." — New Orleaiis Tmies. 



Zanoni i vol. 

Pelham i vol. 

The Disowned I vol. 

Paul Clifford i vol. 

Ernest Maltravers I vol. 

Godolphin i vol, 

Alice I vol. 

Night and Morning i vol. 

Lucretia i vol. 

A Strange Story i vol. 

" The Globe edition of Bulwer furnishes 
a model well worthy of imitation." — 
Philada. Age. 

" As to execution and price, there is no 
better edition in the market." — Chicago 
Evenijig Journal. 

" We congratulate this well-known Phi- 
ladelphia publishing house upon furnish- 
ing so complete, so legible, so compact 
and so beautiful an edition of the writings 
of this great novelist. The American 
book-buymg and book-reading public will 
not fail to place this fine edition upon their 
library shelves. It is the best cheap edition 
of Bulwer that we have ever seen. It is 
offered at the low price of ^i ■ 50 per volume, 
at which price the purchaser gets the best 
part of the bargain." — Providence Even- 
ing Press. 



Reade's Novels. Illustrated Standard Edition of 

Charles Reade's Novels. Complete in ten vols. i2mo. With 
Engraved Frontispiece and Vignette Title to each. Handsomely 
bound in extra cloth. Price, $15 per set. Extra cloth, gilt top, 
$17 per set. Sold separately, in extra cloth, as follows : 



Hard Cash $1.75 

Love me Little Love me 

Long 1.50 

Never too Late to Mend. . 1.75 

White Lies 1.50 

Foul Play 1.50 



The Cloister and the Hearth$i.75 

Griffith Gaunt 1.50 

Peg Woffington 1.25 

Christie Johnstone 1.25 

The Course of True Love 
Never did Run Smooth. 1.25 



PUBLICATIONS OF J. B. LIPPINCOTT dr= CO. 



Hints for Six Months in Europe. Being the Pro- 

gramme of a Tour through parts of France, Italy, Austria, Saxony, 
Prussia, the Tyrol, Switzerland, Holland, Belgium, England and 
Scotland, in the Summer of 1868. By John H. B. Latrobe. 
i2mo. Toned paper. Extra cloth, $1.50. 



"It has many of the best advantages of 
a regular guide-book, with the additional 
excellence of being reliable as to facts and 
trustworthy as to the opinions it utters." — 
New York Cliristian Advocate. 

" Mr. Latrobe had some capital qualifi- 
cations for producing a good book about 
Europe. . . . The result is a highly 
satisfactory volume, which we commend 
and recommend to travelers, whether they 
go abroad or stay at home. ' ' — T/ie Phila- 
delphia- Press. 



" Is a genuine treasure-book for every 
new European traveler. . . . And if this 
programme should be carefully studied by 
one about to start on a summer tour in 
Europe, and be substantially followed by 
the tourist, he would secure for himself 
manifold more enjoyment, and save him- 
self from countless disappointments and 
vexations which he would be sure other- 
wise to experience. ' ' — Boston Evening 
Traveler. 



Li^fincotfs Treasuries of Literary Gems. Min- 

iature 4to. Choicely printed on the finest toned paper and beauti- 
fully bound in extra cloth, gilt and gilt edges. 75 cts. each ; as 
follows : 

I. A Treasury of Table Talk. II. Epigrams and Literary Follies. 
III. A Treasury of Poetic Gems. IV. The Table Talk of Samuel 
Johnson, LL. D. V. Gleanings from the Comedies of Shakspeare. VI. 
Beauties of the British Dramatists. The six volumes in neat box, $4.50. 



" A charming little series, well edited 
and printed. More thoroughly readable 
little books it would be hard to find : there 



is no padding in them : all is epigram, 
point, poetry or sound common sense." — 
Lo7ido7i Pziblishers^ Circular. 



Miz^ah. Friends at Prayer . Containing a Prayer 

or Meditation for each day in the Year. By Lafayette C. 
LooMis. i2mo. Beautifully printed on superfine tinted paper, 
within red lines. Fine cloth, $2. Extra cloth, gilt edges. $2.50. 

This work proposes Morning and Even- year. The Meditations are not exposi- 

ing Scripture Readings, and an Evening tions of the text, but rather devotional 

Meditation. The Morning Readings em- reflections — generally upon the Evening 

brace the Psalms twice, and the evening, Reading — and intended to follow the 

the New Testament entire, during the Scripture and precede prayer. 

The Wife's Messettgers: A Novel. By Mrs.M.B. 

HoRTON. i2mo. Tinted paper. Extra cloth, $1.75. 

" The writer has produced a capital con- ligious feeling. The story is well worth 

tribution to the cause of domestic truth, reading on its own merits, and some por- 

and one which will be read with delight tions of it are written with a real power 

in many a household." — Ohio Siatestnan. that cannot fail to command attention." — 

" This story is pervaded by a strong re- Philada. Evening Telegraph. 



-^ 



PUBLICATIONS OF J. B. LIPPINCOTT <S- CO. 
Agnes Wentworth. A Novel. By E. Foxton, 

author of " Herman," and " Sir Pavon and St. Pavon." i2mo. 
Tinted paper. Extra cloth, $1.50. 



" This is a very interesting and well-told 
story. There is a naturalness in the group- 
ing of the characters, and a clearness of 
definition, which make the story pleasant 
and fascinating. Phases of life are also 
presented in terse and vigorous words. . . . 
It is high-toned and much above the aver- 



age of most of the novels issuing from the 
press." — Pittsburg Gazette. . 

"A novel which has the merit of being 
written in graceful and clear style, while 
it tells an interesting story. " — The Inde- 
pendent. 



Siena. A Poem. By A. C. Swinburne. \_Refub- 

lished from Lippmcotfs Magazine.^ With Notes. i6mo. Tinted 
paper. Paper covers, 25 cts. 

" Is polished with great care, and is by 
far the best composition we can recall from 
Swinburne's pen, in more than one of its 
effects." — Philada. North American. 

Recollections of Persons and Places in the West. 

By H. M. Brackenridge, a native of the West ; Traveler, Author, 
Jurist. New edition, enlarged. i2mo. Toned paper. Fine cloth, $2. 



" One of the most elaborate as well as 
the most unexceptionable of his produc- 
tions." — N. y. Evening Post. 



"A very pleasant book it is, describing, 
in an autobiographical form, what was 
'The West' of this country half a century 
ago. ' ' — Ph ilada. Press. 

" The writer of these ' Recollections' 
was born in 1786, and his book is accord- 



ingly full of interesting facts and anec- 
dotes respecting a period of Western his- 
tory, which, when the r^pid growth of the 
country is considered, may almost be called 
Pre-Adamite." — Boston Evening Tran- 
script. 



Infelicia. A Volume of Poems. By Adah Isaacs 

Menken. i6mo. Toned paper. Neat cloth, $1. Paper cover, 
75 cts. With Portrait of Author, and Letter of Mr. Charles 
Dickens, from a Steel Engraving. Fine cloth, beveled boards, 
gilt top, $1.50. 



with the living author's form, and it serves 
to drape the unhappy life with the mantle 
of a proper human charity. For herein 
are visible the vague Teachings after and 
reminiscences of higher things." — Cin- 
cinttaii Evenitig Chronicle. 



" Some of the poems are forcible, others 
are graceful and tender, but all are per- 
vaded by a spirit of sadness." — Washing- 
ton Eveniitg Star. 

" The volume is interesting, as reveal- 
ing a something that lay beyond the vul- 
gar eyes that took the liberty of license 

Dallas Galbraith. A Novel. By Mrs. R. Hard- 

ING Davis, author of " Waiting for the Verdict," " Margaret 
Howth," " Life in the Iron Mills," &c. 8vo. Fine cloth, $2. 



" One of the best novels ever written for 
an American magazine." — P hilada. Morn- 
ing Post. 

"The story is most happily written in 
all respects." — The North American. 

"As a specimen of her wonderful in- 
tensity and passionate sympathies, this 
sustained and wholly noble romance is 



equal or superior to any previous achieve- 
ment." — Philada. Eventing Bulletin. 

" We therefore seize the opportunity to 
say that this is a story of unusual power, 
opening so as to awaken interest, and 
maintaming the interest to the end." — 
The National Baptist. 






■'- ■■•;.